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Chapter Two.pdf

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Chapter Two.pdf

  1. 1. Wolkite University College of Computing and Informatics Department of Computer Science Chapter Two : Mobile Computing Prepared by Adem (MSc.) April 3, 2022 Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 1 / 30
  2. 2. Lesson Objective At the end of this lesson students will able to Define what is Mobile computing Understand the function of Mobile computing Describe the different types of Mobil device Describe the different types of Mobil os Understand the challenges of Mobile computing Describe the application of Mobile computing Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 2 / 30
  3. 3. Outline 1 Introduction 2 mobile computing functions 3 Mobile Computing vs. Wireless Networking 4 Mobile devices and Mobile OS 5 Mobile Computing Characteristics 6 Mobile Computing Technologies 7 MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 3 / 30
  4. 4. Introduction computing The activity of performing computations The activity of using computer hardware and software for some purpose. Computing denotes the capability to automatically carry out certain processing related to service invocations on a remote computer. Mobility , on the other hand, provides the capability to change location while communicating to invoke computing services at some remote computers. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 4 / 30
  5. 5. Cont.. Existing computing paradigms Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 5 / 30
  6. 6. Cont.. Personal computing system refers to the use of personal computers for Computation. Characterized by Local software installation, Local system maintenance Customizable to user needs Very low utilization Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 6 / 30
  7. 7. Cont.. Distributed computing : refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. It is a collection of multiple autonomous/independent computers that appears to its users as a single coherent system. Characteristics of Distributed Systems Differences between the computers and the ways they communicate are hidden from users Users and applications can interact with a distributed system in a consistent and uniform way regardless of location (e.g. atomatic transactions) Distributed systems should be easy to expand and scale (Scalability, Extensibility ) Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 7 / 30
  8. 8. Cont.. Parallel Computing Calculations of large problems are divided into smaller parts and carried out simultaneously /concurrently on different processors. Characterized by In parallel computing, all processors have access to a shared memory. Shared memory can be used to exchange information between processors. Information is exchanged by passing messages between the processors. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 8 / 30
  9. 9. Cont.. Cloud Computing Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.” Cloud computing relies on shared computing resource rather than having local server or personal device for application. The services are delivered and used over the internet and are paid by customer based on pay-per-use business model. Cloud computing characteristics: Liveliness, Reduced Cost, Device and Location Independence, On-demand service, Scalability and High Performance Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 9 / 30
  10. 10. Cont.. Pervasive/ Ubiquitous computing A computing environment, which is pervasive in nature and can be made available in any environment. Characterized by :- Context Awareness is an environment in which applications can discover and take advantage of users’ contextual information. Invisibility is about a complete disappearance of pervasive computing technology from a user’s Ad-hoc Networks is a self-configuring (wireless) network of (mobile) nodes without the presence of static infrastructure. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 10 / 30
  11. 11. Cont.. Mobile computing It is a technology that allows us to transmit data, audio, and video via devices that are not connected with any physical link. It can be defined as a computing environment over physical mobility. It is using a computer (of one kind or another) while on the move The ability to compute remotely while on the move. It can be defined as to access information from anywhere and at anytime. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 11 / 30
  12. 12. Cont.. Mobile Computing basic components Networks: communication Devices and computing units :mobile Applications : Computation Mobile Computing = Mobile + (Communications) + Computation Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 12 / 30
  13. 13. Cont.. A computing environment is defined as mobile if it supports one or more of these characteristics: User Mobility: User should be able to move from one physical location to another location and use the same service. The service may be from home network or remote network Network Mobility: Moving from one network to another network and use the same service. Bearer Mobility: User should be able to move from one bearer to another and use the same service Device Mobility: User should be able to move from one device to another use the same service. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 13 / 30
  14. 14. Cont.. Session Mobility: A user session should be able to move from one user agent environment to another. Service Mobility: User should be able to move from one service to another. Host Mobility: The user device can be either a client or server. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 14 / 30
  15. 15. Cont... Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 15 / 30
  16. 16. Cont.. The mobile computing functions can be logically divided into following major segments User with device: The user device, this could be fixed device like desktop computer in office or a portable device like mobile phone. Network: Whenever a user is mobile, he will be using different networks at different places at different time Gateways: This is required to interface different transport bearers. MiddleWare: This is more of a function rather than a separate visible node. In the present context middleware handles the presentation and rendering of the context on a particular device. It will also handle the security and personalization for different users. Content: This is the domain where the origin server and content could be an application, system. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 16 / 30
  17. 17. Mobile Computing vs. Wireless Networking Mobile computing essentially denotes accessing information and remote computational services while on the move. Wireless networking provides the basic communication infrastructure necessary to make this possible. Mobile computing is based on wireless networking and helps one to invoke computing services on remote servers while on the move. Wireless networking is an important ingredient of mobile computing, but forms only one of the necessary ingredients of mobile computing. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 17 / 30
  18. 18. Mobile devices and Mobile OS Mobile device refers to any electronic device that be easily moved from one location to another. Mobile Devices means tablets and smartphones running mobile operating systems. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 18 / 30
  19. 19. Cont.. Laptop: Notebook Netbook Ultra-Mobile PC Communication devices: pager Smartphone PDA and Pocket PC cell phone Cordless phone Tablet PC E-book readers: Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 19 / 30
  20. 20. Mobile OS A mobile OS is a type of software that performs the basic operations required by a modern phone. It is the operating system that controls a mobile device similar in principle to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computer or laptop. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 20 / 30
  21. 21. Cont... Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 21 / 30
  22. 22. Cont... Symbian Market share(2010): 37.6 License : open source Company: Nokia. CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: C++ Application store: Symbian Horizon,Ovistore(10000+) Package manager: Nokia Ovi Suite Other: multi-touch, easily affordable cost Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 22 / 30
  23. 23. Cont... Android Market share(2010): 22.7 License : open source Company: Open Handset Alliance(Google). CPU Architecture: ARM, x86 Programmed in: C, C++, Java Application store: Google play (700,000+) Package manager: APK Other: multi-touch, Linux Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 23 / 30
  24. 24. Cont... BlackBerry RIM OS Market share(2010): 16.0 License : Proprietary Company: Research in motion (RIM). CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: Java Application store: Blackberry App World(30000+) Package manager: Blackberry Desktop Manager Other: not multi-touch, push email service Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 24 / 30
  25. 25. Cont... Apple iOS Market share(2010): 15.7 License : Proprietary Company: Apple. CPU Architecture: ARM Programmed in: C, C++, Objective-C Application store: Apple App Store(300,000+) Package manager: iTunes Other: multi-touch, for iphone ,ipod touch ipad, Apple Tv only Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 25 / 30
  26. 26. Cont... Mobile computing issues and Challenges Security There are several security concerns associated with the increased popularity of mobile computing devices. Keeping a device constantly connected to the internet makes it vulnerable to threats. Issues with Connectivity Most applications don’t function without internet connectivity, and the lack of it makes devices very limited. Device Size Limitations Power Consumption Dependency Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 26 / 30
  27. 27. Mobile Computing Characteristics Ubiquity Anywhere. Anytime. Location Awareness: Current location of the user can be found out using GPS (Global positioning system) Ex: Personalized application to find car maintaining service, Traffic control application, and Fleet management application when travelling by car. Adaptation Adjust the bandwidth fluctuation automatically without disturbing the user Personalization: Services can be personalized according to the user need. Some type of information can be obtained from the specific source. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 27 / 30
  28. 28. Mobile Computing Technologies Types of Mobile Technologies SMS It is now the most widely used and oldest text messaging service. Messages can usually be up to 140 characters long. SMS was originally developed for GSM phones, although it is now supported by all major cellular phone networks. GSM Global System for Mobile technology is a cellular technology that is open and digital and is used for mobile communication. It operates on the 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz frequency ranges. It employs a hybrid of FDMA and TDMA. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 28 / 30
  29. 29. Cont.. CDMA It is a channel access mechanism that also serves as an example of multiple access. Multiple access simply means that data from multiple transmitters can be delivered onto a single communication channel at the same time. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a wireless networking technology that allows us to connect to a network or to other computers or mobile devices across a wireless channel. Data is delivered in a circular region over radio frequencies in Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a generic acronym for a communication standard for a wireless network that functions as a Local Area Network without the use of cables or other types of cabling. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 29 / 30
  30. 30. MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS Vehicles Emergencies Traveling Salesman Entertainment Education Location Dependent Services etc. Prepared by Adem (MSc.) Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing April 3, 2022 30 / 30

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