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ICT, Basic of Computer, Hardware, Various parts of computer hardware, What is hardware?, CPU Types

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ICT, Basic of Computer, Hardware, Various parts of computer hardware, What is hardware?, CPU Types

  1. 1.  Hardware is the physical component of a computer system. It refers to the electromechanical parts and devices that make up a computer. Generally, hardware is categorized according to which of the five basic computer operation it performs:
  2. 2.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  3. 3.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  4. 4.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  5. 5.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  6. 6.  CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.  CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data.  CPU types.  Intel Pentium II, III, IV  Intel Celeron  AMD Athlon
  7. 7.  CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).  Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing
  8. 8. RAM or Random Access Memory  “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.  Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.  Ram is measured by:  Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)  Speed (in Nanoseconds)
  9. 9.  Amount of RAM installed will determine. Which software applications will run (efficiently)? How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?  RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install. Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM, SDRAM) and speed (100, 90ns).
  10. 10.  All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.  Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.  Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.
  11. 11.  Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.  Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.  Capacity and speed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
  12. 12.  Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.  Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
  13. 13. Hard Disk Drives  Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).  Typically permanently installed.  Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.  Magnetic storage device.
  14. 14. Floppy Disk Drives • Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes). – Storage device with the smallest capacity – Most portable storage media • Magnetic storage device.
  15. 15. CD-ROM Drives  Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).  Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).  Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
  16. 16. CD-ROM Drives  Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.  Data is read from CD by a laser.  Optical storage device.
  17. 17. Other Types of Drives  Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.  Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.  DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
  18. 18.  Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:  A person  A storage device on computer  Another computer  A peripheral device  Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer
  19. 19.  Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands.  Primary input device:  Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data.  Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands, manipulate text, images.  Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.
  20. 20.  Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import:  Text  Graphics  Images  Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.
  21. 21. • Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format. – Some require specialized software to import images into the computer. – Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.
  22. 22. • Monitors are the most commonly used output device. • Most monitors use a bitmap display. – Allows user to resize the display. – Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called pixels. – The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the resolution of the monitor.
  23. 23. • Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card. • Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors. Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB.
  24. 24. Printers • Dot matrix – Seldom used in a classroom. – Still frequently used in business. • Bubble or ink jet • Laser
  25. 25. Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.
  26. 26. #KaushalJigar 1. Kaushal Mehta … ..twitter@kaushalmehta96 2. Jigar Patel … .. twitter@jigarpatel_jp

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