• Welcome to the Subject English 3. In this module you will have the
opportunity to acquaint yourself with the further features and
structures of the English language.
3. Exit learning outcomes
Upon completion of this module you should be able to:
• Discuss some language elements underpinning writing.
• Develop understanding of vocabulary.
• Explain some writing basics.
• Explain the characteristics of essay writing and some transactional writings.
• Explain the characteristics of some additional transactional writings and
able to teach them.
• Discuss issues of assessment of English writing.
• Discuss methodology aspects for teaching the above outcomes.
• You will be required to do one assignment of 130 marks which must
be submitted for this module.
• A pass mark of 50% is required in this assignment to get admission to
• The examination question paper will have the same format as the
assignment. It will count for 130 marks and has a 3 hour duration.
• A final pass mark of 50% requires (60% of the written examination
PLUS 40% of the assignment/ semester mark)
5. Units covered in this presentation
• Unit 1: Some language elements underpinning writing.
• Unit 2: Develop understanding of vocabulary.
• Unit 3: Some writing basics
• Unit 4: The characteristics of essay writing and some transactional
6. Standard language
• A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is
a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse.
• Alternatively, varieties become standard by undergoing a process of
standardization, during which it is organized for description in
grammars and dictionaries and encoded in such reference works.
• Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects
spoken in the centres of commerce and government, where a need
arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs.
• A standard language can be either pluricentric (e.g. English, German,
Serbo-Croatian, French, and Portuguese) or mono-centric (e.g.
7. Features of a standard language
• A recognized dictionary (standardized spelling and vocabulary)
• A recognized grammar
• A standard pronunciation (educated speech)
• A linguistic institution defining usage norms, e.g. Académie française, or
Real Academia Española
• Constitutional (legal) status (frequently as an official language)
• Effective public use (court, legislature, schools)
• A literary canon
• Convenience speaking
• Popularity and acceptance in the community
• Unity in a paragraph begins with the topic sentence. Every paragraph
has one single, controlling idea that is expressed in its topic sentence,
which is typically, the first sentence of the paragraph.
• A paragraph is unified around this main idea, with the supporting
sentences providing detail and discussion.
• In order to write a good topic sentence, think about your theme and
all the points you want to make. Decide which point drives the rest,
and then write it as your topic sentence.
• Order refers to the way you organize your supporting sentences.
• Whether you choose chronological order, order of importance, or
another logical presentation of detail, a solid paragraph always has a
• In a well-ordered paragraph, the reader follows along easily, aided by
the pattern you’ve established. Order helps the reader grasp your
meaning and avoid confusion.
• Coherence is the quality that makes your writing understandable.
Sentences within a paragraph need to connect to each other and
work together as a whole.
• One of the best ways to achieve coherency is to use transition words.
• These words create bridges from one sentence to the next.
• You can use transition words that show order (first, second, third);
spatial relationships (above, below) or logic (furthermore, in addition,
• Also, in writing a paragraph, using a consistent verb tense and point
of view are important ingredients for coherency
• Completeness means a paragraph is well-developed.
• If all sentences clearly and sufficiently support the main idea, then
your paragraph is complete.
• If there are not enough sentences or enough information to prove
your thesis, then the paragraph is incomplete.
• Usually three supporting sentences, in addition to a topic sentence
and concluding sentence, are needed for a paragraph to be complete.
• The concluding sentence or last sentence of the paragraph should
summarize your main idea by reinforcing your topic sentence.
13. What is an essay?
An essay is a piece of writing with more than one paragraph. It usually
has three to four paragraphs. A good essay has three parts: an
introductory paragraph, the body, and a concluding paragraph.
15. Part Purpose
Introductory paragraph states the main point in a thesis statement
Body / Support paragraphs support (show, explain, or prove) the main
point. It generally has about three support
paragraphs, which contain facts and details
supporting the main point.
Concluding paragraph reminds readers of the main point. It may
also summarise the support or make an
observation in a concluding sentence.
16. Descriptive essays
a descriptive essay must have good introductory and concluding
paragraphs. The writer’s intention is to give a picture in words, or a
sense impression. In order to describe something, one has to rely
largely on one’s senses. To make the text livelier, the writer can:
• place the description in a time and setting.
• use vivid descriptive verbs.
• use powerful adjectives.
• use comparatives and similes.
• present the text in first or third person.
17. The argumentative essay
• There are two main methods of presenting an argument, and in general the one
you choose will depend on exactly how the essay title is worded.
The balanced view If the essay title begins with something like:
• Give the arguments for and against....
• Assess the importance of....
• Examine the arguments for and against....
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of...?
• Critically examine the statement that....
• To what extent is...true?
• You should present both sides of an argument, without necessarily committing
yourself to any points of view, which should always be based on evidence, until
the final paragraph.
18. Punctuation marks
Period or full
A period or full stop ( . ) marks the end of a sentence, such as this one.
Ellipsis An ellipsis ( . . . ) shows a pause or omitted words.
Example: The hunter stopped and listened . . . and eventually heard the distinct sound of rams
Comma A comma ( , ) is used for many purposes. These are four common uses:
To separate the elements in a series: Their flag is red, yellow, green and blue.
To connect two independent clauses joined by a conjunction: They went to the fair, and Paul
and Wanda decided volunteer for the dunk tank.
To set off introductory elements: The following morning, the team boarded the bus for the
long trip home.
To set off parenthetical elements: The admission of guilt, offered without any prompting,
sealed his fate.
19. Semicolon A semicolon ( ; ) connects two or more closely related independent clauses – or, to put it more simply, it connects related
Example: The tree cut diagonally across the trail; a blackened portion suggested it was felled by lightning.
Colon A colon ( : ) is used for emphasis and to indicate a list, quotation or explanation follows.
Example: She had much to do that day: file her petition, buy groceries, drive her daughter to soccer practice, and take the
dog to the vet.
Question mark A question mark ( ?) shows that a query has been posed.
Example: Why did you throw your trumpet across the band room?
Dash A dash ( –) is used for emphasis, to set off parenthetical material and to set off introductory material, among other things.
The dash is quite versatile – it can often be used instead of semicolons, commas and colons.
Example: When Josh took the shot – his first of the game – his sister Mary held her breath.
20. Exclamation mark An exclamation point ( ! ) is used (sparingly) to express strong feeling.
Examples: Great move! That was brilliant!
Quotation marks Quotation marks ( ” ” ) indicate dialogue, set off quoted passages, indicate a word is being emphasized and punctuate
“The meeting will start in five minutes,” Paula said.
The car was “decorated” with toilet paper.
Apostrophe An apostrophe ( ‘ ) is used in contractions, to form some plurals and to form possessives.
If they’d left, they wouldn’t have seen the volcano erupt.
She got straight A’s.
Brian’s snowboard is expensive.
21. Synonyms and antonyms
• Synonyms are words with the same or similar meaning:
• Words such as happy, cheerful and merry.
• Words such as sad, miserable and heartbroken.
• Antonyms are words with opposite meanings:
• Words such as angry and peaceful.
• Words such as funny and serious
22. Homograph and homophones
• Homograph refers to a set of words that share the same spelling but
different meanings, regardless of their spelling.
• Wound: injury and the past tense of wind
• Bat: bird and the act of hitting the ball with a bat
• Dove: bird and the past tense of dive
• Homophone refers to a set of words that share the same pronunciation but
• Therefore, the main difference between homographs and homophones is
that homographs have the spelling but different meanings whereas
homophones have the same pronunciation but different meanings.
• feat-feet, stair-stare, here-hear, hole-whole, groan-grown, waist-waste,
deer-dear, heal-heel, etc.
23. Formal and informal letter
• Letters are a form of verbal and written communication, which contains
information or message, send by one party to another, to convey the message. It
is sent by one party to another, to provide certain important information. There
are two types of letters, i.e. formal letters and informal letters.
• The formal letter is written for business or professional purposes with a specific
objective in mind. It uses simple language, that can be easy to read and interpret
• On the contrary, informal letters are written to friends and relative for personal
communication and uses a casual or an emotional tone. The article excerpt
presents you all the important differences between formal and informal letters in
a detailed manner.
24. BASIS FOR COMPARISON FORMAL LETTER INFORMAL LETTER
Meaning A formal letter is a letter, written in
formal language, in the stipulated
format, for official purpose.
A letter written in an friendly manner,
to someone you are familiar with, is
called informal letter.
Objective Professional Communication Personal Communication
Format Written in prescribed format only. No prescribed format.
Written in First person - Business letters, third
person - others.
First, second or third person.
Written to Business, college/institute, employer,
Friends, family, acquaintances etc.
Voice Passive Active
Sentences Long and complex Short and simple
Size Concise Large or concise
Contractions and Abbreviations Avoided Used