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Rocky mountain spotted fever

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Rocky mountain spotted fever in children pediatric overview all things what we need to know about RMSF .

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
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Rocky mountain spotted fever

  1. 1. Akshay Singh
  2. 2. Overview • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease,is the most lethal. • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the organism Rickettsia rickettsii. • most common rickettsial infection and the second most commonly reported tick-borne disease (after Lyme disease) in the United States. • The disease most often affects children and teenagers younger than 15 years, especially those who spend time outdoors or have pets that might carry the ticks. • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection. It’s spread by the bite of an infected tick.
  3. 3. Epidemiology • It was first identified in the Rocky Mountains, • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is most commonly found in the southeastern part of the United States. • It also occurs in parts of Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America. • The mortality rate is 2% to 4%, but increases to 25% in patients in whom diagnosis and treatment are delayed after day 5 of illness.
  4. 4. Cause • Causative agent - Rickettsia rickettsii,Gram-negative, obligate intracellular coccobacillus • spread- Rocky Mountain spotted fever cannot be spread from person to person. • If an infected tick attaches itself to your skin and feeds on your blood for six to 10 hours, you may pick up the infection. • seasonal occurrence (April to October) wood tick- Dermacentor andersoni in Rocky Mountain states and the dog tick- Dermacentor variabilis
  5. 5. Sign and symptoms • initial symptoms • Children infected with RMSF first have symptoms common to many other infectious diseases symptoms appears in 3 to12 days including • flu-like symptoms • fever, • muscle pain, • severe headaches, • vomiting, nausea, • loss of appetite • Confusion or other neurological changes
  6. 6. Sign and symptoms • later symptoms - • non itchy rash develop on wrist and ankle during 2nd and 3rd day of fever,then it spread within hours to the torso and palms of the hands and soles of the feet. • rash is red, spotted, and raised (macular or maculopapular) • abdominal pain • joint pain • diarrhea
  7. 7. • Gangrene with oedema of the hands in a patient with Rocky Mountain spotted fever • Rocky mountain spotted fever. A severe petechial and purpuric eruption is noted on the arm in this fatal case.
  8. 8. Diagnosis • ask about child’s symptoms and health history. • ask about any recent risk of a tick bite. • physical examination (The physical exam will include checking the rash and tick bite) • Other tests such as skin biopsy and blood tests. These are done to confirm the diagnosis. • classic triad- fever, rash, history of tick bite • lab test- • thrombocytopenia • hyponatremia • increased level of liver enzymes (elevated transaminases). • imunofluorescent antibody assay • Some people who are infected with Rocky Mountain spotted fever don't ever develop a rash, which makes diagnosis much more difficult.
  9. 9. Treatment • It will also depend on how severe the condition is. • Antibiotic-. Doxycycline 4.4mg/kg (twice a day) • Adverse effect of Doxycycline -dental yellow stainig of permanent teeth(should not use below age of 12) • Other treatments may include: • Making child getting plenty of rest • Giving him or her lots of fluids • Giving over-the- counter medicine for fever and discomfort Dont give ibuprofen and Aspirine to a child younger than 6 months old,It may cause GI bleeding.liver disease and Reye syndrome
  10. 10. prevention • there is no vaccine to prevent RMSF • Treat clothing and gear with products containing permethrin. Permethrin can be used to treat boots, clothing and camping gear and remain protective through several washings. •  Long-sleeved shirts tucked into pants •  Socks and closed-toe shoes •  Long pants with legs tucked into socks