Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Psychological warfare

its all about propaganda and their tactics used in warfare

  • Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

Psychological warfare

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE Understanding Propaganda
  2. 2. PROPAGANDA • Definition/Concept • Types • Characteristics of Propaganda • Mediums • Propaganda Techniques • Examples
  3. 3. PROPAGANDA: Definition/Concept • Translated from the Latin-word ‗gerundive‘ – (things that must be disseminated) • ―Propaganda consists of the planned use of any form of public or mass-produced communication designed to affect the minds and emotions of a given group for a specific purpose, whether military, economic, or political.‖ Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger Psychological Warfare • ―Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.‖ - Jowett & O'Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion • ―Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion.‖ - Richard Alan Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States
  4. 4. PROPAGANDA: Types (…I) Overt – Covert • Distinction(division) based on level of transparency ▫ Overt propaganda describes conditions in which the propagandist‘s identity and interests are known to the reactor, or target audience. ▫ Covert propaganda is in play when the propagandist is unknown or disguised(hidden), as in instances of unsigned political advertisements, clandestine radio stations using false names, or statements by officials who have been secretly bribed. (Encyclopedia Britannica)
  5. 5. PROPAGANDA: Types (…II) White – Grey – Black • White propaganda is issued from an acknowledged source... This type of propaganda is associated with overt psychological operations. • Grey propaganda does not clearly identify any source. • Black propaganda purports(meaning) to emanate(originate, comes) from a source other than the true one. This type of propaganda is associated with covert psychological operations.
  6. 6. PROPAGANDA: Key Characteristics • Provision of partial/selective information • Could be negative or positive • Examination of Intentions matter a lot in the analysis of propaganda • Mostly ‗value-laden‘ • Basis of War propaganda always suggest, ‗we are good, they are evil‘ approach • Appeal is directed more often at emotions and less at intellect • Advertising, Public Relations, Political marketing, Public information campaigns etc (Point of differentiation: emphasis on political objectives)
  7. 7. PROPAGANDA: Mediums commonly used • Television (News, Talk-shows, commercials, songs, drama, documentaries, etc) • Cinema (Films, Documentaries) • Radio Broadcast • Leaflets • Posters • Pamphlets • Pictures/images • Newspaper/magazine • Internet (Blogs, social networking websites, other websites) - Choice of medium largely depends upon the nature of objective (and also on the availability of resources)
  8. 8. The partnership of nations is here to help Information Radio 0500-1000 1700-2200 Daily 864, 1107, 8700 KHZ
  10. 10. "Osama bin Laden and his foreign henchmen do not want Afghans to live in peace with each other. Afghans need to rid themselves of these fanatics." Osama bin Laden sacrifices the Afghan people for his own pride. He used the Taliban to exterminate whole communities opposed to his fanaticism.
  11. 11. "People of Afghanistan" "Eid Mubarakm. We wish that God will accept your prayers and fast. Have a blessed holiday" People of America
  12. 12. FRONT: "Get wealth and power beyond your dreams. Help the Anti-Taliban Forces rid Afghanistan of murderers and terrorists" BACK: TEXT ONLY! • "You can receive millions of dollars for helping the AntiTaliban Force catch Al-Qaida and Taliban murderers. This is enough money to take care of your family, your village, your tribe for the rest of your life. Pay for livestock and doctors and school books and housing for all your people."
  13. 13. The word "HALAL" in the last panel refers to food prepared in accordance with the Koran.
  15. 15. "Taliban and Al Qaida fighters, we know where you are hiding." "Taliban and Al Qaida fighters, you are our targets."
  16. 16. PROPAGANDA: Techniques Edward Filene helped establish the Institute of Propaganda Analysis in 1937 to educate the American public about the nature of propaganda and how to recognize propaganda techniques. Filene and his colleagues identified the seven most common "tricks of the trade" used by successful propagandists (Marlin 102-106: Propaganda Critic: Introduction). The techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis are further refined by Aaron Delwich (A.D) on his website, Propaganda where he "discusses various propaganda techniques, provides contemporary examples of their use, and proposes strategies of mental self-defense." These techniques are called: Grouped under • Name-calling (IPA) ‗word games‘ • Glittering generalities (IPA) • Euphemisms (A.D) • Transfer (IPA) False Connections • Testimonials (IPA) • Plain folks appeal (IPA) • Bandwagon effect (IPA) Special Appeals • Fear (A.D) • Card-stacking • • • • Assertion Lesser of Two Evils Pin-pointing the Enemy Simplification (Stereotyping)
  17. 17. NAME CALLING ―Bad names have played a tremendously powerful role in the history of the world and in our own individual development. They have ruined reputations, stirred men and women to outstanding accomplishments, sent others to prison(jail) cells, and made men mad enough to enter battle and slaughter their fellowmen. They have been and are applied to other people, groups, gangs, tribes, colleges, political parties, neighborhoods, states, sections of the country, nations, and races." (Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 1938). • Name calling occurs often in politics and wartime scenarios(situations), but very seldom(common) in advertising. It is the use of derogatory language or words that carry a negative connotation(meaning) when describing an enemy. The propaganda attempts to arouse prejudice among the public by labeling the target something that the public dislikes. Often, name calling is employed using sarcasm and ridicule, and shows up often in political cartoons or writings. • The most obvious(understandable) type of name calling involves bad names. For example, consider the following: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Commie Fascist Terrorist Coward
  18. 18. GLITTERING(impressive) GENERALITIES • It also occurs(happen) very often in politics and political propaganda. Glittering generalities are words that have different positive meaning for individual subjects, but are linked to highly valued concepts. When these words are used, they demand approval without thinking, simply because such an important concept is involved. For example, when a person is asked to do something in "defense of democracy" they are more likely to agree. The concept of democracy has a positive connotation to them because it is linked to a concept that they value. Words often used as glittering generalities are honor, glory, love of country, and especially in the United States, freedom. • ―The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. While Name Calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence. In acquainting ourselves with the Glittering Generality Device, therefore, all that has been said regarding Name Calling must be kept in mind…‖ (Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 1938)
  19. 19. EUPHEMISMS • When propagandists use glittering generalities and name-calling symbols, they are attempting to arouse their audience with vivid (clear), emotionally suggestive words. In certain situations, however, the propagandist attempts to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic. Since war is particularly unpleasant, military discourse is full of euphemisms. In the 1940's, America changed the name of the War Department to the Department of Defense. Under the Reagan Administration, the MX-Missile was renamed "The Peacekeeper." During war-time, civilian casualties are referred to as ‗collateral damage‘. In the wake of the first world war, traumatized veterans were said to be suffering from "shell shock." After the second world war, people began to use the term "combat fatigue" to characterize the same condition. The phrase is a bit more pleasant, but it still acknowledges combat as the source of discomfort. In the wake of the Vietnam War, people referred to "posttraumatic stress disorder": a phrase that is completely disconnected from the reality of war altogether.
  20. 20. TRANSFER • It is an attempt to make the subject view a certain item in the same way as they view another item, to link the two in the subjects mind. Although this technique is often used to transfer negative feelings for one object to another, it can also be used in positive ways. By linking an item to something the subject respects or enjoys, positive feelings can be generated for it. However, in politics, transfer is most often used to transfer blame or bad feelings from one politician to another of his friends or party members, or even to the party itself. • Example: Calling our atomic bomb an Islamic bomb: Imp to see how it plays both ways!
  21. 21. TESTIMONIAL • Testimonials are quotations or endorsements, in or out of context, which attempt to connect a famous or respectable person with a product or item. Testimonials are very closely connected to the transfer technique, in that an attempt is made to connect an agreeable person to another item. Testimonials are often used in advertising and political campaigns. • There is nothing wrong with citing(Hawala dena) a qualified source, and the testimonial technique can be used to construct a fair, well-balanced argument. However, it is often used in ways that are unfair and misleading. The most common misuse of the testimonial involves citing individuals who are not qualified to make judgements about a particular issue.
  22. 22. PLAIN FOLKS APPEAL • The plain folks device is an attempt by the propagandist to convince the public that his/her views reflect those of the common person and that they are also working for the benefit of the common person. The propagandist will often attempt to use the accent(axent) of a specific audience as well as using specific idioms or jokes. Also, the propagandist, especially during speeches, may attempt to increase the illusion through imperfect pronunciation, stuttering(Haklana), and a more limited vocabulary. Errors such as these help add to the impression of sincerity and spontaneity. This technique is usually most effective when used with glittering generalities, in an attempt to convince the public that the propagandist views about highly valued ideas are similar to their own and therefore more valid.
  23. 23. BANDWAGON • Bandwagon is one of the most common techniques in both wartime and peacetime and plays an important part in modern advertising. Bandwagon is an appeal to the subject to follow the crowd, to join in because others are doing so as well. Bandwagon propaganda is, essentially, trying to convince the subject that one side is the winning side, because more people have joined it. The subject is meant to believe that since so many people have joined, that victory is inevitable and defeat impossible. Since the average person always wants to be on the winning side, he or she is compelled to join in. However, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new twist. The subject is to be convinced by the propaganda that since everyone else is doing it, they will be left out if they do not. This is, effectively, the opposite of the other type of bandwagon, but usually provokes the same results.
  24. 24. FEAR • When a propagandist warns members of her audience that disaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action, she is using the fear appeal. By playing on the audience's deepseated fears, practitioners of this technique hope to redirect attention away from the merits of a particular proposal and toward steps that can be taken to reduce the fear. • There are four elements to a successful fear appeal: 1) a threat 2) a specific recommendation about how the audience should behave 3) audience perception that the recommendation will be effective in addressing the threat 4) audience perception that they are capable of performing the recommended behavior.
  25. 25. CARD STACKING • Card stacking involves only presenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal and omitting information contrary to it. Card stacking is used in almost all forms of propaganda, and is extremely effective in convincing the public. Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it is dangerous because it omits important information.
  26. 26. ASSERTION • Assertion is commonly used in advertising and modern propaganda. An assertion is an enthusiastic or energetic statement presented as a fact, although it is not necessarily true. They often imply that the statement requires no explanation or back up, but that it should merely be accepted without question. Examples of assertion, although somewhat scarce in wartime propaganda, can be found often in modern advertising propaganda. Any time an advertiser states that their product is the best without providing evidence for this, they are using an assertion. The subject, ideally, should simply agree to the statement without searching for additional information or reasoning. Assertions, although usually simple to spot, are often dangerous forms of propaganda because they often include falsehoods or lies.
  27. 27. LESSER OF TWO EVILS • The "lesser of two evils" technique tries to convince us of an idea or proposal by presenting it as the least offensive option. This technique is often implemented during wartime to convince people of the need for sacrifices or to justify difficult decisions. This technique is often accompanied by adding blame on an enemy country or political group. One idea or proposal is often depicted as one of the only options or paths. When confronted with this technique, the subject should consider the value of any proposal independently of those it is being compared with.
  28. 28. PIN-POINTING THE ENEMY • Pinpointing the enemy is used extremely often during wartime, and also in political campaigns and debates. This is an attempt to simplify a complex situation by presenting one specific group or person as the enemy. Although there may be other factors involved the subject is urged to simply view the situation in terms of clear-cut right and wrong. When coming in contact with this technique, the subject should attempt to consider all other factors tied into the situation.
  29. 29. SIMPLIFICATION/STEREOTYPING • Simplification is similar to pinpointing the enemy, in that it often reduces a complex situation to a clear-cut choice involving good and evil. This technique is often useful in swaying uneducated audiences.
  30. 30. • http://mason.gmu.edu/~amcdonal/Propaganda %20Techniques.html • http://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/ct.w g.name.html • http://www.psywarrior.com/Herbafghan.html • http://www.stentorian.com/propagan.html