Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September
1939)considered the first 5 years of a child’s
life to be the most important ,because he
believed that an individual’s basic character
had been formed by the age of 5.
Freud’s personality theory can be
conceptualized according to structure of
personality, topography of mind & stages of
5. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
The id is the only component of personality
that is present from birth.
• The id demands immediate satisfaction and
when this happens we experience pleasure,
when it is denied we experience ‘unpleasure’ or
pain. The id is not affected by reality, logic or
the everyday world.
The ego is the component of personality that is
responsible for dealing with reality.
It develop between the ages of 4-6 months.
Initially the ego is 'that part of the id which has been
modified by the direct influence of the external world'
The ego has no concept of right or wrong;
something is good simply if it achieves its end of
satisfying without causing harm to itself or to the
id. It engages in secondary process thinking, which
is rational, realistic, and orientated towards
7. SUPER EGO
Works on perfection principle.
The superego incorporates the values and morals of
society which are learned from one's parents and
others. It develops around the age of 3 – 5 during the
phallic stage of psychosexual development.
The superego provides guidelines for making
8. Two parts of superego
The ego ideal: It includes the rules and
standards for good behaviors. These behaviors
include those which are approved of by parental
and other authority figures. Obeying these rules
leads to feelings of pride, & enhanced self
The conscience: includes information about
things that are viewed as bad by parents and
society. These behaviors are often forbidden and
lead to bad consequences, punishments & feeling
11. ICE BERG MODEL
Psychoanalytic theory of the
conscious and unconscious
mind is often explained using
an iceberg metaphor.
Conscious awareness is the
tip of the iceberg, while the
unconscious is represented by
the ice hidden below the surface
of the water.
14. THE CONSCIOUS MIND
It includes everything that we
are aware of. This is the aspect
of our mental processing that we
can think and talk about
Events & experiences that are
easily remembered or retrieved
are considered to be within one’s
conscious awareness. Example-
Telephone numbers, birthday of
self & dates of special holidays.
16. THE PRECONSCIOUS MIND
It includes all memories that
may have been forgotten or
are not in present awareness
but with attention can be
readily recalled into
numbers, addresses once
known but little used.
It is thought to be partially
under the control of the
super-ego, which helps to
thoughts and behaviors.
18. THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND
It includes all memories that one is unable to
bring to conscious awareness. It is the largest
of the three topographical levels.
It consists of unpleasant & non essential
memories that have been repressed & can be
retrieved through therapy, hypnosis & with
other substances that alter awareness.
According to Freud, the unconscious continues
to influence our behavior and experience, even
though we are unaware of these underlying
21. FREUD STAGES OF
The theory of psychosexual development was
proposed by the famous psychoanalyst
Sigmund Freud and described how personality
developed over the course of childhood.
Psychoanalytic theory suggested that
personality is mostly established by the age of
five. Early experiences play a large role in
personality development and continue to
influence behavior later in life.
24. ORAL STAGE: BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS
During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction
occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is
The mouth is vital for eating and the infant derives pleasure from
oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and
The primary conflict at this age is weaning process.
If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual
would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation
can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail
Oral stage fixation might have 2 effects:
I. Neglected child might become psychologically
dependent adult continually seeking the oral
stimulation denied in infancy, thereby becoming a
manipulative person in fulfilling his/her own needs,
rather than maturing to independence.
The over-protected child might resist maturation and
return to dependence upon others in fulfilling his or
her needs. Theoretically, oral-stage fixations are
manifested as garrulousness (talkativeness), smoking,
continual oral stimulus (eating, chewing objects), and
28. ANAL STAGE:18 MONTHS TO 3 YEARS
During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary
focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and
bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is
toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or
her bodily needs.
According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses
can result in negative outcomes
Not resolved? anal retentive (rigid and obsessive
personality) or anal expulsive (messy and
30. PHALLIC STAGE: 3-6 YEARS
During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is
on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover
the differences between males and females & become
aware of sexuality.
Oedipus Complex (boys)
Unconscious sexual desires towards mother, father is
Simultaneously fears the dad- “castration anxiety”
Electra Complex (girls)
Unconscious sexual desires towards father and mother
Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex
parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other
If fixation occurs at this stage, it will lead to sexual
identity problems, difficulty in accepting authority.
33. LATENCY STAGE:6-12 YEARS
During the elementary school years, the focus
changes from egocentrism to more interests in
group activities, learning and socialization with
The latent period is a time of exploration in
which the sexual energy is still present, but it is
directed into other areas such as intellectual
pursuits and social interactions.
If fixation occurs at this stage, it will lead to inability to
conceptualize, lack of motivation in school or job.
36. GENITAL STAGE:13-12 YEARS
During the final stage of psychosexual
development, the individual develops a strong
sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage
begins during puberty but last throughout the
rest of a person's life.
If the other stages have been completed
successfully, the individual should now be
well-balanced, and caring. The goal of this
stage is to establish a balance between the
various life areas.
37. RELEVANCE OF PSYCHOANALYTIC
Knowledge of the structure of the
personality can assist nurses who
work in the mental health
The ability to recognize behavior
associated with the id, ego and
the superego assists in the
assessment of developmental
Understanding the use of ego
defense mechanisms is important
in making determinations about
maladaptive behaviors, is
planning care for client’s to assist
in creating change or in helping
clients accepts themselves as