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OVERVIEW OF GIS
             INTRODUCTION:

The resource managers, planners and decision-makers
depend on the information related to an area or location
  for analyzing and implementing developmental plan.
Conventional data storage and management has failed
   to satisfy their needs. With the advent of computers
     technology the database management in term of
 'where', 'what' has been classed through geographical
                   information system (GIS
What is a Map ?
     Maps are the main source of data for GIS.
                  What is a map?
 A map is representation of the spherical surface of
the earth on the plain sheet of earth. In practice we
            normally think of two types:
      1. Topographic maps 2. Thematic maps
Topogrpahic Map
A reference tool, showing the outlines of selected
  natural and man-made features of the Earth.

   It often acts as a frame to other information
Thematic maps:
A tool to communicate, geographic concept such as
            the distribution of population
        densities, climate, soils, landmark etc.

         Thematic maps are of two types
           Chloropleth b) IsoPleth
Types of Maps:
 A Chloropleth map uses reporting zones as census
tracts to show data such as average incomes or soil
                     geology etc.
  An IsoPleth maps shows an imaginary surface by
means of lines joining points of equal value "Isolates
         (eg. Controls on a topographic map)
Characterstics of Maps:
  The general Characteristics of maps are
-Maps are often stylized, generalized required
            careful interpretation
             -Usually out of date
         -Show only static situation
        -Often highly elegant/artistic
What is GIS?

  GIS stands for geographic information system. GIS has been variously
                                   defined as -
             - "A spatial data handing system"(Marble etal.1980)
A computer assisted system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and
   display of spatial data with in a particular organization (Clark, 1986)
   A set of tools for collection, storing retrieving at will , transforming and
     displaying data from the real world for a particular set of purpose
                                (Borough, 1986)

                                 continued…..
What is GIS? - 2
   An organized collection of hardware, software, geographic data, and
   personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, analyze and
display all forms of geographical referenced information(ESRI) or simply A
computer system capable of holding and using data describing place on the
                                  earth's surface
 the last definition needs little elaboration which highlights the components
                                  of a GIS are :-
                               Computer hardware
                                     Software
                      Spatial data and their attributed and
                                Trained personnel
Uses Of GIS
      GIS does not function by itself and it must be
 emphasized that a group of well-trained persons skilled
in the technology are crucial components are termed as
  "Humanware". GIS can be used as a decision support
     tools in solving increasingly complex urban and
environmental problems. Forestry and wild Life Tracking.
   Waste Land Developments, Agriculture and Ground
   Water Resource water resource Management. Urban
 application include utilities management, site suitability
             analysis and demographic studies
What a GIS is not


       A GIS is not simply a computer for making
 maps, although it can create maps on different scales
               and in different projections.
  A GIS is an analytical tool. The major advantage of a
      GIS is that it allows one to identify the spatial
relationship between maps features and the non-spatial
                            data.
GIS is a spatial database
                    GIS is a spatial database that answers these:
                   Application (In a typical Agriculture applications)
          Locations, what is at……? (what crop exits at particular location)
  Conditions: where is it…..?(which locations satisfy certain conditions) the crop is
            associated with what soil type or what is the rainfall and so on
 Trends using temporal data ? Trends can be seen in two points of time (whether a
 particular crop increases or decreases. Soils have been degraded/eroded or not?
                                          etc.)
                         Pattern: what spatial pattern exists
The display of crop zone cover superimposed on village, markets, road networks, as
                               shown a definite pattern
GIS- Models
Models: "what if" (The GIS analyst can get answer
to some assumptions and presumptions like what
will happen to crop cover (rice/wheat) production if
population is doubled or agriculture area reduced
by certain percentage and water holding capacity
                     reduces.
Types of GIS
 GIS package acts on two types of data models.
                   These are
               Raster Data Model
               Vector data Model
Based on the data model, GIS are called as Raster
        based GIS and vector based GIS
Raster Data Model

The Raster model divides the entire study area into a regular
               grid of cells in specific sequence
 the conventional sequence is row from the top left corner
                each cell contain a single value
   it is space filling since every location in the study area
            correspondents to a cell in the Raster
    one set of cells and associated values is a layer and
   there may be many layers in a database, eg soil type,
                     elevation, land cover, etc
Vector Data Model
      The vector model reduces the entire study area into three
       geographical identities - the point, the line and the area
every geographical phenomenon can in principle be represented by
 a point, line or area plus a label saying "what it is". The label could
 be the actual be the names, or they could be numbers that cross-
     reference with a legend, or they could be a special symbol
a map is a set of points, lines and area that are defined both by their
location in space with reference to a coordinate system and by their
                          non spatial attributes
              vector objects do not necessarily fill space
GIS software


Based on these two data models there are different GIS
software packages available in the market. Among these
     ERDAS, IDRISI, SPANS ILWIS, MAP INFO and
   ARC/INFO etc are the most popular ones, amongst
  these ERDAS, IDRISI, ILWIS AND SPAN are Raster
 based and Map info, ISRGIS and ARC/INFO are vector
                 based GIS software
GIS compared to maps-1

                              Data Stores

Spatial data stored in digital format in a GIS allows for rapid access for
               traditional as well as innovative purposes

Maps can be designed to be easy to convert to digital from e.g. by the
use of different colors which have district signatures when scanned by
                          electronic searching
GIS compared to maps- 2

                         Data Indexes
This function can be performed much better by a good GIS due to the
ability to provide multiple and efficient cross-referencing and searching
GIS compared to maps- 3

                      Data Analysis Tool

              GIS is a powerful tool for map analysis
Traditional impediments to the accurate and rapid measurement of
               area or to map overly no longer exists

 Many new techniques in spatial analysis are becoming available
GIS compared to maps- 4

                       Data Display Tools

Electronic display offers significant advantage over the paper map
Ability to browse across an area without interruption by map sheet
                              boundaries
               Ability to zoom and change scale freely
 Display in "3 dimensions" with "real time" rotation of view angle
Potential for continuo scales of intensity and the use of color and
        shading independent of the constraints of the printing
      process, ability to change as required for interpretation.
Data Input

  Data input is a process of converting analog data (map features) into a
digital form to develop a spatial database for further analysis required for
different applications. Data input is carried out through the process called
                                Digitization.

Input data to the GIS can come from several source such as digitized maps
  from the output of digitizing table; Scanned maps from a scanner; ASCII
  files containing point data with associated coordinated from GPS(Global
  Positioning Systems) Surveys; text data from published sources such as
       Census departments; Thematic maps from Satellite imagery etc.

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Overview of gis new

  • 1. OVERVIEW OF GIS INTRODUCTION: The resource managers, planners and decision-makers depend on the information related to an area or location for analyzing and implementing developmental plan. Conventional data storage and management has failed to satisfy their needs. With the advent of computers technology the database management in term of 'where', 'what' has been classed through geographical information system (GIS
  • 2. What is a Map ? Maps are the main source of data for GIS. What is a map? A map is representation of the spherical surface of the earth on the plain sheet of earth. In practice we normally think of two types: 1. Topographic maps 2. Thematic maps
  • 3. Topogrpahic Map A reference tool, showing the outlines of selected natural and man-made features of the Earth. It often acts as a frame to other information
  • 4. Thematic maps: A tool to communicate, geographic concept such as the distribution of population densities, climate, soils, landmark etc. Thematic maps are of two types Chloropleth b) IsoPleth
  • 5. Types of Maps: A Chloropleth map uses reporting zones as census tracts to show data such as average incomes or soil geology etc. An IsoPleth maps shows an imaginary surface by means of lines joining points of equal value "Isolates (eg. Controls on a topographic map)
  • 6. Characterstics of Maps: The general Characteristics of maps are -Maps are often stylized, generalized required careful interpretation -Usually out of date -Show only static situation -Often highly elegant/artistic
  • 7. What is GIS? GIS stands for geographic information system. GIS has been variously defined as - - "A spatial data handing system"(Marble etal.1980) A computer assisted system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data with in a particular organization (Clark, 1986) A set of tools for collection, storing retrieving at will , transforming and displaying data from the real world for a particular set of purpose (Borough, 1986) continued…..
  • 8. What is GIS? - 2 An organized collection of hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, analyze and display all forms of geographical referenced information(ESRI) or simply A computer system capable of holding and using data describing place on the earth's surface the last definition needs little elaboration which highlights the components of a GIS are :- Computer hardware Software Spatial data and their attributed and Trained personnel
  • 9. Uses Of GIS GIS does not function by itself and it must be emphasized that a group of well-trained persons skilled in the technology are crucial components are termed as "Humanware". GIS can be used as a decision support tools in solving increasingly complex urban and environmental problems. Forestry and wild Life Tracking. Waste Land Developments, Agriculture and Ground Water Resource water resource Management. Urban application include utilities management, site suitability analysis and demographic studies
  • 10. What a GIS is not A GIS is not simply a computer for making maps, although it can create maps on different scales and in different projections. A GIS is an analytical tool. The major advantage of a GIS is that it allows one to identify the spatial relationship between maps features and the non-spatial data.
  • 11. GIS is a spatial database GIS is a spatial database that answers these: Application (In a typical Agriculture applications) Locations, what is at……? (what crop exits at particular location) Conditions: where is it…..?(which locations satisfy certain conditions) the crop is associated with what soil type or what is the rainfall and so on Trends using temporal data ? Trends can be seen in two points of time (whether a particular crop increases or decreases. Soils have been degraded/eroded or not? etc.) Pattern: what spatial pattern exists The display of crop zone cover superimposed on village, markets, road networks, as shown a definite pattern
  • 12. GIS- Models Models: "what if" (The GIS analyst can get answer to some assumptions and presumptions like what will happen to crop cover (rice/wheat) production if population is doubled or agriculture area reduced by certain percentage and water holding capacity reduces.
  • 13. Types of GIS GIS package acts on two types of data models. These are Raster Data Model Vector data Model Based on the data model, GIS are called as Raster based GIS and vector based GIS
  • 14. Raster Data Model The Raster model divides the entire study area into a regular grid of cells in specific sequence the conventional sequence is row from the top left corner each cell contain a single value it is space filling since every location in the study area correspondents to a cell in the Raster one set of cells and associated values is a layer and there may be many layers in a database, eg soil type, elevation, land cover, etc
  • 15. Vector Data Model The vector model reduces the entire study area into three geographical identities - the point, the line and the area every geographical phenomenon can in principle be represented by a point, line or area plus a label saying "what it is". The label could be the actual be the names, or they could be numbers that cross- reference with a legend, or they could be a special symbol a map is a set of points, lines and area that are defined both by their location in space with reference to a coordinate system and by their non spatial attributes vector objects do not necessarily fill space
  • 16. GIS software Based on these two data models there are different GIS software packages available in the market. Among these ERDAS, IDRISI, SPANS ILWIS, MAP INFO and ARC/INFO etc are the most popular ones, amongst these ERDAS, IDRISI, ILWIS AND SPAN are Raster based and Map info, ISRGIS and ARC/INFO are vector based GIS software
  • 17. GIS compared to maps-1 Data Stores Spatial data stored in digital format in a GIS allows for rapid access for traditional as well as innovative purposes Maps can be designed to be easy to convert to digital from e.g. by the use of different colors which have district signatures when scanned by electronic searching
  • 18. GIS compared to maps- 2 Data Indexes This function can be performed much better by a good GIS due to the ability to provide multiple and efficient cross-referencing and searching
  • 19. GIS compared to maps- 3 Data Analysis Tool GIS is a powerful tool for map analysis Traditional impediments to the accurate and rapid measurement of area or to map overly no longer exists Many new techniques in spatial analysis are becoming available
  • 20. GIS compared to maps- 4 Data Display Tools Electronic display offers significant advantage over the paper map Ability to browse across an area without interruption by map sheet boundaries Ability to zoom and change scale freely Display in "3 dimensions" with "real time" rotation of view angle Potential for continuo scales of intensity and the use of color and shading independent of the constraints of the printing process, ability to change as required for interpretation.
  • 21. Data Input Data input is a process of converting analog data (map features) into a digital form to develop a spatial database for further analysis required for different applications. Data input is carried out through the process called Digitization. Input data to the GIS can come from several source such as digitized maps from the output of digitizing table; Scanned maps from a scanner; ASCII files containing point data with associated coordinated from GPS(Global Positioning Systems) Surveys; text data from published sources such as Census departments; Thematic maps from Satellite imagery etc.