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WE ARE…WE ARE…
BA (Hons) in English
UNIVERSITY OF ASIA PACIFIC
René DescartesRené Descartes
IntroductionIntroduction
• Father of Modern Philosophy.
• Not only a philosopher but also a well
known French mathematicia...
•Rene Descardes was born in La Haye in 1596
•Was the son of a minor nobleman.
•By 1606 he was studying at the Jesuit colle...
The Search for IntellectualThe Search for Intellectual
FaithFaith
•Descartes confronted many scientists and
mathematicians...
Mathematical
Accomplishments
•Descartes’ greatest contribution to the field of
mathematics was developing analytical geome...
Descartes’ Epistemology
Epistemology- The philosophical
examination of knowledge – its nature and
its origin.
Rationalism
• Epistemological school that maintains that the most
important truths about reality are obtained by means of
...
Notion of innate ideas
• Rationalism can be acquiredRationalism can be acquired
by a priori means.by a priori means.
• Des...
Notion of innate ideas
• In accordance with the rationalist view,
there are representations or ideas in the
mind that do n...
Problem of Skepticism in epistemology
• Knowledge is not possible due to the fact
that all knowledge remains uncertain.
• ...
Descartes’ MethodDescartes’ MethodDescartes’ MethodDescartes’ Method
Descartes’ Method:Descartes’ Method:
BackgroundBackground
•The real turning point came on
November 10, 1619.
•He found he ...
Descartes’ MethodDescartes’ Method
Descartes’Descartes’ four rulesfour rules
•Rule one is to never believe anything unless
you know it to be true.
•Rules two...
Descartes’Descartes’ Four RulesFour Rules
Philosophy ofPhilosophy of
DescartesDescartes
Philosophy ofPhilosophy of
DescartesDescartes
• He expresses his doubts of the
existence of all things,
especially materialistic objects.
• Descartes did not believe th...
Meditation 1:Existence of All ThingsMeditation 1:Existence of All Things
•Example: when we see an object that is far away,...
Meditation 2 :Absolute CertaintyMeditation 2 :Absolute Certainty
• He Tried to express absolute certainty, through his
phr...
Meditation 3 The Existence of GodMeditation 3 The Existence of God
• Casual Principle:Casual Principle: That something can...
God is not formally an extended thing,God is not formally an extended thing,
but rather a thinking thing.but rather a thin...
Meditation 4: Possibility of ErrorMeditation 4: Possibility of Error
Judgement is a faculty of the mind, resulting
from t...
Meditation 5: The Ontological
Argument
Descartes believed that since the idea of God is
perfect, God has to exist, becaus...
Meditation 6: The Distinction
between Mind and Body
Descartes defined substance as
“an existent thing which requires
noth...
Cartesianism
Cartesianism emphasizes on –
Dualistic distinction between mind and body.
Mechanistic interpretation
Logic...
Cartesianism
Cartesianism is a species of rationalism, because
Cartesians hold certain knowledge.
It is opposed to the t...
Conclusion
Throughout his life, Descartes
attempted to apply the rational
inductive methods of science and
mathematics, t...
René descartes
René descartes
René descartes
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René descartes

  1. 1. WE ARE…WE ARE… BA (Hons) in English UNIVERSITY OF ASIA PACIFIC
  2. 2. René DescartesRené Descartes
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction • Father of Modern Philosophy. • Not only a philosopher but also a well known French mathematician and scientist. • One of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. • Frances greatest philosopher.
  4. 4. •Rene Descardes was born in La Haye in 1596 •Was the son of a minor nobleman. •By 1606 he was studying at the Jesuit college of La Fleche. •Went to Germany in the army in 1606 where he dreamed of studying universal science. •He claimed that certainty is the only basis of knowledge. Early LifeEarly Life
  5. 5. The Search for IntellectualThe Search for Intellectual FaithFaith •Descartes confronted many scientists and mathematicians that everything is not based on probability. •He claimed that education except for mathematic gave him’ little of substance. • Only Mathematics had given him certain knowledge.
  6. 6. Mathematical Accomplishments •Descartes’ greatest contribution to the field of mathematics was developing analytical geometry, which is applying algebra to geometry. •He also established the coordinate plane system, which he developed to visualize and locate exact points. • He believed that only mathematics can be seen as certain, and therefore can be used to explain the more complex ideas of the universe.
  7. 7. Descartes’ Epistemology Epistemology- The philosophical examination of knowledge – its nature and its origin.
  8. 8. Rationalism • Epistemological school that maintains that the most important truths about reality are obtained by means of the intellect (the mind) alone, without relying at all upon the senses. • Descartes gave his theory of knowledge, which is rational. Descartes' arguments in support of rationalism are given below. • Two objects are different if experience can show that the qualities of objects are different empirical view. • Experience shows that liquid wax and solid wax have different qualities. – Liquid wax and solid wax are different objects
  9. 9. Notion of innate ideas • Rationalism can be acquiredRationalism can be acquired by a priori means.by a priori means. • Descartes emphasized theDescartes emphasized the important of a priori ideasimportant of a priori ideas and argument inand argument in establishing genuineestablishing genuine knowledge on a firmknowledge on a firm foundation.foundation.
  10. 10. Notion of innate ideas • In accordance with the rationalist view, there are representations or ideas in the mind that do not have empirical origins (a priori representations). • Rationalists consider the possibility that humans are born with these types of ideas.
  11. 11. Problem of Skepticism in epistemology • Knowledge is not possible due to the fact that all knowledge remains uncertain. • No knowledge is definite • No knowledge can be justified
  12. 12. Descartes’ MethodDescartes’ MethodDescartes’ MethodDescartes’ Method
  13. 13. Descartes’ Method:Descartes’ Method: BackgroundBackground •The real turning point came on November 10, 1619. •He found he can doubt pretty much everything. •Descartes claim he has also developed a set of scientific principles that had allowed him to make many discoveries.
  14. 14. Descartes’ MethodDescartes’ Method
  15. 15. Descartes’Descartes’ four rulesfour rules •Rule one is to never believe anything unless you know it to be true. •Rules two to analyze every problem into as many parts as are necessary to resolve the problem. •Rule three is to find the easiest solution and work up to the most difficult. •Rule four is to list every possible detail of a problem.
  16. 16. Descartes’Descartes’ Four RulesFour Rules
  17. 17. Philosophy ofPhilosophy of DescartesDescartes Philosophy ofPhilosophy of DescartesDescartes
  18. 18. • He expresses his doubts of the existence of all things, especially materialistic objects. • Descartes did not believe that the information we receive through our sense is necessarily accurate. Meditation 1:Existence of All ThingsMeditation 1:Existence of All Things
  19. 19. Meditation 1:Existence of All ThingsMeditation 1:Existence of All Things •Example: when we see an object that is far away, it appears to be smaller. •The information we receive through our sense is not accurate always.
  20. 20. Meditation 2 :Absolute CertaintyMeditation 2 :Absolute Certainty • He Tried to express absolute certainty, through his phrase, "I think, therefore I am”. • Mediation 1- He expressed The information we receive through our sense is not accurate always. • This includes the belief that I have a body with sensory organs. “No”, because he had convinced himself that his beliefs are false, and then there must be an “I” convince.
  21. 21. Meditation 3 The Existence of GodMeditation 3 The Existence of God • Casual Principle:Casual Principle: That something cannot come from nothing. •P1: I have the clear idea of God (a most perfect being: infinite, eternal, omnipotent, benevolent). •P2: A cause must be at least as real as its effect. •C: This idea of God (P1) can’t be imperfect to me (P2). Its cause must be God greater. So God exists.
  22. 22. God is not formally an extended thing,God is not formally an extended thing, but rather a thinking thing.but rather a thinking thing. Meditation 3 The Existence of GodMeditation 3 The Existence of God
  23. 23. Meditation 4: Possibility of ErrorMeditation 4: Possibility of Error Judgement is a faculty of the mind, resulting from the interaction of will and intellect. When our will to make decisions, exceeds the ability to understand, error arises.
  24. 24. Meditation 5: The Ontological Argument Descartes believed that since the idea of God is perfect, God has to exist, because without existence he would lack a quality of perfection. If God lacked existence, then God would no longer be perfect. Therefore, if God had imperfections such as not being existent, it would no longer be the idea of God. God without existence is unintelligible, meaning that existence is contained in the essence of an infinite substance. Because of this, God must exist in his very own nature. God without existence can be compared to a mountain without a valley. It is unintelligible.
  25. 25. Meditation 6: The Distinction between Mind and Body Descartes defined substance as “an existent thing which requires nothing but itself to exist.” The operation of the mind and the body are completely distinct. The body is governed by physical forces. Human consist of a mind and a body. Some activities of the body are purely mechanical. However, the mind has some control over the body.
  26. 26. Cartesianism Cartesianism emphasizes on – Dualistic distinction between mind and body. Mechanistic interpretation Logical analysis
  27. 27. Cartesianism Cartesianism is a species of rationalism, because Cartesians hold certain knowledge. It is opposed to the tradition of empiricism. According to empiricism, “all knowledge is based on sense experience and is therefore only probable”. Cartesians believed that God is omnipotent and his will is entirely free. The human intellect, by contrast, is finite; thus, humans can be certain only of what God reveals and of the fact that they and God exist.
  28. 28. Conclusion Throughout his life, Descartes attempted to apply the rational inductive methods of science and mathematics, to philosophy. He also made contributions to the theory of equations. Descartes was the first to use the last letters of the alphabet to designate unknown quantities and the first letters to designate known ones. He also invented the method for finding truth.
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