Bhagwan Mahavir College Of Architecture
Building Materials & Construction
Submitted to :
Ar. Kunal Engineer
Er. Akash Chauhan
What Is Timber
Types of Flooring
Joists and Types of Joists
Advantages and Disadvantages
What is Timber ?
Simply the name suggest that the flooring made of timber i.e wood
is called timber flooring.
Wood is a common choice as a flooring material due to its
environmental profile, durability, and restorability.
Why Timber ?
Long lasting i.e more durablity.
Easy to clean.
Easy to resurface.
Soft for foots unlike concrete and tiles.
Gives better look.
Soft for falling objective
It wasn't until the Barouque Era (1625-1714) that wooden floors
became elegant, starting with the French parquetry and marquetry
They were then hand scraped of their overwood, scrubbed with
sand, stained and polished.
During 16th century
The first wooden floors in colonial America were wide, thick planks
cut from the continent’s abundant old-growth forests.
During 18th century
During 18th century wooden were lest bare end kept untreatable
It was kept on the action of time i.e as the time goes the timber gets
treated according to requirement.
Before 19th century
Decorative flourishes :As decoratively painted interiors became
popular in the 19th century, this technique was applied to wood
New trends include many of the types, shades,techniques.
Wooden flooring is the symbol of royalness and wealthness too.
They are narrow and thin strips of timber
jointed by tongue and groove joints
Normal strips 6 to 10 cm in with and 2 to 2.5 cm in thickness are
Wood block flooring
This consist of short but thicker wood blocks which are laid in
suitable designs over a concrete base
This block are properly joined together with the grains exposed
Size varying from 20*8cm to 30*8cm thickness 2 to 4 cm are used
This is similar to block flooring except thin blocks are supported on
The blocks are laid by means of hot glue in desired pattern and then
nailed with panel pins
Popular in this days
In this type of flooring wider planks are used
Jointed by tongue and grooves
A rafter is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams)
that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate, downslope
perimeter or eave, and that are designed to support the roof deck
and its associated loads
A truss consists of typically straight members connected at joints,
traditionally termed panel points. Trusses are typically composed
of triangles because of the structural stability of that shape and
A girder is a support beam used in construction. It is the main
horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams.
Girders often have an I-beam cross section for strength, but may
also have a box shape, Z shape and other form
In this type of flooring timber planks of 20 to 25mm thickness and
width - 150 to 200
A concrete bed of 100 to 150mm thick is laid.
Wooden battens of 50 to 75mm thickness and trapezium in shape
are embedded in bed concrete at an interval of 500 to 700mm.
Wooden planks are laid on the battens.
Planks are connected to each other-
by tongue and groove joints.
Planks are connected to battens by-
In this type of construction base concrete is first laid in 15 to
20 cm thickness over it, a layer of mastic asphalt is applied.
Wooden block flooring is then laid over.
blocks of size 20x 8cm to 30x8cm and
Durability . – it should be capable of resisting the actions of fungi,
insects ,chemicals .
Toughness – it should be tough.
Weathering effects –
it should be able to stand -
reasonably the weathering effects.
timber is bad conductor of heat .
Variety. There are a lot of styles, colours and species of timber
Affordable.--timber floor finish may last for up to 8 years.
The cost of recoating a timber floor is more affordable.
Timber is natural, hard wearing and when maintained and kept
clean it avoids carrying dust and allergens which promote asthma
and other respiratory problems.
Ecological. Timber Floors are ecologically friendly. Since it is a
natural resource, timber is both renewable and recyclable
Easy to maintain --Maintenance of timber floors is easy.
Flexible -- Hardwood timber floors will always look good both in
contemporary and traditional interior design.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Being strong and durable wooden floor provides infinite benefits as
it is as beautiful as any other designer flooring.
Timber flooring can withstand huge traffic without replacement and
It just needs to be re-sanded or re-polished to retain its original
luster and finish.
Eco-friendly and natural material which hardly requires energy
Timber is hypo-allergic which do not extract dirt and other allergens.
Good insulator and hygienic
Sr No Type Application
1 BUTT JOINT Generally in Furniture as
relatively its weaker
The dowels inserted inside
enables the joint to be used
in excess load bearing units
3 DADO Used at T joints generally in
connecting joists with pillars
in a wooden construction
4 RABBET Used at L junctions
generally in furniture as the
bonding surface area is less
which disables higher load
50Types of common Joints and its uses
Sr No Type Application
4 DOVE TAIL Used at L junctions
generally in furniture
As well as in house
surface area enables
it to take much more
5 MITRED WITH
Used at L junctions
but the Spline
makes it much rigid
and tough that it can
relatively take excess
loads as compared to
Used at T joints
the tenon makes
the bond so rigid
that the joint can
take much higher
loads and makes
the furniture much
7 TONGUE AND
Very common used
joint as can be used
in variable functions
as straight joins and
other types of the