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Mazloomi Alliance course presentation

Knowledge transfer in different type of alliances

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Mazloomi Alliance course presentation

  1. 1. Knowledge Transfer Through Interfirm Alliances Hamid MAZLOOMI INPL Nancy CERAM Sophia Antipolis
  2. 2. Main Knowledge Related Researches on Interfirm Alliances <ul><li>Inter-firm KM as a source of competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as conducive to alliance formation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as determinant of alliance evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge creation through alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge absorption through alliance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main Question of Research <ul><li>Does structural difference between alliances ( that implicate differences in motives, needs and function of alliances ) create significant variation in inter-partner knowledge transfer effectiveness? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Structural differences Jolly (2001) Exogamy Endogamy Jolly (2001) Skill Sharing Cost Sharing Sakakibara (1997) Complementary Alliances Additives Alliances and conjoint integration Dussauge et Garrette (1991 1995) Resources Complementation Alliance Resources Accumulation Alliance Roberts et Mizouchi (1989) Link Alliances Scale Alliance Hennart (1988) Cooperation on differences Cooperation on similarity Joffre et Koenig (1984)
  5. 5. Structural differences Jolly (2001) Exogamy Endogamy Jolly (2001) Skill Sharing Cost Sharing Sakakibara (1997) Complementary Alliances Additives Alliances and conjoint integration Dussauge et Garrette (1991 1995) Resources Complementation Alliance Resources Accumulation Alliance Roberts et Mizouchi (1989) Link Alliances Scale Alliance Hennart (1988) Cooperation on differences Cooperation on similarity Joffre et Koenig (1984)
  6. 7. assumptions <ul><li>Knowledge transfer and learning exist in all type of alliances, but in varied level. </li></ul><ul><li>There is more thing to learn and to transfer in exogamies in comparison with endogamies. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge transfer = knowledge learned from partner + knowledge transferred from alliance to parent </li></ul>
  7. 8. What is NOT Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Knowledge about managing alliance per se </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge transfer from a partner to alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about consequences of an alliance on firm strategic position </li></ul>
  8. 9. What is Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Product Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Process Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>New technology and product development </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Knowledge </li></ul>Transfer of From one partner to other + From alliance to parent
  9. 10. Knowledge Transfer in Alliance Affecting factors <ul><li>Relative Absorptive capacity of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Learning intent </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of alliance activity from OL perspective </li></ul>Factors related to ability of firm to understand and analyze the content of partner’s knowledge Factors related to level of information and knowledge exchange Factors related to level of motivation of partners to learn from each other
  10. 11. Knowledge Transfer in Alliance Affecting factors <ul><li>Relative Absorptive capacity of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Learning intent </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of alliance activity from OL perspective </li></ul>Factors related to level of information and knowledge exchange Factors related to level of motivation of partners to learn from each other
  11. 12. Knowledge Transfer in Alliance Affecting factors <ul><li>Relative Absorptive capacity of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Learning intent </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of alliance activity from OL perspective </li></ul>Factors related to ability of firm to understand and analyze the content of partner’s knowledge Factors related to level of motivation of partners to learn from each other
  12. 13. Knowledge Transfer in Alliance Affecting factors <ul><li>Relative Absorptive capacity of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Learning intent </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of alliance activity from OL perspective </li></ul>Factors related to ability of firm to understand and analyze the content of partner’s knowledge Factors related to level of information and knowledge exchange
  13. 14. Relative absorptive capacity <ul><li>the ability of a firm to learn from another firm is jointly determined by the relative characteristics of the two firms . </li></ul><ul><li>Lane and Lubatkin (1998) re-conceptualized absorptive capacity as an alliance level construct and found that similarity measures -which they named relative absorptive capacity - better explained an ability to learn in alliances. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Relative Absorptive Capacity <ul><li>Complementarity of pooled knowledge (Helps us to identify what we don’t have and to value partner’s knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity of knowledge bases ( Helps us to comprehend of new knowledge ) </li></ul><ul><li>Having prior relationships ( Helps us to know how the partner exploit this knowledge in its organizational setting ) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Knowledge Ambiguity <ul><li>lack of understanding of the logical linkages between actions and outcomes, inputs and outputs, and causes and effects that are related to technological or process know-how </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tacitness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Cultural Distance <ul><li>Organizational culture difference </li></ul><ul><li>National knowledge difference </li></ul>
  17. 18. Trust
  18. 19. Level of Knowledge Protection
  19. 20. Learning Intent
  20. 21. Nature of alliance activity (OL) <ul><li>Exploration versus Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration: knowledge generation alliances (knowledge acquisition approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation: knowledge leveraging alliances (knowledge accessing approach) </li></ul>No empirical research about Explorativeness of alliance activity and structure of alliance ( Endogamy vs. Exogamy / Scale vs. Link )
  21. 22. Control variables <ul><li>Sector of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance duration </li></ul><ul><li>Domains of activities in alliance and number of them </li></ul><ul><li>Equity based or non equity based alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive regime </li></ul><ul><li>Size of parent firm </li></ul><ul><li>National or International alliance </li></ul>
  22. 23. Problems of research <ul><li>Heterogeneity among Exogamies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-sector alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal complementary alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply alliances (vertical agreements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic market cover alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probable solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Consideration ?(Dussauge et al,2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct Re-development by considering explorative alliances? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity base joint ventures (birth of third organization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution : Executives linked with EJV </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Model of Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Model of research help us to determine the needed statistical method for testing our hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>This model should be elaborated by the propositions presented by researcher and improved by generalization power of precedents empirical. results. </li></ul>Problems of research(2)
  24. 25. <ul><li>Model of Research: </li></ul>Problems of research(2)
  25. 26. Questions and Comments
  26. 27. Thank you for listening

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