1. Reaction of Muslim World on Blasphemy
Presented By: Muhammad Junaid Akbar
Faculty of Shariah & Law (FSL), International Islamic University, Islamabad (IIUI)
2. The Outlines of Presentation
These are the following outlines by which we will start our discussion on
Blasphemy , Step wisely:
Creation of Man, Revealed Religion and Its Teachings.
Definition Of Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemy in Different Religions, Protest by the
Muslims on Blasphemous acts by the Western people and media, How to record a
protest in the case of blasphemy, responsibility of the State.
Rules defined in Shariah, Pakistani Law & Intentional Law.
Applications (Implementation) of Laws on the Issue
Enforcement of the rules of Shariah, Pakistani Law & International Law.
When, Allah - The Almighty had created the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon Him) then He
ordered His angels to bow their heads in the front of the Holy Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon
Him), they obeyed the order and acted upon it without any hesitation.
• "Whoso shall follow My Guidance, on them shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve. But
those who will disbelieve and treat Our Signs as lies, they shall be the inmates of the fire
and they shall abide therein." (2: 39, 40)
• Unfortunately, they cheated one another and again disobeyed the divine laws and
indulged themselves in idolatry and in other baseless religions such like that and skipped
their real path of life. They were also started accusing the Prophets and started saying
wrongs about their Creator too. From here, He has started sending His guided people for
the betterment of His people and ordered them to stay away from wrong deeds as much
as possible. Hence, Muslims believe that Islam will continue to fulfill the spiritual as well
as worldly needs of people, transcending space and time.
4. What does Blasphemy meant for?
• Literal Meaning: Literally, Blasphemy means saying or doing something that shows disrespect
for God or a religion.
• Religious Meaning: Religiously, Blasphemy in Islam is any irreverent behavior toward holy
personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs that Muslims revere.
• Legal Meaning: Legally, Blasphemy is irreverence toward holy personage, religious
artifacts, customs and beliefs.
• Visual Description: Here is the visual description of blasphemy in graphical order:
5. Who is Blasphemer and its conditions
• Islamic legal authorities agree that a blasphemer can be Muslim or non-Muslim.
• • Speaking ill of Almighty God.
• Finding fault with Holy Prophet (PBUH).
• Slighting a prophet who is mentioned in the Holy Quran, or slighting a member of Holy
Prophet’s (PBUH) family
• Claiming to be a prophet or a messenger.
• Speculating about how Holy Prophet (PBUH) would behave if he were alive (Nigeria).
• Drawing a picture to represent Holy Prophet (PBUH) or any other prophet, or making a film
which features a prophet (Egypt).
• Writing Holy Prophet (PBUH) name on the walls of a toilet (Pakistan).
• Naming a teddy bear Holy Prophet (PBUH) (Sudan).
• Sating facts such as: Holy Prophet (PBUH) parents were not Muslims (Pakistan).
• Invoking Almighty God while committing a forbidden act.
6. Blasphemy in Different Religions
• Every religion has many concepts about the blasphemy whether they are revealed or
man- made because they always teach their followers to respect the founders or
followers of the other religions because it is important to create peace and humbleness in
a today’s society.
• The Quran and the Hadith do not mention blasphemy. According to Pakistani religious
scholar, Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, nothing in Islam supports blasphemy law. Rather, Muslim
jurists made the offense part of Sharia; the penalties for blasphemy can include fines,
imprisonment, flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading. Muslim clerics may call for the
punishment of an alleged blasphemer by issuing a fatwa.
• In the third book of the Torah, Leviticus 24:16 states that he that blasphemes the name of the
LORD "shall surely be put to death". See also List of capital crimes in the Torah. The Seven
laws of Noah, which Judaism sees as applicable to all people, prohibit blasphemy.
• Blasphemy has been condemned as a serious, or even the most serious, sin by the major
creeds and Church theologians. The Heidelberg Catechism answers question 100 about
blasphemy by stating that “no sin is greater or provokes God's wrath more than the
blaspheming of His Name”.
7. How to record a protest in the case of blasphemy?
• Islam teaches us that if we are going for a strike or protest then we should record our
protest in a positive manner because Islam never allows us to destroy someone’s
property or create a situation that causes threat to someone’s life.
Right to Protection of Life
"And do not kill the soul Allah has forbidden, except for right". (Surah Bani lsra'il, 17:33)
• It is our responsibility that we should protest in a sense that it couldn’t hurt any single
person of a society. Due to our serious negligence following numbers of individuals are
killed in different brotherly Islamic states (33 (Afghanistan),23 (Pakistan),4 (Yemen),4
(Tunisia) ,4(Israeli border),3 (Sudan),3 (Lebanon),1 (Egypt)).
Right to Property
"The believers are such that if We give them authority in the land, they establish prayer and
give zakaah, and enjoin good and forbid evil." (Suratu-l Hajj, 22:41)
• We are well aware of the financial and economic damages occurred during the protest. So
we have to be careful about the others property while protesting.
Right of Protection against Persecution for Difference of Religion
• The right to be protected against persecution for differences in faith or opinion is a clear
corollary of the right of freedom of conviction. It has been expressly mentioned, because
many sins have been committed by over enthusiastic well-meaning fanatics.
8. Right to Freedom of Expression
• The believers are under an obligation to "speak out the truth without fear and without
desire to show favour".
Duty to the Obedience of what is Lawful and Disobedience of what is Unlawful
• The clear implication of the idea of the Rule of Shari'ah is that a person is liable to obey only what is
lawful and to dissociate from, disobey, and even to correct if he can, what is unlawful. Most of the
relevant verses in this context have already been noticed above. The most comprehensive statement is
contained in the following verse:
"And help one another in righteousness and piety and abet not one another in sin and
transgression." (Suratu-l Maa'idah, 5:2).
• By mentioning these basic fundamental rights and principles for a peaceful protest define in the Holy
Quran, it is our responsibility that we should try our best to save the basic rights of ours while
• Is this the way to protest?
• IT was the responsibility of the government to provide high security and a well-organized protest itself.
• Protests against the film and film-makers should have been made with unity. Peace should have been
ensured at all costs.
Rules defined in Pakistani Law, Shariah and International laws about blasphemy
The Blasphemy Law was enacted by the British to protect the religious sentiments of the Muslim minorities in
the Sub-Continent before partition against the Hindu majority & after the creation of Pakistan, these laws
were enacted ensured following the decision of the Lahore High Court in the notorious Rangila Rasool’s
• Pakistan has the anti-blasphemy laws which are quite complicated. Offenders may be vigorously prosecuted.
Chapter XV of Pakistan Penal Code deals with "offences relating to religion":
• §295. Injuring or defiling place of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class.
• §295-A. Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion
or religious beliefs.
• §295-B. Defiling, etc., of Holy Qur'an.
• §295-C. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of the Holy Prophet.
• §296. Disturbing religious assembly.
• §297. Trespassing on burial places, etc.
• §298. Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings.
• §298-A. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of holy personages.
• §298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places.
• §298-C. Person of Quadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith.
10. Shariah Law
• Shariah laws are actually the divine laws of Allah and these laws are mentioned in the Holy Quran.
Some examples are as under:
• When our esteemed Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) revealed the guidance of Allah in the front of His
family members; then His uncle Lahab used harsh words in honorable personality of our Holy Prophet
(P.B.U.H).At this, Allah became angry and sent a chapter Lahab for his blasphemous act and destroyed
• It is mentioned in the 33rd Chapter Ahzab of the Holy Quran that “Those who annoy Allah and His
Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a
humiliating Punishment (33:58).
• It is also mentioned in the 8th Chapter Al - Anfal of the Holy Quran that “That is because they opposed
Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger - indeed, Allah is severe in
penalty. "That [is yours], so taste it." And indeed for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire
• “Indeed it is your enemy who is bereft of all goodness.” – [Kausar 108:3]
• So it is proved that Allah has sent His men the orders that they should follow these rules and don’t try
to speak or act ill of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). It is also proved that the different schools of
thoughts of Islam whether they are Sunnis, Shias, Sufists & Kharijites they are all agree on that the
blasphemer must be punished for his this wrongful acts.
11. The International Laws & Implementation
• 48. Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, Including blasphemy
laws, are incompatible with the Covenant, except in the specific Circumstances envisaged in article
20, paragraph 2, of the Covenant. Such prohibitions must also comply with the strict requirements of
article 19, paragraph 3, as well as such articles as 2, 5, 17, 18 and 26. Thus, for instance, it would be
impermissible for any such laws to discriminate in favor of or against one or certain religions or belief
systems, or their adherents over another or religious believers over non-believers. Nor would it be
permissible for such prohibitions to be used to prevent or punish criticism of religious leaders or
commentary on religious doctrine and tenets of faith.
• UN has no proper authority over the implementations of these laws and if the U.N. resolution became
international law, the First Amendment would still protect opponents here, but think of the serious
impact on "defamers" around the world.
12. Applications (Implementation) of Laws on the Issue
• 295-B Defiling, etc, of copy of the Holy Quran. Whoever will fully defiles, damages or desecrates a copy of the Holy Quran or of an extract therefrom or uses it in
any derogatory manner or for any unlawful purpose shall be punishable for imprisonment for life.
• 295-C Use of derogatory remarks, etc; in respect of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Whoever by words, either spoken or written or by visible representation, or by
any imputation, innuendo, or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) shall be punished with
death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
• 298-A Use of derogatory remarks, etc..., in respect of holy personages. Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, or by any
imputation, innuendo or insinuation, directly or indirectly defiles a sacred name of any wife (Ummul Mumineen), or members of the family (Ahle-Bait), of the
Holy Prophet (PBUH), or any of the righteous caliphs (Khulafa-i-Rashideen) or companions (Sahaba) of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) description for a term which
may extend to three years, or with fine, or with bot
• 298-B Misuse of epithet, descriptions and titles, etc. Reserved for certain holy personages or places.
1. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written or by
a. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as "Ameerul Momneen", "Khalifat-ul-Momneen", "Khalifat-
ul-Muslimeen", "Sahabi" or "Razi Allah Anho";
b. refers to or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), as Ummul Mumineen;
c. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle-Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or
d. refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family (Ahle-Bait) of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), as Ahle-Bait; or
e. refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship as Masjid; shall be punished with imprisonment or either description for a term which may extend to three
years, and shall also be liable to fine.
2. Any person of the Qadiani group or Lahori group, (who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other names), who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible
representations, refers to the mode or of call to prayers followed by his faith as "Azan" or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
• 298-C Persons of Qadiani group, etc, calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith. Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who
call themselves Ahmadis or any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or
propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation or in any manner whatsoever outrages
the religious feelings of Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable
• There is a Death Penalty for blasphemy in Pakistan. Those prosecuted are usually minorities such as Ahmadiyya and Christians but it seems that they are also
increasingly Muslims. Persons accused of blasphemy as well as police, lawyers, and judges have been subject to harassment, threats, attacks, and murders
when blasphemy is the issue.
• Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia took out peaceful protest rallies but we resorted to violence.
• Protest should reflect reason.
• Holiday a mistake.
• Suspending cell phone services.
• A Negative Message to the World.
• Prophet’s Seerat
• No Revenge.
• The Holy Quran.
• Al Saram Al Maslool.
• Dawn – The Newspaper.
• Express Tribune – The Newspaper.
• Tafseer-e-Rohu ul emani.
• Muhammad (P.B.U.H) – Prophet & Man by M.A Salahi.
• Cambridge Online Dictionary.
• Think free Visual Thesaurus.
14. The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)
When truth was lost and hearts frozen
from You, Allah came a Prophet, chosen.
Blessed Prophet Muhammad, obedient to You
taught us the things we ought to do.
He taught us for certain that You are One
and that You have neither a daughter nor son.
He taught us to be good to our mother and father
and that Paradise lies under the feet of our mother.
I love you my Prophet and sing your praise
and follow your Sunnah, Prophetic Ways.
One day I will come to visit your tomb
Insh'Allah, that day will be very soon.