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Hazid & hazops

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Hazid & hazops

  1. 1.  Hazard Identification merupakan suatu study yang bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi potential hazards dengan sumber dari external facilities yang mempengaruhi fasilitas atau hazard dengan sumber dari internal fasilitas yang berpengaruh ke environmental, community atau surrounding area.  Review difokuskan pada PFD, P&ID dan Plot Plan dari fasilitas. 2IJK & team
  2. 2.  Sejumlah metode untuk melaksanakan identifikasi hazard telah dikembangkan.  Overview terhadap hazard identification telah diberikan dalam: ◦ Chemical Industries Association (CIA) Guide to Hazard and Operability Studies (CIHSC, 1977/3) (the CIA Hazop Study Guide) ◦ Guidelines for Hazard Evaluatuion Procedures (CCPS, 1985/1, 1992/9) (the CCPS Hazard Evaluation Guidelines) ◦ A Manual of Hazard and Operability Studies (Knowlton, 1992) (the Chemetics Hazard Study Manual).  Hazard Identification sering disebut juga dengan Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 3IJK & team
  3. 3.  What if? Analysis  Checklist  What-If/Checklist  Event tree and fault tree analysis  Preliminary hazard analysis  Coarse hazard studies  Hazard and operability studies  Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis  dll 4IJK & team
  4. 4. 5IJK & team
  5. 5.  HAZOPS stands for HAZard and Operability Study.  HAZOPS merupakan suatu metode untuk mengidentifikasi bahaya dan operability masalah dalam proses desain.  Ini adalah teknik sistematis yang diaplikasikan secara bertahap ke bagian kecil dari proses desain sampai semua bagian desain. 6IJK & team
  6. 6. A Process System Hazard Analysis technique that common to be used to identify potential of an operational deviation that may occur, its cause, its consequences, identify the existing safeguards, then produce a recommendation for action item to be accomplished when existing safeguard found to be insufficient. 7IJK & team
  7. 7. 1. Exploratory Phase identification of basic hazard and assessment of suitability of possible sites. 2. Flowsheet Phase identification and assessment of significant hazard. 3. Detailed Design – HAZOP 4. Construction a check that decisions made in earlier studies have been implemented 5. Commissioning final inspection 6. Post-commissioning safety audit and review of modifications 8IJK & team
  8. 8. Project Phase Safety Activities Design Construction and Instalation Commissioning & Start Up Operation PHA / HAZID / HAZOPS • Contractor Assessment • Safety Audit & Inspection • Punch List Review •Pre-Start Up Review •Training •Handover Procedure • Management of Change • Incident Investigation • Safety Audit and Inspection 9IJK & team
  9. 9. 10IJK & team
  10. 10.  Tahap Design ◦ Preliminary HAZOPS ◦ Full HAZOPS  Tahap Modifikasi ◦ Mini HAZOPS 11IJK & team
  11. 11. External and Environmental Hazards Hazard Type Guideword Expanders Natural Hazards Extreme Weather Temperature extremes; wave; wind; dust; flooding; sandstorm; ice; blizzards Lightning Seismic Activity Erosion Ground slide; coastal Subsidence Ground structure; foundation; reservoir depletion Environmental Impact Discharges to Air Flaring; venting; fugitive emissions; energy efficiency Discharges to Water Drainage; water quality; waste disposal options Discharges to Soil Drainage; chemical spillage; waste disposal options Location and Layout Previous land use; vulnerable fauna and flora; visual impact; local population; area minimization External & 3rd Party Hazards Sabotage Internal & external security threats Terrorist Activity Riots; civil disturbance; strikes; military action; political unrest Third Party Activities Farming; fishing; local industry Helicopter/Aircraft Crash 12IJK & team
  12. 12. Facility Hazards Hazard Type Guideword Expanders Process Hazards Process Releases - Unignited Gas clouds; gas detection; emergency response Process releases - Ignited Fire; explosion; heat; smoke; fire detection; emergency response Process releases - toxic H2S detection; emergency response Flaring Heat; ignition source; location Venting Discharge to atmosphere; location; dispersion Draining Sampling Operator error Accommodation and Non-Process Area Hazards Non Process Fires Control room; accommodation building Smoke/Gas Ingress Ingress to safe areas; HVAC shutdown Stacking and Storage 13IJK & team
  13. 13. Health Hazards Hazard Type Guideword Expanders Health Hazards Disease Hazards Endemic diseases; infection; contaminated water; social e.g. HIV Working Environment Physical Drinking water; lighting; noise Temperature Extreme hot/cold; ventilation, guarding Atmospheres Exhaust fumes; confined spaces 14IJK & team
  14. 14. What if Consequence / hazard Recommendations Coolant pump to reaktor fails Runaway condition in reactor explosion/fatality •Provide accurate temperature monitoring in reactor •Employ backup pump/high temperature alarm •Relieve reactor pressure in reactor through automatic control to stop reactions •Provide automatic shut off of ethylene flow Coolant temperature to jacket is high 15IJK & team
  15. 15.  Preliminary Hazard Analysis merupakan metode identifikasi bahaya pada tahap awal dari desain proses.  Guidelines: 1) Bahan baku, produk antara dan produk akhir. 2) Plant equipment 3) Fasilitas 4) Safety equipment 5) Interfaces between system components 6) Lingkungan 7) Operasi (maintenance, testing, dll) 16IJK & team
  16. 16. Hazard Cause Major Effects Corrective/Preventive Measures Flamable gas release CH4 storage tank (line) leak/rupture (fuel for the furnace) Potential for injuries and fatalities due to fire or explosion • Provide warning system • Minimize on-site storage • Develop procedure for tank inspection • Develop emergency response system • Provide gas monitoring system … 17IJK & team
  17. 17.  Coarse Hazard Studies disusun dengan kompilasi dari 2 daftar berikut: 1) Daftar hazard dan nuisance (sesuatu yang mengganggu) dari sifat material 2) Potensi hazard dan nuisance dari materi lain yang berhubungan.  Guide words  Fire  Explosion  Toxicity  Corrosion  Smell  Effluent 18IJK & team
  18. 18. HAZOPS (Hazard & Operability Study) A systematic review of the design & operation of a system to identify the potential for accidental releases of hazardous material, or operability problems.(Potential accident scenarios) Based on the premise that :  A hazard is not realized if the process is always operated within its design intent  Creative input of a team is better than of an individual  Item can be applied, independent of process technologies 19IJK & team
  19. 19.  Drawing board  Construction  Only during process modifications  Whenever accident occurs 20IJK & team
  20. 20. • Intentions: How the Process/Facility operations are expected to occur • Deviation: Departures from the design intention • Causes: Ways deviations might occur • Consequences: Results of the deviations • Safeguards: Provision for reducing the frequency of causes or the severity of consequences. • Action: Suggestions for procedural changes, design changes or further study (do not debate the relative merit of suggested actions, but record them all) 21IJK & team
  21. 21. Node • A node is a location on a process diagram (usually P&ID’s) at which process parameters are investigated for deviations. • Nodes are points where the process parameters have an identified design intent. • Nodes are usually pipe sections or vessels. • Plant components (e.g..., pumps, compressors, exchangers) are found within nodes 22IJK & team
  22. 22. P& ID C lassification N o.O f E quipem nets N o.O f Pipe lines N o.of Interlocks Sim ple 1 to 4 1 to 9 <2 Standard 5 to 6 10 to 20 2 to 4 C om plex >6 >30 >10 V ery C om plex >6 >30 >10 23IJK & team
  23. 23. Parameter A parameter is an aspect of the process that describes it physically, chemically, or in terms of what is happening. Parameters are usually classified as specific or general. • Specific parameters are those that describe aspects of the process. • General parameters are those that describe aspects of design intent remaining after the specific parameters have been removed 24IJK & team
  24. 24. Common Parameters Specific General Flow Addition, Reaction Temperature Maintenance, Testing Pressure Instrumentation Composition Sampling, Relief Phase Corrosion / Erosion Level Safety 25IJK & team
  25. 25. Guide Words Guide words are simple words or phases used to qualify or quantify the intention and associated parameters in order to discover deviations. There are seven standard guide words. 26IJK & team
  26. 26. • Process Hazard • Previous Accident/Incident Record • Engineering System for Risk Mitigation. • Administrative Control • Potential of discrepancy / failure of Engineering System and Administrative Control • Facility and Equipment Site and Ergonomic. • Potential for Human Error 27IJK & team
  27. 27. • Drawing: P&ID, Engineering Drawing, Electrical Diagram, etc. • Process Safety Information (Material Safety Data Sheet) • Design Specification. • Operating Procedure, Operating Condition • Site Situation and Condition of Facility • Accident/Incident Record • People record who doing the job • HAZOPS Guideword 28IJK & team
  28. 28. Nothing but RECOMMENDATION • Safety • Operability • Action • Comment 29IJK & team
  29. 29. 1. Material Hazard: Toxicity, Exposure Limit (TLV-TWA, TLV-STEL, TLV C) 2. Process Technology 3. Equipment Design 4. Accident Report 5. Previous Hazop Report 30IJK & team
  30. 30. Flow Pressure Level Temperature Phase Time No More Less Reverse Other than 31IJK & team
  31. 31. Relief Contamination Properties of Chemicals Rupture/Leak Ignition Service Failure Abnormal Operation Sampling Maintenance Corrosion/Erosion Equipment Siting Human Factors 32IJK & team
  32. 32. In addition to the seven standard guide words, the following auxiliary guide words may be considered : - How ? How is the step to be accomplished ? Are adequate facilities provided to allow the operator to perform the step as specified ? - Why ? Is the step or operation really needed ? - When ? Is timing of the step or operation important ? - Where ? Is it important where the step is performed ? And so on 33IJK & team
  33. 33. HAZOP - Hazard Vs Operability Relative Percentage : Operability to Hazard Status Operability Hazards of Plant Problem Identified Identified (%) (%) New 60 40 Existing 70 30 34IJK & team
  34. 34. An interdisciplinary team of experts systematically examines every part of the process or facility to discover how deviations from the design intentions can occurs 35IJK & team
  35. 35. Team Composition Team Leader Team Members Engineers Scientists Operators Project Engineering Process Control Corrosion 36IJK & team
  36. 36.  Step-1 : Selection of a Study Node to be Review  Step-2 : Selection of a Process Deviation or a Review Check Item  Step-3 : Identification and Analysis of Consequence and Causes  Step-4 : Evaluation of Existing Safeguards  Step-5 : Investigation of Recommendation  Step-6 : Recording of the Review Results  Step-7 : Repeat of the Review 37IJK & team
  37. 37. 38IJK & team