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  1. 1. HOW DOES STRESS AFFECT HEALTH? By GROUP 16 Sara Baker Vivianne Coutu Jullian De Leon Andrea Desormeaux Jessica D. Mitchell Julia Lauren Taylor Brittany Walker
  2. 2. STRESS : Definitions  A normal physical response to events that make you feel threatened or upset your balance in some way (Smith, 2009).  The body’s way of protecting you (Smith, 2009).  A physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation.(Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2009).  A state resulting from a stress; especially: one of bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2009).
  3. 3. STATISTICS •Stress considered a precursor of health problems, becoming increasingly common of modern life ( Statistics Canada 1994 – 2001) •Adults who suffered high stress in 1994/95 had higher odds of developing a number of chronic conditions by 2000/01. Of the various sources of stress ( 34 were considered in the analysis), chronic strains, continuing problems with crowded schedules, finances and relationships – appeared to be the most potent (Statistics Canada 1994 – 2001). Each additional stressor reported in 1994/95 led to 6% increase in the odds of reporting a chronic condition six years later for men, and an 8% increase for women (Statistics Canada 1994 – 2001).
  4. 4. WHAT ARE THE FEELINGS OF STRESS?  A heavy load on ones May lead to - back  Fear  Concern  Helplessness  Feeling of Uneasiness,  Lonely Worry  Aggravation/Annoyance  Anger  Exasperation  Overwhelmed
  5. 5. STRESS HORMONES Stage 1 - Mobilizing Energy Release of adrenaline, increased heart rate, and you start to breathe more quickly. Stage 2 - Consuming Energy Stores If the stress persists, your body begins to release stored substances. You may experience anxiety, memory loss, decreased immune system function. Stage 3 - Draining Energy Stores If stress persists further, the body's need for energy will become greater than its ability to produce it. You may experience insomnia, errors in judgement, and personality changes.
  6. 6. The Stress Trigger Every disturbance of the body, either real or imagined, evokes a stress response. 1. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. 3. Glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex. 5. Two types of corticosteroid receptors:  Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) integrates hormonal signalling and activates the expression of aldosterone target genes, which control various physiological processes.  Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind to. GR is expressed in almost every cell in the body and regulates genes controlling the development, metabolism, and immune response. (Marianne, 2006)
  7. 7. (Stress and your body, 2007)
  8. 8. (S – cool, 2000)
  9. 9. STRESS Can be internal or external
  10. 10. STRESS FACTORS External : challenges of physical daily routines and environment  Major life changes  Work  Relationship and family  Finance  Too busy (Smith, 2009)
  11. 11. STRESS FACTORS Internal : response to external factors – how you handle stress and maintain well-being  Unrealistic expectations/ perfectionism  Lack of confidence/assertiveness  Pessimism
  12. 12. SHORT TERM STRESS -Adrenaline release is a response to short term stress -This happens when your body is responding to what is perceived to be a physical threat. -When the body encounters a threat it it gets geared up for a "fight of flight"
  13. 13. SHORT TERM STRESS Physical Symptoms related to short term stress:  Breathing rapidly / Increase Heart Rate  Cold hands and feet / Excessive sweating  Diarrhea  Dry mouth  Nausea / Gastrointestinal Irritability  Tension / Headaches (stressfocus.com, 2009)
  14. 14. LONG TERM STRESS -Prolonged exposure to Adrenaline -Negative health outcomes -Severe stress can lead to many illnesses and health problems.
  15. 15. PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS RELATED TO LONG TERM STRESS  Body aches and pains  Chest pain and irregular heartbeat  Immune system suppression  Hair loss  High blood pressure  Increase or decrease in weight  Insomnia  Migraines  Sexual disorder (Rao, 2006)
  16. 16. PHYSICAL STRESS  Physical – occurs when body suffers as a result of a stressful situation.  Symptoms vary in seriousness (Constandse, 2006).  Physical stressors are harmful because they force body systems to continuously compensate for conditions that are outside the normal range (Stress Hazards, n.d.).
  17. 17. EMOTIONAL STRESS  Emotional – stress affecting the mind -anxiety -anger -depression -irritability -frustration -over-reaction to everyday problems -memory loss & a lack of concentration for any task
  18. 18. PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS  Psychological – long-term stress can cause psychological problems  Symptoms: withdrawal from society, phobias, compulsive behaviours, eating disorders, and night terrors (Constandse, 2006).  May be evolved from a real past event causing an emotional disturbance (Whittle, 2009).
  19. 19. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Cognitive Symptoms  Memory loss  Inability to concentrate  Poor judgment  Negativity  Anxious or racing thoughts  Constant worrying (Smith, 2009)
  20. 20. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Emotional Symptoms  Moodiness  Irritability or short temper  Agitation, inability to relax  Feeling overwhelmed  Sense of loneliness and isolation  Depression or general unhappiness (Smith, 2009)
  21. 21. WHAT IS PTSD? “Post Traumatic Stress Disorder” PTSD: an anxiety disorder or condition that can occur after you have been through a traumatic event (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009).  “The symptoms may disrupt your life, making it nard to continue with your daily activities” (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009).
  22. 22. Causes Of PTSD  Caused by a traumatizing event  Triggers: “stressors” that can come from anywhere that usually remind the person of the event or of the aftermath causing them to experience symptoms of PTSD (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009) .  Developing PTSD is dependant on: intensity of the trauma or its duration, deaths resulting as a result of the trauma, proximity to the event, immediate reaction to the event, level of perceived control of the event, level of support post-event (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009).
  23. 23. Symptoms of PTSD SYMPTOMS :“usually begin within three months of the event. However, sometimes they surface many years later.” (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009) 4 widely accepted types of symptoms associated with PTSD:  reliving the event  avoidance  numbing  over-alertness. (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009).
  24. 24. RELATED ILLNESSES TO PTSD/TREATMENT RELATED ILLNESSES  Alcohol or drug dependance  Depression  Dizziness  Chest pain  Gastrointestinal issues  Immune system issues TREATMENT  Medication  Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or group therapy
  25. 25. HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO STRESS? Driving Analogy  Foot on the gas  Foot on the brake.  Foot on both (Smith, 2009)
  26. 26. ANXIETY Chronic stress Symptoms  Worrying  Muscle tension & headache  Irritability / trouble focusing  Sweating / trembling  Frequent bathroom use  Trouble sleeping
  27. 27. ANXIETY Causes  Genetics  Brain chemistry  Trauma Treatment  Psychiatrist / psychologist – meds + cognitive therapy  Meds - Benzodiazepines “tranquilizers” ex: Xanax, Librium, Valium, Activan - Buspar mimics serotonin (no sleepiness or dependency like Benzodiazepines) - Antidepressants
  28. 28. Determinants That Affect Stress:  Social  Behavioral  Environmental  Gender  Political
  29. 29. HOW TO DEAL WITH STRESS 3 Broad Methods  Self help for treating stress  Stress management techniques  Medicines (Nordqvist, 2009)
  30. 30. SELF HELP FOR TREATING STRESS  Exercise  Alcohol and drugs  Nutrition  Breathing  Talk  Seek professional help  Relaxation techniques
  31. 31. (Mental Health America,
  32. 32. References Canadian Mental Health Association. (2009). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved September, 27, 2009, from http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3-94-97&lang=1   Constandse, R. (2006). Definition of Stress. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http:// www.timethoughts.com/stress/definition-of-stress.htm   Department of Veterans Affairs. (2009). National Center for PTSD. Retrieved September, 27, 2009, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/what-is-ptsd.asp   Marianne B., & Holsboer, F. (2006). Hormones, Stress and Depression. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/v2824520ku625370/   Mental Health America. (2009). Factsheet: Stress: Know the Signs. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/mental-health-month/stress-know-the-signs   Nordqvist, C. (2009). What Is Stress? How To Deal With Stress. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145855.php   Panzarino, P. (2009). Stress. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http://www.medicinenet.com/stress/ article.htm Rao, V. (2006). Short Term and Long Term Physical Symptoms of Severe Stress. Retrieved September, 27, 2009, from http://www.relishinglife.com/73/short-termand-long-term-physical-symptoms- of-severe- stress/
  33. 33.   S – cool. (2000). Psychology A-level: Stress. What is 'stress'? Retrieved October 4, 2009, from http:// www.s-cool.co.uk/alevel/psychology/stress/what-is-stress.html   Smith, M., Jaffe–Gill E., Segal J. (2009). Understanding Stress. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/stress_signs.htm   stress. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stress   Stress and your body. (2007). The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http:// www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2007/01/22/GR2007012200620.html   stressfocus.com. (2009). Beware! Stress Could Cause Serious Long-Term Effects. Retrieved September, 27, 2009, from http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-effects-on-body.htm   Stress Hazards. (n.d.). Section: Health. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http:// www.worksafesask.ca/files/ont_wsib/certmanual/ch_12.html   Whittle, A. (2009). What Is Psychological Stress?. Retrieved September 22, 2009, from http:// ezinearticles.com/?What-Is-Psychological-Stress?&id=512856    

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