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Exploring platform boundary resources with a data-driven approach

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Presentation at department weekly research seminar during research visit at Freie Universität Berlin in November 2017

Full title: Exploring platform boundary resources with a data-driven approach: first insights on digital ecosystem for work

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Exploring platform boundary resources with a data-driven approach

  1. 1. Exploring platform boundary resources with a data-driven approach: first insights on digital ecosystem for work Jukka Huhtamäki @jnkka November 21, 2017 Research seminar Freie Universität Berlin
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. Boundary resources “the software tools and regulations that serve as the interface for the arm’s length relationship between the platform owner and the application developer” (Ghazawneh & Henfridsson, 2013) 21.11.2017 3
  4. 4. Suggestions: what was the first ICT-related Boundary Resource ever?
  5. 5. 21.11.2017 5 https://www.idtech.com/blog/ancient-or-at-least-older-than-me-technology-the-memex/ Vannevar Bush (1945): As We May Think
  6. 6. My worldview on APIs and digital work • Memex (Bush, 1945) • The Mother of all Demos (Engelbart, 1968) • Xanadu (Nelson, 1960) • REST & HATEOS (Fielding, 2000) • AJAX (Garrett, 2005) • Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2005) 21.11.2017 6
  7. 7. Concepts
  8. 8. APIs as boundary resources • Weiss & Gangadharan (2010) • Evans & Basole (2016) • Basole (2016) • Huhtamäki et al. (2017) • Basole (2018) 21.11.2017 8
  9. 9. Why APIs? • APIs are replacing “traditional” interfirm relationships • APIs are lightweight boundary resources that allow for complementors to create value for the focal companies • APIs are artifacts of both lightweight software development and business strategy21.11.2017 9
  10. 10. API vs. platform economy 21.11.2017 10
  11. 11. Image: http://440marketinggroup.com/
  12. 12. 21.11.2017 13 (Evans and Basole, 2016; Basole, 2016)
  13. 13. 21.11.2017 14 (Evans and Basole, 2016; Basole, 2016)
  14. 14. Why boundary resources? de Reuver, Sørensen, and Basole (2015) “The units of analysis chosen must allow for the theoretical treatment of the fundamental characteristics of digital platform characteristics and innovation arrangements. […] The boundary resource concept could be such unit of analysis.” 21.11.2017 15
  15. 15. Digital work Stein, Jensen, and Hekkala (2015): “To make sense of this distributed nature of work, we build on the concept of liminality, which refers to an ‘in-betweenness’, where times and tasks of work and leisure, spaces and technologies of the office and home tend to blend.” 21.11.2017Freie Universität Berlin 2017 16
  16. 16. Digital entrepreneurship Kelestyn and Henfridsson (2014): “seizing digitally enabled innovation opportunities discovered in their everyday life to build new business ventures.” “future shaping practices […] by digitally empowered user(s) with an entrepreneurial vision to address the current needs in imaginative and innovative ways.” 21.11.2017 17
  17. 17. 21.11.2017 18 https://twitter.com/jnkka/status/932639674128130049
  18. 18. We ask • How to study the boundary resources for digital work with a data-driven approach? • Does a specific boundary resources sector exist for digital work or is digital work ubiqituos – a layer on top of sectors? • How are APIs transforming (digital) work and organizations? 21.11.2017 19
  19. 19. 21.11.2017 20
  20. 20. Method • Empirical context: ProgrammableWeb • Data collection using crawling and scraping • Data-driven visual network analytics • Sensemaking, critical realist data analysis • Semi-automated data curation process 21.11.2017 21
  21. 21. Method: Ostinato Model 21.11.2017 22(Huhtamäki, Russell, Rubens & Still, 2015)
  22. 22. Network modeling 1. How are the API-categories co-used? 2. How are APIs co-used?
  23. 23. API category co-use 21.11.2017 25 Tools Collaboration Social Search Filesharing
  24. 24. 21.11.2017 26
  25. 25. 21.11.2017 27Filtering and visualization: Hannes Rothe
  26. 26. API co-use • Cf. co-citation analysis Three resulting connections (here regions): Twitter - Twitter Search Twitter - Google App Engine Twitter Search - Google App Engine
  27. 27. 21.11.201729http://bit.ly/apicousefubdemo2017
  28. 28. Conclusions
  29. 29. Takeaways • Digital work is not a clear segment in the API ecosystem; we suggest that is is a (meso- level) layer instead • API co-use is not API usage • Public APIs vs. Private APIs • API ecosystem is particularly flexible for actors to offer, consume, and create services
  30. 30. Future work • Developing (ML-based) means to classify digital work- related APIs • Generative/transformative mechanism of digital work (traditional work in the digital vs. born-digital work) • Introducing dynamics to the analysis: API diffusion studies • How will the changes in legislation impact the digital work ecosystem (GDPR) 21.11.2017 32

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