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Lecture 01 introduction to manufacturing

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Lecture 01 introduction to manufacturing

  1. 1. LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING MOHD NIZAM Sudin Lecturer Department of design & innovation Faculty ofmechanical engineering Universiti teknikal malaysia melaka @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 1 What is “MANUFACTURING”? “the process of converting raw materials into products”. The word “manufacturing” is derived from the Latin manu factus, meaning made by hand. “the conversion of stuff into things” – (by DeGarmon, 1998). “processing or making a product from raw materials, especially as a large scale Operation using machinery” – (by Collin English Dictionary, 1998). “economic term for making goods and services available to satisfy customer” - (by T.Black, 1991). @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 2 In modern context, manufacturing can be defined as: - “the making of products from raw materials using various processes, equipments, operations and manpower according to a detailed plan”. - During processing, the raw material undergoes changes to allow it to become a part of a product(s). - Once processed, it should have worth in the market or a value. - Therefore, it encompasses: - The design of the product. - The selection of raw materials. - The sequence of processes through which the product will be manufactured. - Word production is often interchangeably with word manufacturing. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 3 Manufacturing can be defined two ways: 1) Technology – manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or products. Manufacturing also includes the assembly of multiple parts to make products. The processes to accomplish manufacturing involve a combination of machinery, tools, power, and manual labor. 2) Economic – manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means one or more processing involve. Therefore, manufacturing is “added value” to the material. - “Added value” – by changing the material’s shape or properties or by combining it with other materials that have been similarly altered. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 4 Two ways models to define manufacturing: 1) As a technical process Machinery Tooling Power Labor Product Raw materials Manufacturing Process Profit @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 5 2) As an economic process. Manufacturing Process Value added Starting Material in Processed material processing material @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 6 @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 7 Manufacturing activities must be responsive to several demands and trends: @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 8 Industries can be classified as: @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 9 Types of industries 1) Primary industry - Those that cultivate and exploit natural resources; eg: agriculture, mining. 2) Secondary industry - Take the outputs of the primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods. 3) Tertiary industry - Constitute with service sector of the economy. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 10 @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 11 1) Project – 1 to 10 units. [Low production] 2) Job shop – 10 to 100 units. 3) Batch – 100 to 10,000 units. [Medium production] 4) Mass – Above 10,000 units. [High production] Production quantity: number of unit produced annually of a particular product type. Product variety: different product designs or types that are produced in the plant. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 12 Low Medium High Product quantity @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 13 Above 10,000 units Mass 100 to 10,000 units 10 to 100 units Job shop 1 to 10 units Project Project Product variety @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 14 TYPE OF MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS - Product position – remains stationary during the manufacturing process – size, weight, location of the product. - Materials, people, machinery are brought to the product or product site. - Based on customer specifications. - Example: bridge, building construction, aircraft, ships, locomotive. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 15 - Low volume and production quantities called lot sizes with high product variety. - Satisfies a market for nonstandard or unique product. - Layout – different machines with similar functional or processing capabilities are grouped together as department. - Require high skill levels labor – to operate a variety of equipments. - A short duration activities to provide custom goods. - Example: space vehicles, reactor vessels, turbines, aircraft components. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 16 - Batch production produce or process any product in groups which is called “batches”. - Can produce a variety of products – opposed to a continuous production process, or a one time production. - Useful for industries that makes seasonal items/products for which it is difficult to forecast the demand. - Example: Similar standard items made periodically in batches: bakery, paint, hand tools. - Same facilities used to manufacture all the different items. - Layout of machine – functional layout (based on its function to be performed – from section to another section). @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 17 Advantages - Reduce initial capital outlay – due to a single production line can be used to several products – machines can be used more effectively, materials can be bought in bulk, workers can specialize in that task. Disadvantages - Requires very careful production planning & control – next batches; when, types. - When switching to another batches – takes time (“down time”) – can cause loss of output (low yield). - Resulted “WIP” or create inventory/stock – increases costs such as inventory cost, cost because of damage to stock. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 18 The example production line (shown below) is that of an engineering company, manufacturing small steel products such as hinges and locks. They manufacture batches of five hundred at a time. The workers are unskilled and semi skilled. As each task is completed the item being manufactured is passed down the production line to the next worker, until it is complete. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 19 - Also known as flow production, repetitive flow production, series production. - Producing goods in large quantities at low cost per unit and produce in a short period of time. - Machinery (eg: robots, machine press) that is needed to set up the mass production line is so expensive. - Involved fewer labor cost and a faster rate of production. - Plant and equipments are arranged in a flow line layout. - Operation is done base on specific product and thus make the production control easily. - Work piece is transfer automatically from one machine to another. - Example: light bulbs, refrigerator, tv. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 20 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing - A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste in manufacturing process through continuous improvement by following the product at the demand of the customer. - Related to a word “less”: less time, inventory space, people, developing the product, – minimize the cost. - It is all about “speed” and getting it right at the first time. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 21 Benefits of Lean Manufacturing - Overhead operating costs reduces by 30%. - Sales ($) per employee 10 times higher. - Profits 4 times. - Lead time cut by 50% to 90%. - Process queues cut by 70%. Principle of Lean Manufacturing - Voice of the customer. - Continuous improvement. - Recognize & eliminating waste of: - Over production. - Inventory. - Defects (Non-zero defect rates). @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 22 Principle of Lean Manufacturing (cont’) - Waiting time. - People’s talents, & motivations. - Motion. - Transportation. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  24. 24. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 23 - The implementation of the principles of lean production on a broad scale. - Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to response quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 24 Concurrent engineering (CE) is a philosophy that promotes interactive design and manufacturing efforts to develop product and process simultaneously, thus optimizing the use of company resources and reducing time to market cycles. It has four general phases which are:  Technology and concept development.  Product and process development and prototype validation  Process validation and product confirmation.  Production and continuous improvement.
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 25 - Also known as “families of parts”. - Parts can be grouped and then produced by classifying them into families. - This can be done according to similarities in: i) design. ii) manufacturing process to produce the part. - Parts will pass through a similar sequence of manufacturing operations and will be processed on the same machine tools. - Example of GT: Cylindrical parts – they may look almost the same, but it has difference in the materials, tolerances, and surface finishes and thus causing them to be made on different machine tools. - The set-up of an automated machine only requires small changes between the individual batches and some of the individual set-up times will be drastically reduced. - Having different machine in one section, so that each parts is completed in that particular section. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 26 - Raw materials, parts & components are delivered to the manufacturer just in time to be used, parts & components are produced JIT to be made into subassemblies & assemblies, and products are finished JIT to be delivered to the customer. - JIT is also known as “pull system”. - It tends to simplify and break the whole system into small, autonomous units. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 27 Benefit s/Advantages of JIT - Low inventory – carrying cost. - Fast detection of defects in the production or the delivery of supplies and, hence, low scrap loss. - Reduced inspection and reworking of parts. - High quality products made at low cost. - Reduction of :  20% to 40% in product cost.  60% to 80% in inventory.  Up to 90% in rejection rates.  90% in lead times.  50% in scrap & rework. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  29. 29. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 28 Benefit s/Advantages of JIT (cont’) Increases: - 30% to 50% in labor productivity. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  30. 30. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 29 KANBAN SYSTEM - Integrated with the implementation of JIT concept. - Kanban – means “visible record”. - Originally consisted of two types of cards: i) Production card: authorizes the production of one container or cart of identical, specified parts at a workstation. ii) Conveyance/move card: authorizes the transfer of one container or cart of parts from that particular w/station to the w/station where the parts will be used. The cards contain information on: i) Type of parts. ii) Location where issued. iii) Part number. iv) Number of items in container.
  31. 31. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 30 @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  32. 32. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 31 1) FIXED POSITION LAYOUT - Involved with huge parts; eg: construction of aeroplane, bridge, buildings. - All resources such as manpower, raw materials, tools, machinery and etc will be brought to the product. - Involve with longer lead time. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  33. 33. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 33 2) FUNCTIONAL (PROCESS) LAYOUT - Plant grouped according to type of process. - Specialization of skills. - Higher machine utilization. - Queues of work. - Longer lead times. - Flexibility of operation. - Low volume and high variety of manufacturing. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  35. 35. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 35 - Plant arrangement to facilitate material processing in the same order. - Machines and equipment are positioned along a flow line. - Product passes from workstation to another workstation along the flow line. - Suitable for mass production system. - Several flow lines may come together to feed the final assembly line. - Need to categorize operations to ensure equal processing time at all work stations (line balancing). - High level of machine and manpower utilization. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  36. 36. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 36 Product A L L M D Product B LL M M D D Product C LL G G G Product D M W G D D FLOW LINE (PRODUCT) LAYOUT @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  37. 37. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 37 Advantages - Reduced work handling leads to short cycle time/piece. - Less WIP. - Simple planning and control. - Reduced labor skill. - Good space utilization. Disadvantages - Limited flexibility. - Machine breakdown causes major problem. - High setting up cost. - Uses expensive special purpose machine. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1
  38. 38. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 38 - Plant divided into groups or cells in a small unit (individual cell), consisting of one to several workstations. - A w/station can contains either one machine (known as a single machine cell), or several machines (known as a group machine cell) with each machine performing a different operation on the part. - Cells can process a complete family of parts – need to form families of products. - The flow among the equipment in the cells can vary depending on the composition of parts within the part family. - Good example for the implementation of the concept of group technology. - The machines at w/stations can be modified, retooled, and regroup for different product lines within the same family of parts. @jurie 2007 – Lecture 1