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Module VI Rural Sanitation

DABTU Wastewater Treatment T E (CIVIL)

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Module VI Rural Sanitation

  1. 1. Online Lecture- 21 Rural Sanitation Module VI WasteWater Treatments
  2. 2. Contents • Rural areas, Population habits and environmental conditions, problems of water supply and sanitation aspects, low cost excreta disposal systems, Rural sanitation improvement schemes
  3. 3. Introduction • We live in a time of rapid change and progress in science and technology with changes in housing structures, lifestyle, food habits, clothing, education, but one of the major challenges that still remains is tackling the problem of open defecation. • Open defecation has been practiced since the beginning of time by all creatures. Individuals use agricultural fields, wastelands, banks of lakes/rivers, forestlands and open waste places to defecate. • Defecation sites are usually far from human settlements. Over the years due the influence of factors like modernisation, changed cultural behaviour, changes in social life and education, have developed technologies for sanitation ranging from using dry toilets to flush toilets and ecological sanitation.
  4. 4. • Dry Latrines :- Dry toilets are different from water sealed toilets. In this type of a toilet, a seat with a hole is directly connected to a pit. In some communities buckets were used for collecting faeces and were cleaned by persons belonging to lower castes. • Flush toilets/ Water sealed latrines:- Legislations such as prohibition on manual scavenging and construction of dry latrine gave space for the use of a new technology called flush toilet or water sealed latrines; where-in a connection from the water sealed toilet pan to “Under Ground Drainage (UGD)” and septic tanks came into existence. • Ecological Sanitation: - Ecological sanitation technology incorporates the principles of recycling faeces, urine and wastewater which are collected separately, treated and used as compost and fertilizer for agricultural crops.
  5. 5. Concept of Rural Sanitation: • The concept of sanitation broadly includes liquid and solid waste disposal, personal and food related hygiene and domestic as well as environmental hygiene. • It would not be wrong to say that it hardly describes the sanitary conditions as they obtain in the villages of India.
  6. 6. • Central Rural Sanitation Programme: • Rural Sanitation PrCentralogramme (CRSP), a centrally sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme was launched in 1986. Its objective is to improve the quality of life of the rural people and provide privacy and dignity to women. • It was designated to provide sanitary latrines to the SCs/STs, landless labourers and people living below poverty line and the resources were shared by the central and state governments on 50: 50 basis. • The programme was planned with the objective of providing clean, healthy and environmentally acceptable disposal of excreta with a view to create good sanitation and consequent improved health standards. • The CRSP is implemented in different states and union territories for improving sanitation facilities through construction of sanitary latrines for individual households.
  7. 7. • Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC): • Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was initiated on 1st April 1999 under sector reform process. The campaign is community led and people centred. It was launched after restructuring Central Rural Sanitation Programme and is operational in 451 districts with an out IAY of Rs. 4,416 crores in which community contribution is Rs. 812 crore. • Catchment Area Approach (CAA) has been adopted for monitoring and surveillance by involving various grass roots level educational and technical institutions by utilizing existing resources and strengthening them by providing additional financial resources. • The components of the TSC are: ✓I. Construction of household latrines. ✓II. Construction of sanitary complex for women. ✓III. Toilets for schools. ✓IV. Toilets for Balwadi/Anganwadi etc.
  8. 8. • The main features of the TSC are as under: 1. Shift from high subsidy to low subsidy regime. 2. Greater household involvement and PRI participation. 3. Technology options as per choice of beneficiary households. 4. Stress on Information, Education and Communication (lEC) as part of the campaign. 5. Emphasis on school sanitation, women sanitary complexes. 6. Integrating with various rural development programmes. 7. Involvement of NGOs and local groups. 8. Promoting access to institutional finance and social marketing concept.
  9. 9. “Nirmal Gram Puraskar” (NGP): • It is an incentive scheme instituted in October 2003 under the TSC in recognition of the role played by Panchayati Raj Institutions, organisations and individuals in promotion of rural sanitation. • As per this scheme, awards are given to Panchayati Raj Institutions at various levels which attain full sanitation coverage in households, schools, Anganwadis with general cleanliness and become open defecation free.
  10. 10. DISPOSAL OFEXCRETA
  11. 11. Health hazards of improper excreta disposal • Soil pollution • Water pollution • Contamination of foods • Propagation of flies
  12. 12. Spread of disease from excreta
  13. 13. Sanitation barrier
  14. 14. Methods of excreta disposal Unsewered areas • Service type latrines( conservancy system) • Non service type( sanitary latrines) • Latrines suitable for camps and temporary use.
  15. 15. Non service type( sanitary latrines) • Bore hole latrine • Dug well latrine • Water seal latrine ❖PRAI type ❖RCAtype ❖Sulab shauchalaya • Septic tank • Aqua privy
  16. 16. Latrines suitable for camps and temporary use. Shallow trench latrine Deep trench latrine Pit latrine Bore hole latrine
  17. 17. Primary treatment • Screening • Removal of grit • Plain sedmentation Secondary treatment • Trickling of filters • Activated sludge process Other methods • Sea out fall • River outfall • Sewage farming • Oxidation ponds Sewered areas
  18. 18. Cartage (Conservancy system) •Example: Bucket latrine •Disadvantages: oSmell oFlies oHealth risk to people handling the excreta oHealth risk from food crops fertilized with raw excreta Bucket latrine
  19. 19. Criteria for a sanitary latrine • Excreta should not contaminate the ground and surface water. • Excreta should not pollute the soil. • Excreta should not be accessible to flies, rodents, animals • Excreta should not create a nuisance due to odor or unsightly appearance
  20. 20. Bore hole latrine • First introduced by Rockfeller Foundation during 1930 in campaigns of hook worm control. • The latrine consists of a circular hole 30 to 40cm in diameter, dug vertically into the ground to a depth of 4 to 8 m, most commonly 6m. • A concrete squatting plate with a central opening and foot rests is placed over the hole. • A suitable enclosure is put up to provide privacy
  21. 21. Bore hole latrine 30-40 cm diameter 4 to 8 m depth
  22. 22. Bore hole latrine Merits • No need for the services of a sweeper for daily removal of night soil. • Unsuitable for fly breeding • If located 15 m away from source of water supply, there should be no danger of water pollution. Demerits • Small capacity. • A special, the auger is required for the construction which may not be readily available. • In many places, the subsoil water is high and the soil loose with the result it may be difficult to dig a hole deeper than 3m.
  23. 23. Dugwell latrine • A circular pit about 75 cm in diameter and 3 to 3.5 m deep. • The pits may be lined with pottery rings to prevent caving in of the soil. • A concrete squatting plate is placed on the top of the pit and the latrine is enclosed with a superstructure.
  24. 24. Dugwell latrine • 75 cm diameter 3 to 3.5 m deep
  25. 25. Dugwell latrine Advantages • It is easy to construct and no special equipment is needed to dig the hit. • The pit has a longer life than borehole latrine because of greater capacity.
  26. 26. Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)Latrine Figure 6.7. Ventilated improved pit latrine 6
  27. 27. Poor flush Latrines Pour-flush latrines may be constructed directly above a pit or may be offset, whereby the Figure 6.9. Pour-flush latrines
  28. 28. • Pour-flush latrines rely on water to act as a hygienic seal and to help remove excreta to a wet or dry disposal system. • The most simple pour-flush latrines use a latrine pan incorporating a shallow U-bend which retains the water (Figure). • After defecation, a few liters of water must be poured, or thrown, into the bowl in order to flush the excreta into the pit or sewerage system below 6 Figure 6.8. Cross-section of typical water-seal pan
  29. 29. Water seal latrine Two types • The PRAI type evolved by Planning, Research and Action Institute, Lucknow • The RCA type designed by the Research cum action projects in Environmental sanitation of the Ministry of Health.
  30. 30. Essential Features of RCAlatrine Location Squatting plate Pan Trap Connecting pipe Dug well Superstructure Maintenance
  31. 31. RCAlatrine • Location 15m
  32. 32. Squatting plate • Made of an impervious material • It is made of cement concrete with minimum dimensions of 90 cm square and 5 cm thickness at the outer edge. • There is a slope half inch towards the pan
  33. 33. Pan and Trap 42.5cm
  34. 34. Pan and Trap • The length 42.5cm. The width of the front portion of the pan has a minimum of 12.5 cm and the width at its widest portion is 20cm. • The trap is bent pipe about 7.5cm in diameter and is connected with the pan. • It holds water and provides the necessary water seal. • The water seal is the distance between the level of water in the trap and the lowest point in the concave upper surface of the trap. • The depth of the water seal in the RCA latrine is 2cm.
  35. 35. • Connecting pipe Connecting pipe 7.5 cm in diameter and at least 1m in length with a bend at the end. Dug well The dug well or pit is usually 75 cm in diameter and 3 to 3.5 m deep and is covered.
  36. 36. • Superstructure • The desired type of superstructure may be provided for privacy and shelter. • Maintenance • People should be educated to flush the pan after use with adequate quantity of water.
  37. 37. SEPTIC TANK
  38. 38. Septic tanks
  39. 39. Features of a septic tank Air space A minimum air space of 30cm between the level of liquid in the tank and the undersurface of the cover. Bottom The bottom is sloping towards the inlet end. Inlet and outlet There is an inlet and outlet which is submerged. Cover The septic tank is covered by a concrete slab of suitable thickness and provided with a manhole. Retention period Septic tanks are designed to allow a retention period of 24 hours.
  40. 40. Operation and maintenance • The use of soap water and disinfectants such as phenol should be avoided. • Contents of the septic tank should be removed at least once in a year. This operation is called desludging and it is disposed by trenching. • Newly built septic tanks are first filled with water up to the outlet level and then seeded with ripe sludge drawn from another septic tank
  41. 41. • • It consists of a water tight chamber filled with water • A short length of a drop pipe from the latrine floor dips into the water. 4.Aquaprivy
  42. 42. Aqua Privy
  43. 43. Advantages&Disadvantages • Advantages: – Cannot be blocked with bulky anal cleaning material – Nil problem with odor or flies – Can be connected to a sewerage system at a later date • Disadvantages: – Expensive to build – Need large volumes of water to work – Water seal may be hard to maintain – Tanks must be emptied about every 3 years
  44. 44. SULAB SHAUCHALAYA • The invention of a Patna based firm • It consists of specially designed pan and a water seal trap. • It is connected to a pit 3 feet square and as deep.
  45. 45. LATRINES SUITABLE FOR TEMPORARY USEAND CAMPS Shallow trench latrine • The trench is 30cm wide and 90-150cm deep. • Its length depend on the number of users;3-3.5 m for 100 people.
  46. 46. Shallow trench Latrine
  47. 47. The trench is 1.8 to 2.5 m deep and 75-90cm wide.
  48. 48. ECOSAN TOILET
  49. 49. • The toilet is designed in such a way that the Urine is seperated from the faeces. • Further the water used for washing of hands as well as the toilet is separated out and sent to natural filter beds, from where it irrigates a field nearby. • The urine is taken by a separate pipe and stored in a vessel to be used as fertiliser. • The faecus is kept dry by adding ash and lime, so the time taken to destroy the pathogens is shorter. • When the first chamber is full it is sealed up, and the time taken for the next chambers to get filled up is sufficient for the excreta to degrade so that it can be handled safely, without odour, and is ready to use as manure.
  50. 50. Benefits of ECOSAN toilets ✓Prevent ground water contamination as the chambers are kept above ground and full sealed. Ideal for users in waterlogged, high ground water table areas. ✓The unit does not require any type of flushing mechanism, eliminating the risk of mechanical failure. Does not require de- sludging or pumping out black water ✓It has no sewer connections. Saves water as it does not require any water to carry human waste; no plumbing is required. ✓Does not require any treatment of urine or faeces. ✓No flies or foul smell. No mosquito breeding as there is no water stagnation.
  51. 51. MCQs 1. In ________ _________ type of a toilet, a seat with a hole is directly connected to a pit. 2. __________ ___________ technology incorporates the principles of recycling faeces, urine and wastewater which are collected separately, treated and used as compost and fertilizer for agricultural crops. 3. The concept of ____________broadly includes liquid and solid waste disposal, personal and food related hygiene and domestic as well as environmental hygiene. 4. The_____________ latrine consists of a circular hole 30 to 40cm in diameter, dug vertically into the ground to a depth of 4 to 8 m, most commonly 6m. 5. __________latrine is a circular pit about 75 cm in diameter and 3 to 3.5 m deep. 6. Latrine shall at least ___m away from water source. 7. _____________ type od toilets Does not require any treatment of urine or faeces.

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    Nov. 3, 2020

DABTU Wastewater Treatment T E (CIVIL)

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