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L 31 Water Pollution act and other topics

Lecture notes of Industrial Waste Treatment (Elective -III) as per syllabus of Solapur university for BE Civil
Prepared by
Prof S S Jahagirdar,
Associate Professor,
N K ORchid College of Engg and Tech,
Solapur

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L 31 Water Pollution act and other topics

  1. 1. L-31 Water Pollution Control Act 1974 and other topics Unit-VIII Industrial Waste Treatment
  2. 2. Contents • Water pollution control act, Organizational set up of central and state boards for water pollution control, classification of river on water use, minimal national standards, and socioeconomic aspects of water pollution control.
  3. 3. Introduction and background • According to the Article 51 A (g) it is the fundamental duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment included Forest, Lakes, Rivers and Wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
  4. 4. • After the Stockholm conference on Human Environment on June, 1972, it was considered appropriate to have uniform law all over country for broad Environment problems endangering the health and safety of our people as well as of our flora and fauna. • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 is the first enactment by the Parliament in this direction.
  5. 5. • This is also the first specific and comprehensive legislation institutionalizing simultaneously the regulatory agencies for controlling water pollution. • The Pollution Control Board at the Centre and in the State came into being in terms of this Act.
  6. 6. Important Definitions • Pollution means contamination of water or such alteration of the Physical, Chemical or Biological properties of water or such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or of any other liquid, gas and Solid substance into water (whether directly or indirectly) as may be the case or is likely to create nuisance or render such water harmful or injurious to public health or safety or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural or other legitimate uses, or to the life and health of animals or plant or of aquatic organizations.
  7. 7. • Trade effluent includes any liquid or solid substance which is discharged from any premises used for carrying on any industry operation or process or treatment and disposal system, other domestic sewage.
  8. 8. CONSTITUTION OF CENTRAL BOARD Organizational setup
  9. 9. Post of member/s No.s To be nominated by Remark Chairman 01 Central government Having special knowledge and practical experience in respect of matters relating to water pollution Officials Max 5 Central government To represent that government Members Max 5 --- Chosen from members of state boards Non officials Max 3 --- To represent interest of agriculture , fisheries or industry or trade or any other interest
  10. 10. Members 2 ---- To represent companies controlled and managed by central govt. Member Secretary 1 --- Possessing qualification, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control
  11. 11. CONSTITUTION OF STATE BOARDS Organizational setup
  12. 12. Post of member/s No.s To be nominated by Remark Chairman 01 State government Having special knowledge and practical experience in respect of matters relating to water pollution Officials Max 5 State government To represent that state government Members Max 5 --- Chosen from local authorities functioning within the state Non officials Max 3 --- To represent interest of agriculture , fisheries or industry or trade or any other interest
  13. 13. Members 2 ---- To represent companies, corporations controlled and managed by state govt. Member Secretary 1 --- Possessing qualification, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control
  14. 14. FUNCTIONS OF CENTRAL BOARD
  15. 15. (a) To Plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention Control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells. (b) To advise the State Government on any matters concerning the prevention, Control or abatement of water pollution. (c) To collect and disseminate information relating to the water pollution and prevention, control or abatement thereof.
  16. 16. (d) To encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution, prevention, control or abatement of water pollution. (e) To inspect sewage or trade effluents, works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans, specifications or other data relating to plant set up for the treatment of water, works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this act.
  17. 17. (f) Lay down, modify or annual effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quantity of receiving water (not being) water in an inter-state stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters in the state. (g) To evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents, having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils, climate and water resources of different region and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells, which render it impossible to attain
  18. 18. FUNCTIONS OF STATE BOARDS
  19. 19. (a) To plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the state and to secure the execution thereof. (b) To advice the State Government on any mater concerning the prevention control or abatement of water pollution. (c) To collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof.
  20. 20. (d) To encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution. (e) to collaborate with the control Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and to organize mass education programmes relating thereof.
  21. 21. (f)To inspect sewage or trade effluents, works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plants, specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act.
  22. 22. • (g) lay down, modify or annual effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an inter state stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters of the State. (h) to evolve methods of utilization of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture.
  23. 23. (i) to evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents, having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils, climate and water resources of difference regions and more specially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution.
  24. 24. (j) To evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution. (k) To lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any particular stream taking into account the minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream after the discharge of such effluents.
  25. 25. To advice the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well; To perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government.
  26. 26. Other important provisions Power to give directions to obtain information from any industry or person. Power to take samples of effluents from any treatment plant. Power of entry and inspection in any industrial premises Power to take emergency measures in case of pollution of stream or well Power to give directions for closure of industry
  27. 27. Central board has Power to give direction to the State Board Special power is given to the central board to supersede the State Board Person found guilty of an offence is On conviction, the failure shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 3 months or fine up to Rs. 10,000 or both if the failure continues, an additional fine of Rs. 5000 per day.
  28. 28. If offence is made by companies , then the person in charge at that instance shall be held responsible
  29. 29. COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (CETP) Miscellaneous topics
  30. 30. • Small-scale industries (SSIs) have a very important role in overall industrial development in India and growth of SSI units has been actively promoted by Government of India to induce balanced economic growth and to distribute the benefits of industrial development in an equitable manner. • Industries having capital investment up to Rs.10 millions are classified as SSI units. It is estimated that more than 300,000 SSI units are spread all over India, mainly in about 867 clusters/industrial estates of the country.
  31. 31. • It is difficult for each industrial unit to provide and operate individual wastewater treatment plant because of the scale of operations or lack of space or technical manpower. • However, the quantum of pollutants emitted by SSIs clusters may be more than an equivalent large scale industry, since the specific rate of generation of pollutants is generally higher because of the inefficient production technologies adopted by SSIs.
  32. 32. • Hence the desirable option is of the shared or combined treatment, wherein, managerial and operational aspects are collectively addressed and the cost of treatment , becomes affordable as enunciated in the scheme of the common effluent treatment plants, which are proving to be a boon especially for small entrepreneurs, given the methodical planning, regular operation a nd equitable contribution of member units. Such common facilities also facilitate proper management of effluent and compliance of the effluent quality standards.
  33. 33. • Advantages of Common Treatment 1. Saving in Capital and operating cost of treatment plant. Combined treatment is always cheaper than small scattered treatment units. 2. Availability of land which is difficult to be ensured by all individual units in the event they go for individual treatment plants. This is particularly important in case of existing old industries which simply do not have any space. 3. Contribution of nutrient and diluting potential, making the complex industrial waste more amenable to degradation.
  34. 34. 4. The neutralization and equalization of heterogeneous waste makes its treatment techno-economically viable. 5. Professional and trained staff can be made available for operation of CETP which is not possible in case of individual plants. 6. Disposal of treated wastewater & sludge becomes more organized. 7. Reduced burden of various regulatory authorities in ensuring pollution control requirement.
  35. 35. ACCLIMATIZATION OF BACTERIA
  36. 36. • Many processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic, petrochemical industries, etc., generate Waste Water which contains organic toxic compounds. • The utilization of biological treatments is based on the capacity of microorganisms, specifically bacteria, to degrade a great quantity of toxic substances. • The pollutants are treated as food by the bacteria and these, while feeding, increase their population at the same time as the water gets treated.
  37. 37. • Some microorganisms perform the treatment process in the presence of oxygen and others in its absence. • Due to its toxicity, biological treatment of Waste Water containing a toxic substrate is difficult, since the microorganisms are initially not able to treat that substance. • Therefore, the first step to make a SBR (Sequential Batch Reactor) operative is the acclimatization, i.e., the adaptation of the microorganisms to a particular toxic substrate.
  38. 38. • Acclimatization is commonly practiced in case of toxic wastes such as phenol, arsenic, cyanide etc. • For example to treat a phenolic waste of 500 mg/lit. bacteria are exposed gradually from initial concentration of 20 mg/lit to 500 mg/lit • Nutrients are also added to the waste in the form of urea, superphosphate or any other compound containing N and P
  39. 39. MINAS
  40. 40. • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) developed Minimum National Standards (MINAS) for all types of industries with regards to their effluent discharge (water pollutants), emissions (air pollutants), noise levels and solid waste. • The proposed model for evolving industry specific standards envisages specifying limits of pollutants to protect the environment. • The standards thus developed will be applicable to the concerned industries throughout the country.
  41. 41. • The Minimal National Standards {MINAS) for a particular industry is the effluent standard achievable by the industry by installing pollution control measures which are within the techno- economic capability of the industry. • Depending on the gravity of the pollution and1echno-economic assessment of the requisite pollution control measures the MINAS may be attained in one stroke or in phases
  42. 42. • The evolution of MINAS thus remain independent of the characteristics of the recipient environment: The Central and State Boards for Pollution Control have come to an agreement that under no circumstances MINAS would be relaxed as because the same is techno-economically acceptable to the industry. • On the contrary, at situations where the recipient environment demands stricter quality of the effluent of the industry, the State Boards are required to prescribe standards stricter than MINAS.
  43. 43. • While deciding the MINAS for disposal The following factors are to be noted: —Degree of dilution available in receiving system. —Protection of important biotic species. —Mean tolerance limit for pollutants to the identified biotic species. —Application factors in respect of mean tolerance limit.
  44. 44. MINAS for treated effluent from Small Pulp and Paper Industry Parameter pH Suspended solids Bio-chemical oxygen demand Concentration 6-9 100 mg/I 50 mg/I Concentration
  45. 45. WASTE AUDIT
  46. 46. • A waste audit is a formal, structured process used to quantify the amount and types of waste being generated by an organization. • Information from audits will help identify current waste practices and how they can be improved. • Being waste-wise can mean: 1. a more efficient and effective organization 2. reduced waste management costs 3. better use of limited natural resources.
  47. 47. • Audits can be done on any type of waste e.g. paper and office waste, municipal waste, commercial and industrial waste, construction and demolition waste etc. • There are a number of different ways to conduct a waste audit, such as visual waste audits, waste characterization, desktop audits and others. • The type of audit you use depends on the type of waste, where it is and what you want to get out of the audit.
  48. 48. • The audit's objectives will largely determine the waste types and physical locations to be audited. • Some examples of audit objectives could be: 1. to determine composition and quantities of waste being generated 2. to measure effectiveness of existing waste management systems 3. to identify opportunities for improving waste management systems and strategies 4. to collect baseline data for measuring the effectiveness of waste minimization strategies.
  49. 49. Steps in audit 1. Plan - Define the study area - Collect background information - Prepare for the audit 2. Collect - Collect the waste - Transport the waste to sorting area 3. Sort - Prepare sorting area - Sort the waste - Final cleanup 4. Analyze - Enter and analyze the data - Prepare audit report

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Lecture notes of Industrial Waste Treatment (Elective -III) as per syllabus of Solapur university for BE Civil Prepared by Prof S S Jahagirdar, Associate Professor, N K ORchid College of Engg and Tech, Solapur

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