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Corn: Diversity and Origins
Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
@jrossibarra • www.rilab.org
University of California, Davis
Photo: Jason Wallace
tassel (male)
ear (female)
Photo: U. Nebraska-Lincoln
corn
(maize)
tassel (male)
ear (female)
Photo: OllieMartin
Photo: U. Nebraska-Lincoln
corn
(maize)
tassel (male)
ear (female)
Photo: OllieMartin
Photo: U. Nebraska-Lincoln
Photo: © HD WIlson
corn
(maize)
Photo: Rosana Prada
Photo: https://www.flickr.com/photos/croptrust/
Photo: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dandelion-and-burdock/
A
C
T
G
Photo: Michael Neugebauer
1.2% DNA difference
Photo: USDA
Photo: Michael Neugebauer
1.2% DNA difference1.6% DNA difference
Photo: USDA
Original DNA
Mutation
Original DNA
Original DNA Transposon
Barbara McClintock
1902-1992
Original DNA Transposon
Barbara McClintock
1902-1992
Original DNA Transposon
Photo: Damon Lisch
purple:
no transposon
Photo: Damon Lisch
purple:
no transposon
yellow:
transposon
inserted
Photo: Damon Lisch
purple:
no transposon
yellow:
transposon
inserted
spots:
transposon jumps
Photo: Damon Lisch
purple:
no transposon
yellow:
transposon
inserted
spots:
transposon jumps
Photo: Damon Lisch
no transposon
Photos: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
transposon
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
G
C
T
traditional (landrace)
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
modern industrial corn
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
modern industrial corn
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
Modern Industrial Corn
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
Modern Industrial Corn
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
Modern Industrial Corn
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
A
C
G
G
C
T
A
T
G
A
C
T
Modern Industrial Corn
Beadle 1979 Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin
maize or
F1
teosinte
Zea mays ssp. parviglumis
maize
Zea mays ssp. mays
George Beadle
maize or
F1
teosinte
Zea mays ssp. parviglumis
maize
Zea mays ssp. mays
teosinte
parviglumis
teosinte
mexicana
modern
corn
Matsuoka 2002 PNAS
teosinte
parviglumis
teosinte
mexicana
modern
corn
Matsuoka 2002 PNAS
Photos: Matt Hufford, Brandon Gaut, John Doebley
teosinte
teosinte
modern
corn
modern
corn
teosinte
modern
corn
teosinte
modern
corn
reconstructed
ancestral corn
01
010
0010
01011
01111
10
modern
corn
reconstructed
ancestral corn
01
010
0010
01011
01111
10
Highland
Route
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
Photo: Moenkopi Legacy Inn & Suites
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
modern
Chapalote
modern
Palomero
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
modern
Chapalote
modern
Palomero
Tularosa Cave
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
3,000 yrs
modern
Chapalote
modern
Palomero
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
3,000 yrs
modern
Chapalote
modern
Palomero
2,000 yrs 1,000 yrs
Highland
Route
Pacific
Route
3,000 yrs
modern
Chapalote
modern
Palomero
700 yrs2,000 yrs 1,000 yrs
01
010
0010
01011
01111
10
2015 SF Exploratorium Lecture: "Corn: Diversity and Origins"

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2015 SF Exploratorium Lecture: "Corn: Diversity and Origins"