Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes;House of Representative had to vote to break tie; 35 ballots in the House maintained tie!
For Jefferson, the acts were symbols of big government (Federalists) which contradictedRepublican view (stressed small government, protect individual liberties).
Why was the Mississippi important for western settlers in the United States? Mississippi River is vital trade route for western American farmers; New Orleans becomes a trade center and goods shipped east from New Orleans.
The French need money to finance the war with England, sell Louisiana Territory for that purpose. Legality of purchase questioned, addressed by placing under treaty making powers of Constitution.
Lewis and Clark are friends that served in the militia during the Whiskey Rebellion. The expedition was a scientific study and it was stressed that they should treat all natives with respect. During the expedition, they found help from unsuspected sources. They found help from the Mandan tribe to survive the winter in 1804 on the way out. Later, a French trapper and his wife, Sacagawea joined the expedition. Her brother was a chief of the Shoshone, and she served as an interpreter to help the expedition.
Hamilton never trusted Burr, and publicly said so. He insulted Burr when he speculated that Burr was plotting treason to help bring the state of New York into the Federalist’s plans for seceding.
American merchants began trading with foreign countries as far away as China and India. As the war between France and England escalated, the seas remained clear for American ships to sail and trade. By 1800, the US was the #2 country in the world in regards to shipping.Barbary pirates, based in Tripoli, captured the Philadelphia. They were demanding tribute. Jefferson had tried to blockade Tripoli but was unsuccessful. Stephen Decatur raids the Tripoli Harbor with a small raiding party and burns the Philadelphia. Negotiations ended the war, and $60,000 was to be paid for each prisoner and the pirates would stop demanding tribute.
In 1805, England needed sailors for war, but sailors were poorly treated in the British navy resulting in desertion. The British ships would stop American ships at sea and claim anyone on board of being deserters – and again, impressment was pursued. It was a violation of neutral rights and seen as an act of war.In June, 1807 Chesapeake was intercepted and demanded to be searched. Chesapeake captain refused, British opened fire killing 3 American sailors and wounding 18.
The Embargo Act was a disaster for U.S.; did not hurt England economy and divided the people; New England and South were hurt economically; smuggling began and it was difficult to enforce.This favored the Federalists agenda, and pressure started to mount against the Republican-Democratic party. Jefferson followed Washington, did not run for 3rd term. James Madison was chosen as candidate; Federalists hoped the anger over the Embargo Act would give them back the majority. Madison won easily, but Embargo Act was repealed in 1809 and replaced with Nonintercourse Act.
James Madison was only 5’4”, nicknamed “Little Jemmy”. Had to follow in Jefferson’s footsteps. US was mired in embargo crisis due to Embargo Act and Nonintercourse Act. A looser law replaced Nonintercourse Act in 1810, and France lifted their trade restrictions to take advantage. Napoleon tricked the US, continues to seize US ships for profit. Madison felt Britain was the bigger threat.
Tecumseh forms an alliance with other tribes in the Ohio valley area; believes backed by British, this would put a halt to expansion. Believed in the priority of their presence, land belonged to them and the Europeans had no right to give it away. Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, urge their people to return to the ways of their ancestors. Form alliance with England.
General William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, warned Tecumseh and the Prophet about American military might. While Tecumseh was in the south strengthening his confederacy, Harrison attacked Tippecanoe stronghold and won. The victory forced Tecumseh to ally with England. Some swore the English were arming the Indians in the area.Cry for war with England got louder. War Hawks started to put pressure in place for war, mostly young Republicans. Federalists opposed the war. Clay and Calhoun, in their 30s, were leaders of War Hawks. Clay is elected Speaker of the House, and War Hawks demand increase for military spending, quadrupling size of army. Rhetoric about nationalism and patriotism rise. Madison treats war with England as inevitable.
The enemy was vastly underestimated. Enlisted was less than 7,000 while retaining over 700,000 militia with the states. Poorly trained and several states opposed a war with England. The strategy was to keep the fighting on the land, Royal Navy was one of the most powerful in the world. Invade Canada.General William Hull surrendered Detroit to British/Tecumseh. Three attempts to retake failed. General William Henry Harrison targeted Lake Erie. Oliver Hazard Perry was commander of Lake Erie naval forces and in a bloody sea battle, defeated the British and took Lake Erie.Americans advance, kill Tecumseh in the Battle of Thames on October 5, 1812. Toronto (York) taken and burned by Americans.
Due to the national debt, the navy’s budget was reduced and the US had a reduced navy. Three of their frigates, however, were among the fastest ships on water. The Constitution destroyed two British war vessels and was given the nickname “Old Ironsides” when a cannon ball shot bounced off its hull.Privateers, or private ships that were armed, were used to supplement the navy.The British also blocked ports from Chesapeake Bay to New York. They left New England’s ports open to try and divide the Americans as Federalists were opposed to the war.
Tecumseh’s death shatters Native American hopes to stop American expansion. He was to form an alliance with the Creeks in Mississippi. Andrew Jackson attacked at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and slaughtered 550 men, women, and children to break the spirits of the Creeks and their resistance.
British fare better in 1814. War with France ends, defeating Napoleon, and can focus on US. British sail into Chesapeake Bay, sack Washington DC and burn down the Capitol and the Whitehouse. Dolly Madison refused to leave, grabbed George Washington portrait and sent to safety. August 24, 1814.The British didn’t stay in DC. Instead they moved on to Baltimore – where 13,000 militia men were waiting. Bombardments from Fort McHenry kept the British advance in check and inspired the poem by Francis Scott Key.The British pressed hard in the north. With 10,000 soldiers possessing superior training, firepower, cavalry and leadership it didn’t look good for American chances. Nevertheless, the US defeated the British and demoralized them so bad, General Prevost abandoned the campaign. This secured the northern border of the US; British leadership decided war was too costly and unnecessary.
The Battle of New Orleans was fought before news of the treaty had spread. The British moved towards New Orleans near Lake Ponchartrain, but Andrew Jackson had his army prepared, positioned behind earthen fortifications. In about one hour, 700 Redcoats, and their general, died as the Americans slaughtered them. Andrew Jackson emerges a hero.Because the Federalists decided to be partisan over country, opposing the war, they were heavily disgraced and lost political respect.The war brought a new sense of nationalism – even in New England. Politically, the War Hawks benefitted immensely. They favored trade, western expansion, a strong military.