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Wiebke	
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w.loosen@hans-­‐bredow-­‐insMtut.de	
  
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hRp://www.hans-­‐bredow-­‐insM...
References	
  
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Loosen: The Journalism/Audience-­Relationship as a Communicative Figuration ICA San Juan May 22nd 2015

Wiebke Loosen: The Journalism/Audience-­‐Rela5onship as a Communicaitve Figuration. Presentation at the International Communication Association's 65th annual conference, May 22nd 2015, San Juan
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Loosen: The Journalism/Audience-­Relationship as a Communicative Figuration ICA San Juan May 22nd 2015

  1. 1. The  Journalism/Audience-­‐Rela5onship   as  a  Communica5ve  Figura5on   Wiebke  Loosen   @WLoosen   ICA  |  San  Juan|  May  22nd  2015   Panel:   “Pushing  the  Boundaries  of  Journalism  Studies”:     The  Audience  Turn  in  Journalism  (Studies)  
  2. 2. The  audience  turn  in  journalism  (studies)   •  Blurring  boundaries  between  news  producers  and  consumers:   a  focal  point  in  discussions  of  monumental  changes  in  media   pracMces  (e.g.  Bruns  2008;  Bird  2011;  Heinonen  2011)   •  ARempt  to  “push  the  boundaries  of  journalism  studies”     –  by  focusing  on  the  journalism/audience-­‐relaMonship  and  considering   it  the  focal  point  of  the  ongoing  transformaMon  of  journalism;     –  by  interrelaMng  journalism‘s  change  to  societal  change  within  a   fundamentally  changing  media  environment   2    
  3. 3. Media  transforma5on  <>  transforma5on  of  journalism   •  Modern  journalism  is  a  genuine  mass  media  phenomenon  –  intrinsically  Med   to  a  changing  media  environment  (in  a  historical  perspecMve:  Birkner  2012).     •  Fundamental  changes  in  the  media  environment  appear  in  journalism  as  if   seen  through  a  magnifying  glass:   –  CommunicaMon  condiMons  are  no  longer  solely  characterized  by  mass  media,  but   increasingly  complemented  by  social  media  (e.g.  Deuze  et  al.  2007;  Singer  et  al.   2011).   –  Journalism  is  “mulMchannel  communicaMon”  –  content  is  produced,  distributed  and   used  via  various  kinds  of  media  and  pla^orms  (Neuberger  et  al.  2014).   •  A  main  consequence:  expansion  and  amplificaMon  of  the  communicaMve   opMons  between  journalism  and  (its)  audiences  –  leading  to  a  diversificaMon   and  dynamizaMon  of  roles  and  relaMonships  (Loosen/Schmidt  2012).   3    
  4. 4. The  communica5ve  figura5on  of  the    journalism/audience-­‐rela5onship   •  No  doubt:  the  journalism/audience-­‐relaMonship  is  transforming   •  …  but  how  to  assess  the  journalism/audience-­‐relaMon  and   analyze  its  transformaMon  theoreMcally  and  empirically?   •  Approach  here:  addressing  transformaMon  as  „communica(ve   transformaMon“,  i.e.  changes  in  the  communicaMve  figuraMon  of   the  journalism/audience-­‐relaMonship   4  
  5. 5. The  communica5ve  figura5ons  approach  I   •  “CommunicaMve  figuraMons”  (Hepp/Hasebrink  2014)  aim  to  describe   social  domains  (groups,  organizaMons,  publics,  etc.)  in  relaMon  to  their   i)  communicaMve  pracMces  across  a  media  ensemble,  ii)  their  actor   constellaMon,  and  iii)  their  themaMc  framings.   •  Example:  The  communicaMve  figuraMon  of  a  family  (Hepp/Lunt/ Hartmann  2015):   –  is  based  on  a  certain  set  of  communica(ve  prac(ces  across  a  media   ensemble  (e.g.  communicaMon  via  mobiles,  social  media,  digital  photo   albums,  watching  TV  together);   –  has  a  constella(on  of  actors  that  can  be  regarded  as  its  structural  basis   (Schimank  2010:  202-­‐206),  a  network  of  actors  being  interrelated  with  each   other;   –  has  a  thema(c  framing,  that  is  a  shared  orientaMon  that  serves  to  guide   pracMces  and  therefore  defines  the  character  of  this  communicaMve   figuraMon:  the  “family”   5  
  6. 6. The  communica5ve  figura5ons  approach  II   •  Concept  developed  with  the  aim  to  analyze  comparaMvely  the  media-­‐ related  transformaMon  of  social  domains  within  the  present,  rapidly   changing  media  environment:  How  is  media  change  related  to  social   change  and  vice  versa?   •  Research  network:  hRp://www.kommunikaMve-­‐figuraMonen.de/     •  “Features”  of  the  communicaMve  figuraMons  approach  (Hepp/ Hasebrink  2014)  :   a)  transmedia:  not  looking  at  one  “new”  medium,  but  at  the  media  ensemble   in  certain  social  enMMes   b)  scalable:  reaching  from  groups  to  the  society  as  a  whole  usable  across  the   levels  of  the  micro,  meso  and  macro   c)  process-­‐oriented:  not  only  focused  on  ‘given’  phenomena  but  on  the   ongoing  process  by  which  enMMes  are  “produced”,  “constructed”,  or   “arMculated”   6  
  7. 7. The  communica5ve  figura5on  of  the     journalism/audience  rela5onship   Change of media environment Features of figuration t1 t2 Transformation of figuration - differentiation - innovation density - omnipresence - datafication communicative practices monologic, predominantly mass media oriented dialogic, also social media oriented increasing variety of practices; acceleration of communication processes actor constellation producer/ recipient e.g. “social media editor”, “active user”, “measured audience/user”, multiple audiences role shifts; role diversification; dynamization of relationships thematic framing supply/ demand dialog, participation, reciprocity increase of contingency 7    
  8. 8. Empirical  applica5ons  and  ques5ons   •  ComparaMvely  invesMgate  communicaMve  figuraMons  of  the  journalism/ audience  relaMon,  e.g.:     –  different  segments  of  journalism:  news  vs.  entertainment-­‐oriented  journalism     –  different  insMtuMonal  senngs:  established  newsrooms  vs.  journalisMc  start-­‐ups;   freelance  journalists  vs.  newsroom  editors   –  across  levels:  individual  journalist  vs.  newsroom   •  How  does  a  certain  communicaMve  figuraMon  of  the  journalism/audience-­‐ relaMon  influences:     –  journalisMc  role  concepMon?   –  journalist’s  images  of  the  audience?   –  news  producMon  processes  –  and/or  consumpMon?   •  Diachronic  perspecMve:  Tracing  how  the  communicaMve  figuraMon  of  the   journalism/audience-­‐relaMon  develops  over  Mme:  Which  “pathways”  follows   a  movement  of  innovaMve  communicaMve  pracMces  from  the  periphery  to   the  centre?       8  
  9. 9. Conclusion  –  or  beIer:  follow-­‐up  ques5ons   •  Journalism  is  under  a  high  innovaMon  pressure:  re-­‐defining  its   audience-­‐relaMon  is  one  focal  point  …   •  …  but  the  transiMon  doesn’t  follow  a  linear  nor  a  simultaneous  process   for  all  segments  of  journalism,  for  all  journalists  or  audience  members     •  Role  ships:  journalisMc  and  audience  roles  became  more  permeable,   but  journalism  is  sMll  about  producing  certain  kinds  of  communicaMon   offerings  –  audiences  have  the  power  to  accepted  them  or  not.   •  Increasing  variety  of  communicaMve  pracMces  between  journalism  and   its  audiences:  Does  a  more  intensive  contact  with  audiences  helps  to   produce  different/“beRer”  journalism?     •  Increase  of  conMngency:  More  “visible”  than  ever  –    journalism’s   descripMon  of  the  world  is  “only”  one  possible  construcMon   9  
  10. 10. Thank  you!   Wiebke  Loosen   w.loosen@hans-­‐bredow-­‐insMtut.de   @Wloosen   hRp://www.hans-­‐bredow-­‐insMtut.de/   hRp://www.kommunikaMve-­‐figuraMonen.de/  
  11. 11. References   •  Bird,  S.  E.  (2011):  Are  we  all  produsers  now?  Convergence  and  media  audience  pracMces,  Cultural  Studies,  25 (  4-­‐5):  502-­‐516.   •  Birkner,  T.  (2012.  Das  Selbstgespräch  der  Zeit.  Die  Geschichte  des  Journalismus  in  Deutschland  1605-­‐1914.   Köln:  von  Halem.     •  Bruns,  A.  (2008)  Blogs,  Wikipedia,  Second  Life,  and  Beyond.  From  ProducMon  to  Produsage,Peter  Lang   Publishing,  New  York.   •  Deuze,  M.,  Bruns,  A.  &  Neuberger,  C.  (2007)  ‘Preparing  for  an  age  of  parMcipatory  news’,  Journalism  PracMce,   3  (1):  322–338.   •  Heinonen,  A.  (2011)  ‘The  journalist’s  relaMonship  with  users:  new  dimensions  to  con-­‐  venMonal  roles’,  in   ParMcipatory  Journalism.  Guarding  Open  Gates  at  Online  News-­‐  papers,  eds  J.  B.  Singer,  A.  Hermida,  D.   Domingo,  A.  Heinonen,  S.  Paulussen,  T.  Quandt,  Z.  Reich  &  M.  Vujnovic,  Wiley-­‐Blackwell,  Oxford,  pp.  34–55.   •  Hepp,  A.;  Hasebrink,  U.  (2014):  Human  interacMon  and  communicaMve  figuraMons:  The  transformaMon  of   mediaMzed  cultures  and  socieMes.  In:  Lundby,  K.  (ed.):  MediaMzaMon  of  communicaMon.  Berlin,  New  York:  de   Gruyter,  pp.  249-­‐272.   •  Hepp,  A./Lunt,  P.  &  Hartmann,  M.  (2015):  CommunicaMve  figuraMons  of  the  good  life:  Ambivalences   surrounding  the  mediaMzaMon  of  homelessness  and  the  transnaMonal  family.  In:  Wang,  Hua  (ed.):   CommunicaMon  and  „The  Good  Life.“.  Berlin,  New  York:  Peter  Lang,  pp.  181-­‐196.   •  Loosen,  W.;  J.-­‐H.  Schmidt  (2012):  (Re-­‐)Discovering  the  Audience:  The  relaMonship  between  journalism  and   audience  in  networked  digital  media.  InformaMon,  CommunicaMon  &  Society  15  (6),  867-­‐887.   •  Neuberger,  C.;  Langenohl,  S.;  Nuernbergk,  C.  (2014):  Social  Media  und  Journalismus.  Düsseldorf:  Landesanstalt   für  Medien  Nordrhein-­‐Wes^alen  (LfM)  (=LfM-­‐DokumentaMon  Nr.  50).   •  Singer,  J.  B.,  Hermida,  A.;  Domingo,  D.;  Heinonen,  A.;  Paulussen,  S.;  Quandt,T.;    Reich,  Z.;  and  Vujnovic,  M.   (2011):  ParMcipatory  Journalism:  Guarding  Open  Gates  at  Online  Newspapers.  Chichester:  Wiley-­‐Blackwell.   11    

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