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“ Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth. ” — Pablo Picasso
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Spanish pronunciation: ['paβlořu'jθpi'kasso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish-born painter, draughtsman, and sculptor who lived most of his adult life in France. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work. Picasso demonstrated uncanny artistic talent in his early years, painting in a realistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts .From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. On one occasion the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son’s technique, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting.Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. the impressed jury admitted Picasso, who was 13.Picasso’s father decided to send the young artist to Madrid’s Royal Academy of San Fernando.Picasso, age 16, set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and quit attending classes soon after enrollment.
Picasso’s Blue Period (1901–1904) consists of somber paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. In his austere use of color and sometimes doleful subject matter—prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects—Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso’s works of this period,
Shortly after moving to Paris from Barcelona, Picasso began to produce works that were suffused in blue. This particular pigment is effective in conveying a sombre tone. The psychological trigger for these depressing paintings was the suicide of Picasso's friend Casagemas. The Blue Period work is quite sentimental, but we must keep in mind that Picasso was still in his late teens, away from home for the first time, and living in very poor conditions.
The most poignant work of the style is in Cleveland's Museum of Art, La Vie (1903), which was created in memory of a great childhood friend, the Spanish poet Casagemas, who had committed suicide. The painting started as a self-portrait, but Picasso's features became those of his lost friend. The composition is stilted, the space compressed, the gestures stiff, and the tones predominantly blue
Another outstanding Blue Period work, of 1903, is in the Metropolitan, The Blind Man's Meal.
Yet another example, perhaps the most lyrical and mysterious ever, is in the Toledo Museum of Art, the haunting Woman with a Crow (1903).
In 1905-6, Picasso's palette began to lighten considerably, bringing in a distinctive beige or "rose" tone. The subject matter also is less depressing. Here are the first appearances by the circus performers and clowns . Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting.
One of the premier works of this period is in Washington, D.C., the National Gallery's large and extremely beautiful Family of Saltimbanques dating to 1905, which portrays a group of circus workers who appear alienated and incapable of communicating with each other, set in a one-dimensional space.
Garçon à la Pipe (English: Boy with a Pipe) is a painting by Pablo Picasso. It was painted in 1905 when Picasso was 24 years old, during his Rose Period, soon after he settled in the Montmartre section of Paris, France. The oil on canvas painting depicts a Parisian boy holding a pipe in his left hand and wearing a garland or wreath of flowers.
In late 1906, Picasso started to paint in a truly revolutionary manner. Inspired by Cézanne's flattened depiction of space, and working alongside his friend Georges Braque, he began to express space in strongly geometrical terms. These initial efforts at developing this almost sculptural sense of space in painting are the beginnings of Cubism.
Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. When someone commented that Stein did not look like her portrait, Picasso replied, "She will".
"Then came the awesome Les Demoiselles d'Avignon of 1907, the shaker of the art world (Museum of Modern Art, New York). The Demoiselles is generally referred to as the first Cubist picture. This is an exaggeration, for although it was a major first step towards Cubism it is not yet Cubist. The disruptive, expressionist element in it is even contrary to the spirit of Cubism, which looked at the world in a detached, realistic spirit. Nevertheless, the Demoiselles is the logical picture to take as the starting point for Cubism, because it marks the birth of a new pictorial idiom, because in it Picasso violently overturned established conventions and because all that followed grew out of it.
The work portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Avinyó Street in Barcelona. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine. The women appear as slightly menacing and rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes.Demoiselles was revolutionary and controversial.
Formal ideas developed from these paintings lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.
By 1910, Picasso and Braque had developed Cubism into an entirely new means of pictorial expression. In the initial stage, known as Analytical Cubism, objects were deconstructed into their components. In some cases, this was a means to depict different viewpoints simultaneously; in other works, it was used more as a method of visually laying out the FACTS of the object, rather than providing a limited mimetic representation. The aim of Analytical Cubism was to produce a conceptual image of an object, as opposed to a perceptual one.
Ma jolie (My pretty girl) was the refrain of a popular song performed at a Parisian music hall Picasso frequented. The artist suggests this musical association by situating a treble clef and music staff near the bold, stenciled letters. Ma jolie was also Picasso's nickname for his lover MarcelleHumbert, whose figure he loosely built using the signature shifting planes of Analytic Cubism. This is far from a traditional portrait of an artist's beloved, but there are clues to its representational content. The central triangular mass subtly indicates the shape of a woman's head and torso, and a group of six vertical lines at the painting's lower center represent the strings of a guitar, which the woman strums. In Cubist works of this period, Picasso and Georges Braque employed multiple modes of representation simultaneously: here, Picasso combined language (in the black lettering), symbolic meaning (in the treble clef), and near abstraction (in the depiction of his subject).
At its height, Analytical Cubism reached levels of expression that threatened to pass beyond the comprehension of the viewer. Staring into the abyss of abstraction, Picasso blinked...and began to start a different style of art. Synthetic Cubism.
In 1912, Picasso took the conceptual representation of Cubism to its logical conclusion by pasting an actual piece of oilcloth onto the canvas. This was a key watershed in Modern Art. By incorporating the real world into the canvas, Picasso and Braque opened up a century's worth of exploration in the meaning of Art.
This is apparent in Picasso's Glass and Bottle of Suze. Here, the work is a collage of separate elements glued into one complete composition. Picasso uses newspaper clippings, wallpaper and labels to create this work.
In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style.
The three musicians and dog conjure a bygone period of bohemian life, enjoyed here by Picasso in the guise of a Harlequin flanked by two figures who may represent poet–friends of the artist's: Guillaume Apollinaire, who was recently deceased, and Max Jacob. The patterned flatness of the work is derived from cut–and–pasted paper, and stands in stark contrast to the sculptural monumentality of Picasso's Three Women at the Spring, also painted in the summer of 1921.
Guernica is a painting by Pablo Picasso, in response to the bombing of Guernica by German and Italianwarplanes at the behest of the SpanishNationalist forcesArguably Picasso’s most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War—Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians. This work has gained a monumental status, becoming a perpetual reminder of the tragedies of war, an anti-war symbol, and an embodiment of peace.
We rarely associate sculpture with Picasso. Picasso explored other artistic styles to express himself, including sculpture. Mandolin and Clarinet and Chicago Picasso are two examples of cubist sculpture.
Cubism Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by PabloPicasso and Georges Braque, thatrevolutionized European painting andsculpture, and inspired relatedmovements in music and literature. Avant-garde is used to refer to peopleor works that are experimental orinnovative, particularly with respect toart, culture, and politics.
Two Major Branches of Cubism 1. Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. 2. Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.
Three Phases of Cubism Phases of Cubism‘’Early Cubism", "High Cubism", "Late Cubism" (from 1906 to (from 1909 to (from 1914 to1908) when the 1914) during 1921) as the movement was which time last phase of initially Juan Gris Cubism as a developed in emerged as an radical avant- the studios of important garde Picasso and exponent. movement. Braque.
Characteristics of Cubist Art1. Objects are broken up, analyzed, and re- assembled in an abstracted form2. Instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.3. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth.4. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space.
Three Most Popular Cubist ArtistsPablo Picasso Georges Braque Juan Gris
Some Examples of Cubist Painting Portrait of Women with a Still Life withDaniel-Henry Guitar by Fruit Dish andKahnweiler by Georges Mandolin, by Picasso Braque Juan Gris
Cubism in Other FieldSculpture - A part of the Cubist House Womans enormous of the BlackHead, Otto Creators of the Madonna, Bulgarian Prague, CzechGutfreund, State Republic monument near Shumen
Early YearsPablo Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 inMalaga, Spain.Picasso’s father José Ruiz y Blasco was also apainter himself. He taught him the basics offormal and academic art training.Picasso attended many art schools during hischildhood. He never finished his studies at theAcademy of Arts in Madrid, dropping out afteronly a year.
The Blue Period Characterized by a predominantly blue palette and subjects focusing on outcasts, beggars, and prostitutes. This particular pigment is effective in conveying a somber tone. The psychological trigger for these depressing paintings was the suicide of Picassos friend Casagemas.
The Rose PeriodPicassos palette brightened, the paintingsdominated by pinks and beiges, light blues,and roses.His subjects are saltimbanques (circuspeople), harlequins, and clowns, all of whomseem to be mute and strangely inactive.The generally upbeat and optimistic mood ofpaintings in this period is reminiscent of the1899–1901 period.
The Beginnings of CubismIn late 1906, Inspired by Cézannes flatteneddepiction of space, and working alongside hisfriend Georges Braque, he began to expressspace in strongly geometrical terms.These initial efforts at developing this almostsculptural sense of space in painting are thebeginnings of Cubism.
Other Proto-Cubist Works Gertrude Stein (1906)
Other Proto-Cubist Works Self-Portrait with Palette (1906)
Les Demoiselles dAvignonThe famous "Demoiselles dAvignon" is oftenrepresented as the seminal Cubist work.The Painting was inspired by African artifacts.it was a major first step towards Cubism it is not yetCubist.Demoiselles is the logical picture to take as thestarting point for Cubism, because it marks the birthof a new pictorial idiom, because in it Picasso violentlyoverturned established conventions and because allthat followed grew out of it.
Analytic Cubismobjects were deconstructed into their components.In some cases, this was a means to depict differentviewpoints simultaneouslyIn other works, it was used more as a method ofvisually laying out the FACTS of the object, ratherthan providing a limited mimetic representation.The aim of Analytical Cubism was to produce aconceptual image of an object, as opposed to aperceptual one.
Synthetic CubismIn 1912, Picasso took the conceptualrepresentation of Cubism to its logical conclusionby pasting an actual piece of oilcloth onto thecanvas.It was a further development of the genre, inwhich cut paper fragments—often wallpaper orportions of newspaper pages—were pasted intocompositions.Some of the finest Synthetic Cubist work, bothvisually and conceptually, are the collages.
Classicism and surrealismAfter the war, Picasso, reflecting societysdisillusionment and shock with the technologicalhorrors of the war, reverted to a Classicist modeof representation.During the 30s Picasso became tangentiallyconnected with the Surrealist movement.After 1935 he returned to Classicism.By the late 30s, Picasso was the most famousartist in the world.