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The end product of a job analysis is job description and specifications. Description is information about the”WHAT” in a job and specification identity who should qualify for the job
The format and content of the job description and specification vary from one agency to another. However, the CSC requires some minimum qualification standards for each job in the bureaucracy.The duties assigned to a particular job may change in accordance with the needs of the organization. Sometimes there is a need to restructure the organization. The restructuring might lead to a change in the descriptions and specifications of certain jobs in the affected units or departments.
In the Philippines, the two broad classification systems of personnel in a government agency are the rank position and classification systems. Civil service employees are classified under the position classification system while the military personnel and the faculties of state universities and colleges are categorized under the rank classification system
job analysis determines the minimum and desirable qualifications for a job, , the information about the needed tasks, duties, and responsibilities can certainly guide the HR interviewer in evaluating the qualifications of the persons being considered for the job. This can be done by comparing the employee’s previous work experience and training with the tasks specified in the job analysis.Such information will help avoid the overlapping of duties and responsibilities of employees which could lead to irritants or friction in their relationships This can serve as a basis for determining how well employees have been performing their jobs. French has stressed that analysis of jobs in the organization will also lead to the development of performance appraisal forms which can be effectively used in the agency. This analysis provides a rational basis for determining wage/salary classification per rank and per stepcan also assist management in mapping out the possible career paths and advancement opportunities for each employee. In other words, the process can lead to the development of “career progression ladders” of employees in the organization.
. It has been pointed out by expert in the field of HRM that the type of work performed by an employee is a critical variable in job satisfaction. Job design determines how work is performed. It therefore affects how an employee feels about the job, how much authority can be exercised, what kind of decision can be made on the job, and how many tasks should be completed.
Planning the human resources needs of an organization starts from its overall purpose or mission. The output of the planning process will then have to reflect management philosophy, policies and program in the context of the overall strategic plans and the changing conditions within and outside the organization.
Once the forecast of human resources demand and supply have been made you are now ready to make detailed plans for the personnel of the organization. Recruitment of new employees may now be focus on where, how and what position they will be hired.
The figure illustrates the interactive phases of strategic planning and human resource planning. It further emphasized that the best methods of improving quality and productivity of the organization are directly related to human resources issues such as motivation, culture and education and training.
Hr planning, recruitment and selection
JOB ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND EVALUATION
JOB ANALYSISthe process of systematicallydetermining the essentialcomponents of a job – the duties,skills and qualifications required ofthe employee. Such data may begathered through interviews with theemployees and their respectivesupervisors, job observations, andthe use of a questionnaire
JOB DESCRIPTIONrefers to the following: job title,division and department, nature ofthe job, duties and responsibilities,methods and tools used, hours ofwork, the person to whom theemployee is accountable, funds orproperties responsible for,compensation, benefits andprivileges, hazards and risks, andpotentials for promotion.
JOB SPECIFICATIONSspecification list the neededqualifications of the employee who issupposed to be appointed for the jobdescribed. It specifies theeducational qualifications, workexperience, psychological traitsparticularly the mental andpersonality characteristics, healthstatus, special qualification like age,sex, status and special skills.
RANK CLASSIFICATION SYTEM vs. POSITION CLASSIFICATION
RANK CLASSIFICATION SYTEM POSITION CLASSIFICATION•it is the person or incumbent of the • Each rank requires certainposition or job who is classified. credentials such as masters or•The person’s official rank in the doctorate’s degree, experience andorganization will depend on seniority.educational qualifications, training, •The faculty maintains his/her rankexperiences, achievements and regardless of the discipline he/sheseniority. specializes in and regardless of the•The employee is paid in accordance courses he/she teaches, whetherwith the rank and not according to graduate or undergraduate courses.the kind of work that is actually • it is the position that is classifiedperformed. and not the person or the•This means that the rank is incumbent. The classification isattached to the person and that is based on the duties andcarried to wherever the person is responsibilities required by theassigned including the salary grade position or the functions that areattached to the rank required to be performed by the incumbents.
Uses of Job Analysis provides critical inputs to management decision- making particularly in relation to the recruitment and selection of personnel analysis reveals the areas in which the new employee has to be trained to successfully perform the tasks in the assigned job. provide critical information about work relationships in a particular unit or department as well as among departments in the whole organization. assist management in coming up with standards for work performance also serve as a tool for evaluating jobs in the organization management can be guided to determine the movement of employees by promotion, demotion, transfer, layoff, or resignation.
Methods of Job AnalysisThe Functional Job Language Technique. you have to interview the employees or workers toascertain which of the activities they perform could beconsidered critical in the effective performance in their jobs.Rather than identifying all the relevant employee activitiesas is done in the functional job language technique, you willidentify only those crucial to effective performanceThe Critical Incident Technique In this technique, you have to interview the employees orworkers to ascertain which of the activities they performcould be considered critical in the effective performance intheir jobs. Rather than identifying all the relevant employeeactivities as is done in the functional job languagetechnique, you will identify only those crucial to effectiveperformance.
The Job Element Technique more of a quantitative procedure used to question a panel of“expert” about the important activities of the employee. You willask each “expert” about an element to determine its importancein the job to be done. Job element usually human qualities ortraits and not behaviors. The “expert” panel is selected bymanagement. This panel usually composed of employees andsupervisors performing the same job or within the same jobcategory.The Positive Analysis Questionnaire Technique To use this technique, you have to prepare a standardquestionnaire which will be used to build a profile of any job andrank it relative to others based on certain broad categories aswork relationship, work environment or job situation.
Job Designthe process of determining thecontent, functions, and relationships of jobs in away which meets the goals and interests of theorganization and the employee. The content of ajob includes the various tasks to be carriedout, the autonomy of the job holder, the routinesof the tasks performed, the difficulty of the taskscarried out, and the identity of the job holder.The functions of a job include the work methodsemployed and the coordination of thework, responsibility, information flow, andauthority of the job. The relationships of the jobrefer to the shared work between and amongemployees in the agency
Approaches to Job DesignJob rotationA technique used to enhance employeemotivation is job rotation. This involvesperiodically assigning employees to alternatingjobs or tasksJob enlargementThe main purpose of this technique is also toreduce boredom through job enlargement whichincreases the scope of the work. In other words,the tasks being performed are enlarged suchthat the methods of operation are changed andin turn, the pace of the work is changed
Employee-centered work designEmployees are encouraged to be involved inredesigning their work to make their work moresatisfying. The work changes to be introduced shouldbe designed to accomplish the over-all objectives/goalsof the department or unit.Job enrichmentjobs are redesigned in scope and in depth. Scope refersto the dimension of the job concerned with the lengthof time an employee takes to complete the jobReengineeringinvolves the processes of restructuring, downsizing, orautomating the organization to make it more productiveand efficient. Included in the process is the applicationof new technology to allow employees to work moreefficiently and effectively.
Job Evaluation is a systematic process of comparingjobs to determine their relative worth to the organization. This kind of job analysis is the basis of a job hierarchy and pay range. The result of this is a pay system with the pay rate for eachjob commensurate with its status within the job hierarchy
HR Planning Begins with a review of the human resources needs in the light of organizational goals and plans for ensuring the employment of competent, qualified and stable work force Closely related to staffing process where an analysis of the skills level among employees is done in addition to an analysis of the external labor market
HR Planning Forecast the need for the additional personnel over some future period of time(Estimates the future human resources needs of the organization based on personnel turnover, retirement, promotion and expansion) Survey the skills levels among the employees and in the job market (Estimates of future labor supply based on economic projections, population movement, trends in education, and rate of promotion w/in the organization ) Decide on ways to meet the need
The Human Resource Planning Process EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting Comparison of ForecastingHuman Resource Requirements Human Resource Requirements and Availability Availability Demand Surplus Shortage of = of Workers Supply Workers Restricted Hiring, Recruitment No Reduced Hours; Action Early Retirement Selection Layoff
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESSRECRUITMENT- refers to the process of attractingapplications from peopleSELECTION- process of measuring andassessing the characteristics ofapplicants and choosing thosepersons who are most likely tosucceed on the job
FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECRUITMENT PROCESSORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS- Perception about the organization- Growth opportunities- Reward system- Leadership and management styleEXTERNAL FACTORS- Supply and Demand of Labor- Social attributes on particular type of employmentRECRUITMENT W/IN & OUTSIDE THEORGANIZATION
SELECTION PROCESSSelecting the best candidates among theapplicants on the basis of certain factors whichrange from the concrete and measurable to theabstract and personal like leadership andpotential.SELECTION TEST- Measures of Proficiency, achievement or knowledge- Measures of aptitude or potential- Measures of mental ability- Measures of interest- Measures of personality- Measures of substance abuse