images for which
words stand and
images in videos,
websites with What can you determine
accompanying about the weather?
printed or spoken
enhances listening skills when students attend
to nonverbal communication and visual elements
of performance, video, television, film, and
enhances reading when students attend to
visuals accompanying print (e.g., charts,
diagrams, illustrations); specific textual
techniques (e.g., layout, colour, symbols); and
the assumptions, perspectives, and quality of a
variety of media (e.g., photos, plays, video).
Viewing was not a skill that was taught until
• Students can learn to “read” the pictures, the
diagrams, and the tables, maps and charts.
• These skills will provide them with increased
information about the material.
• Many materials today can not be accurately
interpreted without the graphics.
• Many books relate stories that are
incomplete without the pictures
Visually Representing in the Classroom
• There are many •
ways to represent
– Presentation can be
information with a
• WebPages – and web
The student understands and interprets
messages, and meanings (visual
analyzes and Critiques
The student analyzes and critiques the
significance of visual images, messages,
1. Start by asking students to look quietly for
a moment at the work of art.
2. Begin the discussion with questions that
allow students to make multiple observations
3. Ask students to support their
interpretations by citing evidence in the
4 . Depending upon the discussion, more
leading questions can be asked.
5. If introducing outside information, ask
students whether the new information affects
6. Students can help summarize the
Teachers should guide students in
constructing meaning through creating and
viewing non-print texts.
The teacher serves as facilitator, focusing
the discussion, recapping student
observations, modeling vocabulary, and
generating additional thoughts.
Select and use the appropriate strategies
and the language.
o Prepare to view
o Consider what they know and need to know
o Formulate questions before viewing
o Set purpose(s) for each type of viewing
and predict the presentation's message
O Associate what is being said with personal
experience and make connections.
O Identify the key idea or main point.
O Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s)
expressed or the point of the presentation.
O Determine the difference between fact and
underlying message portrayed in visuals and
between real or imaginary images
O Use pragmatic, textual, syntactic, semantic, graph
phonic and other cues (e.g., the visual elements and
techniques used) to construct and confirm meaning
O Recall and summarize main points, important
details, and techniques employed .
O Relate what was seen to personal experience or
O Analyze and evaluate what was seen (including
elements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g., critique
a video or drama review)
O Draw conclusions about the perspective and values
found in what was seen.
O Express and support personal reactions to and
opinions of the presentation
O Identify the strategies used to influence an
audience (e.g., exaggeration, one-sided view of a
O Seek additional information from other sources as
needed or desired.
Defining Visual Literacy
•The ability to interpret the meaning of
visual images. Giorgis (1999)
•The ability to construct effective
visuals in order to convey ideas to
others. Valmont (2003) and Heinich (1999)
Visual Literacy should begin with Picture
Children need others to ask the right
questions to spur on the skills of
• Why do you think that was put in the picture?
• What does the picture tell us?
• What do you see?
• What is happening?
• TALK ABOUT IT!
Just as in reading, writing, and
speaking, viewing entails giving
attention to facts, relationships,
inferences, and to critical analysis.
Viewer carefully to comprehend
and evaluate information
presented by television, video
recordings, and other visual
Seeing – Thinking Activities (STAs)
• Most teachers are familiar with Directed Reading
Thinking Activities –DR-TAs
• STAs are the same sort of activity only using
visuals for the “reading”.
• STAs strengthen visual literacy skills and making
predictions from available information.
• There are four types of STAs
– Alternative ending
– Multiple frame
Select various picture
books or illustrations for
discussion, talk about
the author or
illustrator's style, art
work, and other
The teacher or
various aspects of a
topic. Usually a
student acts as the
curator at each
display site and
responds to any
questions about the
Drama and Puppet
presented by a
or informally staged
by peers, drama and
powerful vehicles for
critical viewing skills.
Videos, Films, Television, CD-ROMs, and Internet
to help students
analyze the visual
texts that students
used to extend
help students develop
thinking and viewing