7. • Every one of us has a distinct character that
can be developed, polished and refined.
• This process includes
1.boosting one’s confidence,
2.improving communication skills,
3.broadening ones knowledge,
5.learning fine etiquettes and manners,
6.adding style and grace to the way one looks,
talks and walks and
7.overall imbibing oneself with positiveness,
liveliness and peacefulness.
• What is Personality Development?
• What are the processes involved in
developing one’s personality?
10. JEAN PIAGET
a Swiss psychologist, made
the most intensive study of
development. He came up
with a series of distinct
stages as children mature.
11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1. Sensorimotor stage – during this period, infants are
busy discovering that relationships between their actions
and the consequences of these actions.
2. Preoperational stage – between two to seven years,
at this stage, the child learn to use language to represent
objects by using words.
3. Concrete Operational stage – seven to twelve years,
by now the child can think logically about objects and
4. Formal Operational stage – ages twelve years and
up, the child now thinks logically and becomes
concerned with the hypothetical, the future and
12. ADAM SFERRA
•In Adam Sferra’s Personality
Development and Public Relation
book, intelligent behavior defines
the general capacity of the
individual to think reasonably and
to act with good judgment. It has
1. The capacity to learn is determine by
heredity and environment.
2. Capacity for abstract thinking is he
capacity to think in terms of concepts.
3. Mental alertness is quickness of
observation, understanding and action.
4. Sound judgment is the result of wisdom,
5. General adaptability is the all around
ability to fit successfully into the variety of
14. ERIK ERIKSON
• a noted psychologist calls development as a
continuous process extending from birth through
• He calls them psychosocial stages. They range
from the first year of life, second year, third
through fifth years, six year to puberty,
adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood,
and the aging years.
• Aging years, beginning 65, brings new problems.
• Middle adulthood, ages 40-65, these years
constitute the most productive period.
15. SIGMUND FREUD
• Sigmund Freud, developed the psychoanalytic
theory that our actions are determined by inner
forces and impulses that often operate at an
Freud’s Structural Model of Personality
• According to Freud, three elements of personality
—known as the id, the ego, and the superego—
work together to create complex human
• The id is the only part of personality that is present at birth.
• The id acts as the driving force behind personality.
• It not only strives to fulfill our most basic urges, many of
which are tied directly to survival, it also provides all of the
energy necessary to drive personality.
• During infancy, before the other components of
personality begin to form, children are ruled entirely by
• Satisfying basic needs for food, drink, and comfort are of
the utmost importance. As we grow older, it would
obviously be quite problematic if we acted out to satisfy
the needs of the id whenever we felt an urge, need, or
• The ego is part of personality that mediates the
demands of the id, the superego and reality. The
ego prevents us from acting on our basic urges
(created by the id), but also works to achieve a
balance with our moral and idealistic standards
(created by the superego).
• While the ego operates in both the preconscious
and conscious, it's strong ties to the id means that
it also operates in the unconscious.
• The ego operates based on the reality principle,
which works to satisfy the id's desires in a manner
that is realistic and socially appropriate.
• The superego is the component of personality
composed of our internalized ideals that we have
acquired from our parents and from society.
• The superego works to suppress the urges of the id
and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather
• The ideals that contribute to the formation of the
superego include not just the morals and values
that we have learned from our parents, but also
the ideas about right and wrong that we acquire
from society and the culture in which we live.
• Two components: the ego ideal and the
• The ego ideal is made up of all of our rules for
• The conscience is composed of the rules for
which behaviors are considered bad.
• When we engage in actions that conform to
the ego ideal, we feel good about ourselves
or proud of our accomplishments. When we
do things that our conscience considers bad,
we experience feelings of guilt.
21. • The primary action of the superego is to entirely
suppress any urges or desires of the id that are
considered wrong or socially unacceptable. It also tries
to force the ego to act morally rather than realistically.
Finally, the superego strives for moral perfections,
without taking reality into account.
22. ABRAHAM MASLOW
• Abraham Maslow, is a leader in the
development of humanistic
psychology, classified motives and
constructed a hierarchy of needs,
ascending from the basic biological
needs to the most complex
23. GOOD PERSONALITY
Attributes of a person with “Good
Personal and Professional integrity
Trustworthiness and reliability
• Good control over body and mind
27. WHEN IS MIND UNHEALTHY?
Agitated mind is unhealthy
What agitates human mind?
Not getting what one desires
Getting what one dislikes
Uncontrolled emotions in the mind
Continuous accumulation of such likes and
dislikes stresses the mind out.
Stress agitates the mind
• Stressed mind is unhealthy
28. HEALTHY MIND
Stress-free mind is healthy and calm
Such calm mind can be controlled more
• De-stressing the mind is needed:
Prevention of accumulation of day-to-
Clearing the stockpile of stored
29. CULTIVATING A HEALTHY MIND
Documented human experience of the past:
Non-reactive observation of oneself mitigates the
strength of these complexes
Continuous awareness makes this a continuous
process: results in clearing the stockpile
Different paths for removal of accumulated
Path of service
Path of intellectual analysis
Path of devotion
Path of meditation
Good Personality arises from a healthy
body and healthy mind
Healthy body needs a healthy mind
Healthy mind can be achieved by
preventing accumulation of
complexes in mind
Non-reactive self-observation de-
stresses the mind
This is possible through several paths:
paths of service, intellectual analysis,
devotion or meditation
Perfectionists – are realistic, conscientious and principled
Ex: Narayan Murthy – Infosys.
Helpers – are warn, concerned, nurturing and sensitive to other
Ex: Mother Teresa.
Achievers – are eneagetic, optimistic, self assured and goal
Ex: Sachin Tendulkar
Romantics – have sensitive feelings and are warm and
Ex: M. F. Hussain – great Indian Painter
Observers – have a need for knowledge and are introverted,
curious, analytical and insightful.
Ex: Amartya Sen - Great economist
Questioners – are responsible and trustworthy.
Ex: Shabana Azmi
Adventurers – are energetic, lively and optimistic.
They want to contribute to the world
Ex: Vijay Mallya - NRI businessman.
Asserters – are direct, self-reliant, self confident and
Ex: T. N. Seshan - Chief Election Commissioner.
Peacemakers – are receptive, good-natured and
supportive. They seek union with others and the
world around them
35. IT CAN HELP IN THE
• To learn the business etiquette of exchanging cards,
wishing on first meeting, bowing when you are visiting
Japan and the like.
• Voice modulation, diction, communication skills, phone
etiquette, hygiene, empowerment skills, time
management and positive thinking.
• To cultivate a friendly, interactive manner. Essentials
like giving a speech, voice development and
modulation of voice.
• It enhances the sense of confidence and self-worth.
36. PERSONALITY TEST
This can identify:
Emotional reaction to a critical situation
Moods and characteristic behaviour traits.
Maturity in handling a crisis.
Ability to adjust himself to the stress of day-to-day
Self-confidence, personal ambition, emotional control
and sociability etc.
38. AVOID SUCH BODY
• Crossed arms or legs
• Carrying books or papers across your chest
• Slumped posture
• Sitting perched on the edge of the chair
• Wringing hands
• Tapping foot
• Rocking legs
• Drumming fingers
• Biting nails
• Fiddling with the jewelry or hair
• Covering your mouth with your hand while talking
• Rocking in your chair
• Scratching a lot
• Clearing your throat too much
• Straightening your tie
• Playing with watch or cufflinks
• Hands in the pocket
41. BEHAVING RUDELY
Working when someone is talking to you
Standing too close
Packing up folders and papers well before the meeting
Shaking hands too hard or limp handshakes
Yawning when the meeting is in progress
Looking at your watch repeatedly
Blinking a lot
Fiddling with rings, watches, earrings and chains
Tapping or clicking pens
Playing with paper clips
Jingling money in pocket
Picking at fingernails
Twiddling bits of hair
43. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES
A keen sense of justice and fairness
Definiteness of plans
The habit of doing more than being paid for
A pleasing personality
Sympathy and understanding
Mastery of details
Willingness to assume full responsibility
• get on well with other people
• good communicator
• good sense of humour
• good time-keeper
• hard working
• independent worker
• self confident
• self motivated
• work well with others
48. Determinants of personality
Cultural factors Situational factors
(Behaviour from family &
2. Identification process
( Selecting ideal person)
3. Home environment
1. Independence- Australia
2. Aggression- North Korea
3. Competition- India
4. Co-operation- Japan
49. TYPE A AND B
Type A Personality
walking, and eating
•Feel impatient with the
rate at which most
events take place.
•Strive to think or do
two or more things at
•Cannot cope with
•Are obsessed with
their success in terms
of how many or how
much of everything they
Type B Personality
•Never suffer from a
sense of time urgency
with its accompanying
•Feel no need to
display or discuss
unless such exposure
is demanded by the
•Play for fun &
relaxation, instead of
exhibit their superiority
at any cost.
Can relax without guilt.
50. BIG 5 IN SHORT…
Personality Factors Characters
Careful, dependable and
Courteous, good natured,
empathic and caring.
Poised, secure and calm.
Sensitive, flexible, creative and
Outgoing and cautious.
51. THANK YOU
Prof. Sneh Anand, Dr. P.V.M. Rao and Dr. M.R.Ravi National Resource Centre for
Value Education in Engineering (NRCVEE), IIT Delhi