SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF
Animal Reproduction and Obstetrics
DR. Isaac P. kashoma
• REPRODUCTION (from the Greek word,
Reproducere “repeat to produce”) is the process of
having babies, producing young.
• OBSTETRICS (from the Latin obstare, "to
stand by") is the medical specialty dealing with
the care of all women's reproductive tracts and
their newborn during pregnancy (prenatal
period), at parturition and the postnatal period.
ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF
A: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF FEMALE
Consist of two parts:
Proper reproductive organs.
1: Supporting tissues
Bones, ligaments and tendons.
a) Bones: Sacrum, the two os coxae (Ilium, Ischium and Pubis).
They form a cavity known as Pelvis
b) Ligaments and Tendons.
Maintain the relationship of the pelvis and spinal
1) The dorsal and lateral sacroiliac ligaments
which fasten the wing of the ilium to the
lateral portion of the sacrum.
2) The sacro-sciatic ligament completes the
lateral wall of the pelvic cavity behind and
between the sacrum and coxae.
3) The prepubic tendon, the tendon of
insertion of the two rectii abdominis, the
external and internal obliques, the gracillis
and pectini muscles.
The pelvis is the smallest and most posterior of
the three great cavities of the trunk.
Forms the cavity in which some of the female
genital organs are contained
Prevents the passage of the fetus during
pregnancy (before parturition).
Forms the canal through which the fetus passes
during the act of parturition.
The caudal portion of the pelvic cavity is smaller in
diameter than the cranial portion, however it is
capable of dilating at the time of parturition to
allow the passage of the fetus
Ovaries (2) are primary reproductive organ of the
female and are suspended the broad ligament
Oval (shape) with various sizes containing thousands
of ova and only one ovum is usually released during
each estrous cycle in cow
Two parts: cortex producing oocytes or egg cells, and
Medulla made of connective tissue and blood vessels.
1. Ovary at rest, non- cyclic
2. Functional corpus luteum
3. Not easily palpable
functional corpus luteum
4. Vacuolated corpus luteum
5. Polycystic ovary (follicular
2: Fallopian tubes (Oviduct).
Fallopian tubes (Oviduct) helps to transport ova
(fertilized eggs) to the uterus.
Oviduct is supported by the broad ligaments
Has three parts:
a) Infundibulum: A funnel like of the oviduct. It
connect the oviduct to the ovary, it has process
finger like structures known as the fimbriae.
b) Ampulla: Slightly wider portion and at the
middle portion of the oviduct.
c) Isthmus: Joining the uterine horn to the
oviduct, it has half of the length of the oviduct.
The oviduct is the site of fertilization and early
Fertilization takes place in the lower portion of
the ampulla (Ampullary isthmus junction)
following which the fertilized ovum or ova
enter the uterus.
Is a hollow muscular organ, Y-shaped, and is
divided into two parts: body and uterine horns.
Uterine size varies with breed, age, parity,
pregnancy and disease.
The uterus is suspended to the pelvic on
either side by broad ligament.
Uterine wall consist of three layers, the inner lining
(Endometrium), the muscular layer (Myometrium) and
the outer layer (Serosa).
Functions: site of semen deposition during Al, secrete
fluid (uterine milk) which provides nutrients to the
developing embryo, develops the maternal side of the
placenta to nourish and protect the developing fetus.
Four basic types of uteri:
1. Bicornuate uterus (sow, cow, doe and ewe) has small
uterine body and two long uterine horns.
2. Bipartite uterus (mare) has a prominent uterine body and
two uterine horns.
3. Duplex uterus (rat, rabbit & guinea pig) has two uterine
horns each with a separate cervical canal opening directly
into the vagina.
4. Simple uterus (Human & primates) has a pear-shaped
body with no uterine horns.
The cervix is the sphincter-like segment of the
reproductive tract which separates uterus from
The function of the cervix is to close the uterine
lumen against macroscopic and microscopic
intruders (except during estrus and parturition)
At estrus, the cervix serves as a passageway for
In pregnancy, the cervical mucus hardens and
seals off the canal by forming the "cervical plug"
or "cervical seal" which liquefies/softens shortly
At parturition the cervix dilates allowing passage
of the fetus and fetal membranes.
4: The cervix
The vagina is tubular in shape, thin-walled and
The vagina is the female organ of copulation and
acts as birth canal.
In the cow, doe and ewe, semen is deposited into
the anterior end of the vagina near the opening to
the cervix, during natural mating.
The external opening of the female genitalia.
1.Clitoris, structure of erectile tissue (homologous with the male penis)
2.Vestibule, portion of the female duct system that is common to both
the reproductive and urinary systems
B: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF
• Male reproductive organs are divided into
• Primary organ Testis (Testicle)
Production of gametes
Production of reproductive hormones
• Secondary organs Ducts, Accessory glands and
Deposition of semen / copulation
• Testis (plural, Testes) is primary organ
producing spermatozoa and sex hormones
• Testes descend from their site of origin, near
the kidneys, down through the inguinal ring
into the scrotum.
• In some cases one or both testes fail to
descend due to a defect in development.
• If both fail, the animal is bilateral
cryptorchid, if one testis descends he is a
• Testes are covered with tunica vaginalis, a serous tissue,
which is an extension of the peritoneum.
• The outer layer of the testes tunica albuginea.
• Tunica albuginea extends through the parenchyma (The
functional layer of testes) of the testis and divide it into
• Each lobule is composed of several seminiferous tubules
and the surrounding connective tissue.
• Spermatogenesis (formation of spermatozoa) occurs in the
epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules.
• Several seminiferous tubules are found in each lobule
• Seminiferous tubules contain germ cells
(spermatogonia) and nurse cells (Sertoli
• Scattered throughout the loose connective
tissue surrounding the seminiferous
tubules are interstitial cells (Leydig cell),
that produce testosterone
• Seminiferous tubules join a network of
tubules, the rete testis, which connects to
12 to 15 small ducts, the vasa efferentia
which, converge into the head of the
2. Scrotums and Spermatic Cord
• The scrotum is two-lobed sac, which
enclosed the testes.
• It is located in the inguinal region
between the rear legs of most species.
• It is composed of an outer layer of think
skin with numerous large sweat and
• The inner lining is formed by a smooth
muscle fibers, the tunica dartos dividing
the scrotum into two pouches.
• The spermatic cord connects the testis to
the convoluted testicular arteries and
surrounding Venus plexus, and nerve
• The spermatic cord is composed of smooth
muscle fibers, connective tissue, and a
portion of the vas deferens.
• Both the spermatic cords and scrotum
contribute to the support of the testes.
Also, they have a joint function in
regulating the temperature of the testes.
• Epididymis is the first external duct leading
from the testis.
• The epididymis has three major parts: the
caput (head), corpus (body) and Caudal (tail)
• Functions of epididymis:
a) Transportation of spermatozoa
b) Concentration of spermatozoa
c) Storage of spermatozoa
d) Maturation of spermatozoa
4. Vas Deferens and Urethra
• Vas deferens: pair of ducts with one
leading from the distal end of the
caudal/tail of each epididymis.
• Vas deferens: has a thick layer of smooth
muscles with a major function of
transportation of spermatozoa.
• Urethra: is a single duct, which extends
from the ampullae (enlarged part of vas
deferens) to the end of the penis.
• Urethra serves as an excretory duct for
both urine and semen.
5. Accessory Glands
• Including: vesicular glands, prostate gland
and bulbourethral / Cowper's glands .
a) Vesicular glands (seminal vesicles)
Pair of lobular glands with knobby
appearance "cluster of grapes“ function by
secretion of Phosphate and carbonates
which buffer / protect semen against pH
b) Prostate gland:
• Single gland located around and along the
• The prostate secretions are high in
inorganic ions of sodium, chlorine,
calcium & magnesium.
c) Bulbourethral (Cowpers) glands:
• Paired glands located along the urethra.
• Secretes fluids which flush urine residue
from the urethra before ejaculation.
• The penis is the organ of copulation in
• It starts from the point where the urethra
leaves the pelvis up to free end with the
external urethral orifice.
• Bulls, boars, and rams have a sigmoid
flexure, (S-shaped bend in the penis),
which with aid of retractor penis muscles
permits penis to be retracted completely
into the body.
• In most species the penis is fibroelastic,
containing small amounts of erectile
• The prepuce (sheath) is an invagination of
skin, which completely enclosed the free
end of the penis.
• It can be divided into a prepenile portion,
which is the outer fold, and the penile
portion, or inner folds.
• The orifice of the prepuce is surrounded by
long and tough preputial hairs.
Hormones are organic substances secreted by
certain specialized cells (glands) in the body,
which diffuse or transported to some other
part of the body and bring about certain
A number of hormones are directly or
indirectly involved in various aspects of
The secretion of these hormones is essential
for the maintenance of a proper internal
environment to ensure successful
Major hormones involved in
reproduction of female animals
1. Follicle Stimulating
and development of
the follicles in the
follicles to rupture.
The ruptured follicle
becomes the corpus
3. Prolactin Maintains lactation
Oxytocin 1. Stimulates the letdown of
2. Stimulates muscular
contraction of the uterus at
Ovaries 1. Oestrogen 1. Stimulation of oestrus or heat
so that the female will accept
2. Promotes growth of the uterus
and mammary glands.
1. Maintains pregnancy and
stimulates the development of
the wall of the uterus.
2. Prevents oestrus and
ovulation by inhibiting FSH
3. Relaxin 1. Causes pelvic ligaments to
Source Hormone Function
(From Leydig cells)
2.Controls the development of
secondary sex characteristics
and for normal mating behavior.
3.Necessary for the function of
the accessory glands and male
1. LH Necessary for the development of
the Leydig cells.
2. FSH Stimulates development of Sertoli
Major hormones involved in reproduction of Male
Other animal reproductive hormones:
1. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH),
secreted by Hypothalamus, causes ovulation of the
dominant follicle by causing the release of the
luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland.
2. Prostaglandin (PGF2α), secreted by the uterus, causes
regression of the CL and a decrease in progesterone levels. If
the cow is pregnant, the embryo will block the release of
PGF2α and allow the CL to continue to secrete progesterone.
3. Progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum.
a) suppresses further development of follicles and the
secretion of estrogen.
b) Necessary for preparing the uterus to receive the fertilized
c) Maintains proper uterine environment for continuation of
Clinical Use of Reproductive Hormones
1. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones (GnRH):
a) Used in the treatment of ovarian follicular cysts,
b) Induction of ovulation
c) Oestrus synchronization.
a) Induces milk let-down in heifers and in cows with
subnormal milk production.
b) Hastens uterine involution following dystocia,
caesarean operation, replacement of uterine
prolapse, uterine trauma or hemorrhage.
3. Progesterone (Progestogens/Progestins)
Sectreted by the corpus luteum (main source), placenta
(especially of the ewe and mare after the first 1/3 and 1/2 of
a) Prevent abortion due to an actual or possible
b) Synchronization of estrus in the mare, ewe,
cow and sow
c) In heifers are used to promote growth -
4.Prostaglandins (prostaglandin F2 Alpha (PGF2α).
1. Evacuation of the uterus (mummified, pyometra, endometritis).
2. Synchronization of estrus.
3. Induce abortion in heifers and ewes (mated too young).
4. induction of early parturition in cows (cases of fetal oversize).
5-Treatment of luteal cysts
5. Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin(PMSG)
(Now: equine chorionic gonadotropin - eCG).
Produced by the endometrial cups of the mare from
about 40 to 140 days of pregnancy. It contains both
FSH and LH, but its activity is mainly FSH.
1. Superovulation of donor cows for embryo transfer.
1. Used to control ovulation in female and treating persistence
2. Treat cryptochidism in males. LH increases testosterone
production, which cause descent of the testicles into the scrotum.
6. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Secreted by chorionic epithelial cells of human placenta,
excreted in the urine and reaching a peak levels at about
50 days of pregnancy.
Its activity is predominantly LH.
OESTROUS CYCLE IN DOMESTIC
Estrous cycle: period of reproductive cyclicity /
physiologic functional regularity of the
Anestrus: periods of no estrous cycles (occurs
during pregnancy, nursing, season of year, poor
nutrition, pathological conditions).
Estrus: is a Noun, the period of sexual receptivity
Seasonal Breeders: animals that have one or
more estrous cycles during certain periods of the
Polyestrous Animals: animals with estrous
cycles throughout the year e.g., cattle, Pigs,
Humans. Sometimes only bred at certain periods
of the year, but will cycle all year.
Seasonally Polyestrous Animals: animals that
have multiple estrous cycles only during certain
periods of the year.
Monestrous animals: animals that have one
estrous cycle per year e.g. Dogs, wolves, foxes,
THE OESTROUS CYCLE.
Oestrous cycle occurs in all animals reached
The cycle is divided into 4 or 5 well-marked
period or phases, each of these periods
merges into each other.
Length of Estrous Cycle in Different Animals
Animal species Length (Range)
1. Ewe 17 days (13 - 19)
2. Goat 21 days (15 - 24)
3. Sow 21 days (17 - 25)
4. Cow 21 days (17 - 24)
5. Mare 21 days (15 - 25)
Animal spp. Estrus Metestrus Diestrus Proestrus
1.Cow 12-18 hrs 6-8 days 9 days 3days
2.Mare 4-7 days 5-6 days 5-9 days 3days
3.Sow 2-4 days 5-7 days 7-11 days 3days
4.Bitch 9 days 60-90 days 45-90 days 9days.
Length of phases of estrous cycle in domestic animals
The period of development of the Graafian follicle,
under the influence of FSH.
At this time, there is increase in the production of
The period characterized by sexual desire and the
acceptance of male by the female animal.
The Graafian follicle is large and mature, the ovum
undergo maturation changes.
Oestrogen produced during this phase is high leading
to genital tract changes.
Ovulation occurs towards the end of this period of
oestrus (in most animals)
Is the period which follows estrous X2 by rapid
development of corpus luteum from the ruptured
The period under the influence of the progesterone,
Progesterone inhibits FSH secretion, to prevent
development of graafian follicle.
Is a longest period in oestrus cycle X2 by the presence
of matured corpus leteum in a non-pregnant animal.
Also is called the resting period, because the genital
tract is in a quiescent state.
At the late stage of this period, there is regression of
the corpus leteum, which gives chance for
development of primary and secondary follicles and
finally proestrus occur.
It occurs in non-polyestrous animals X2 by
functionless of ovaries and the reproductive tract.
Anaestrus is normally followed by the proestrus.
This phase is observed physiologically in mare,
ewe, bitch and cat.
In these animals, diestrus is short (1week) but
anaestrus takes several months.
During anestrus, the uterus is small and flaccid
and the vagina mucus is scanty and sticky.
SIGNS OF ESTRUS (HEAT).
Behavior and physiological changes occurring during
estrus in domestic animals, particularly in a cow:
1. Mounting other animals and accept to be mounted.
2. Excessive bellowing / Grunting.
3. Restlessness and loss of appetite.
4. Increase mucus secretion in the cervix and vagina,
lead to clear string of mucus extruded from the vagina
and often adhere to the tail.
5. Slightly drop of milk production in daily animals.
6. Lips of the vulva become swollen, enlarged and deeper
red in colour compared with non-estrus animal.
Animal Length of
Time of ovulation
1. Mare 4-7 days 1-2 days before the end of oestrus.
2. Cow 12-18 hrs 12-14 hrs after the end of oestrus.
3. Ewe 24 to 36 hrs 12- 24 hrs before the end of oestrus.
4. Goat 24 - 40 hrs About the last day of oestrus
5. Sow 2-4 days 30-36 hrs after the onset of oestrus
6. Dog 9 days 1-2days after the onset of oestrus
TIME OF OVULATION IN DOMESTIC
Animal Av. Length of
Time of ovulation Optimum time for service.
Mare 21 days 1-2 days before end of
3-4 days before the end of
Cow 21 days 12-14 hours after the
end of oestrus.
Just before the middle of
oestrus to the end of
Ewe 17 days 12- 24 hours before
the end of oestrus.
18-24 hours after the onset
Goat 21 days About the last day of
24-36hours after the onset
Sow 21 days 30-36 hours after the
onset of oestrus
12- 30 hours after the
onset of oestrus
Dog 2 cycles per
One to two days after
the onset of true
2-3 days after the onset of
Cat 21 days 24-30 hours after
Difficult to practice.
CORRECT PERIOD OF SERVICE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS
Definition: The fusion of male and female gamete to form a
STAGES OF FERTILIZATION
1. Gamete maturation.
Before fertilization (in the ampulla- isthmus junction),
two events in the gametes have to occur:
a)Spermatozoa have to undergo a series of maturation
in the female genital tract (Capacitation) - final
maturation of spermatozoa which involves the
removal of the head cover (acrosomal cap) of the
b)Ovum must complete its first meiosis Phase before
or after ovulation.
2. Penetration of sperm to the ovum.
Once the sperm is contact to the ovum, it
release two hydrolytic enzymes; Acrosin and
a) Hyalulonidase enzyme cause a break down
of the cellular component around the oocyte
b) Acrosin digest the acellular protein around
The enzymatic digestion is called Acrosomal
3. Sperm attachment.
Spermatozoa have Receptors for attachment to the
ovum called ZP sperm receptors
Only spermatozoa with good morphology (intact
sperm) can be able to lock at this receptor.
4. Gamete fusion.
The nucleus of the sperm and the egg eventually
combine to form a diploid zygote and fertilization is
The egg’s membrane quickly prevents additional
sperm from entering the egg by:
a) Depolarization of ovum (fast block to polyspermy)
b) the cortical reaction causes a hardening of the
DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUS
Gestation is the time period from fertilization
(conception) to parturition or birth of the
During this period, single cell divide and
develop into highly organized individual.
The period of gestation can be divided into 3
1. The period of embryo.
2. The period of embryo and organogenesis.
3. The period of fetus and fetal development.
1. THE PERIOD OF EMBRYO.
a) This is the period from fertilization to about 10-12
days, when the primitive fetal membranes are formed
in the uterus.
b) The fertilized ovum is divided mitotically (process
known as Cleavage) immediately after fertilization is
c) The zygote (one large cell) divides into several smaller
cells called blastomeres @ has its own nucleus.
d) The first five to seven divisions result in the Morula, a
simple ball of blastomeres cells.
e) Due to contraction of the uterine wall, the ovum
moves from the oviduct to the uterus.
f) A fluid-filled cavity forms within the Morula, the cavity
is called the Blastocoel.
g) The Morula becomes a Blastula when the blastocoel is
f) After the few cell divisions (cleavage), there is a
dramatic rearrangement of cells of the blastula to form
a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut.
2.THE PERIOD OF EMBRYO AND ORGANOGENESIS.
a) This extends from day 12 to about one to two
months depend on the animal species.
b) During this period major tissue organ and systems of
the body are formed.
c) At the end of this period you can identify the species
of the embryo.
d) Three germ layers arise from the inner cell mass of
the Blastula: ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm.
1. Ectoderm, the most external layer, forms the skin,
hair, hooves and mammary glands, brain and the
2. Mesoderm, the middle germ layer, forms muscle,
the skeletal system, and the circulatory system.
3. Endoderm, the most exterior germ layer, forms the
lining of the gut and other internal organs
h) At this stage most severe developmental
defect/anomalies do occur, and the embryo can die,
get expelled out or absorbed.
Germ Layer Organs
Ectoderm 1. Central nervous
2. Sense organs
3. Mammary glands
4. Sweat glands
Mesoderm 1. Circulatory
2. Skeletal system
(male and female)
6. Urinary ducts
Endoderm 1. Digestive system
5. Thyroid gland
6. Primordial germ cells
3. THE PERIOD OF FETUS AND FETAL
a) This stage starts where the second stage ends (35
days in small ruminants, 45-60days in cow, 55 days
in horses) and end at parturition.
b) Minor details in differentiation of organs and tissues
c) Also growth and maturation of antenatal individual
occurs including rapid increase of fetal size especially
in the last 2-3 months of gestation.
d) In ruminants cotyledons and caruncles develops and
become enlarged to supply nutrients to the fetus.
Types of placenta:
1. Placenta diffusa: found in swine and horses
2. Placenta cotyledonaria: found in ruminants
3. Placenat zonaria (anularis): found in canivores
4. Placenra discoidalis: found in humans, rodents and primates
PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS (PD)
Indicators of pregnant animals.
1. External indication.
a) History mostly used for indoor animal keepers,
where the animal owners keep records of animal
oestrus cycles and services.
b) Behaviour changes include the increase in the
body weight especially in advanced pregnancy where
the cow become quiet and moves slowly.
The main objective of pregnancy diagnosis is to be
able to detect those animals, which are not pregnant,
so that the animal can be rebred.
c) Anatomical changes includes a marked sinking of
gluteal muscles, oedema of the vulva and relaxation
of the vulva(identifiable in the last two weeks of
d) Morphological changes, the increase of the
abdominal size, the udder (heifer at 4-5 months of
pregnancy begin to increase in size), Enlargement
and oedema of the udder, the lactating cow begins to
decrease milk production, the last week of pregnancy.
2. Internal indications.
Animal internal reproductive organs.
Several methods are available to determine if a
cow or heifer is pregnant.
1. History of non-return to estrus
2. Rectal examination (palpation)
3. Hormonal measurements
4. Radiograph/Ultrasound examination
5. Abdominal palpation/Vaginal examination
1. Non-return to oestrus
If oestrus signs are not observed around 3 weeks after
service or insemination, the cow is generally assumed
to be pregnant.
However, even if oestrus detection is good, not all of
these cows will be pregnant.
On the other hand, up to 7% of pregnant cows will
show some signs of oestrus during pregnancy.
Insemination of these animals may result in embryonic
or fetal death.
2. Rectal palpation
Based on the uterine changes during pregnancy that
can be detected by rectal palpation.
The method is used to detect the size of the uterus
and the corpus luteum in the ovaries.
Advantage: immediate result enabling early
treatment of non-pregnant cattle.
Accuracy: depends on the experience of the
practitioner and can reach 95%.
Rectal examination is usually carried done between 35
and 65 days post AI.
a) Enlargement of horn (30-40 days of gestation).
b) Palpation of amniotic vesicle in early pregnant ( 40-50
days of gestation).
c) Slipping away of fetal membrane following gentle
pinching (40-90 days of gestation).
d) Palpation of placentoms (3.5-4 months). Placentomes are
the structures formed by the union of maternal caruncles and fetal
cotyledons by which the placenta is attached to the uterus.
e) Palpation of fetus (3- 9 months of gestation).
f) Palpation of enlarged middle uterine artery (120-150
days of gestation), this is accompanied by the
characteristics changes by the pulse (of the blood) in
this artery, and changes are called Fremitus.
(days of gestation)
35-40 Pelvic floor
45-50 Pelvic floor 5.0 - 6.5 cm
60 Pelvis/abdomen 6.5 - 7.0 cm Membrane slip
90 Abdomen 8.0 - 10.0 cm
(10-15 cm long)
120 Abdomen 12 cm
30 com long)/fremitis
150 Abdomen 18 cm
40 cm long)/fremitus
a) Progesterone assay
The progesterone secreted by a functional corpus luteum
between 18 and 24 days after service or insemination is
an early indication of pregnancy.
It can be assayed in milk or plasma.
Optimal assay time is 24 days after service or AI, this
eliminates the possibility of long oestrus intervals which
might result in false positives.
b) Early Pregnancy-associated Proteins
Commonly used are early conception factor (ECF) or
pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in blood samples.
Detect the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein within 48
hours of conception.
Because of the high incidence of embryonic mortality,
Pregnancy should be confirmed later by rectal or ultrasound
4. Ultrasound examination
Real time (B-mode) ultrasound is a reliable and
relatively simple method of diagnosing pregnancy as
early as day 26.
An accuracy of over 99% can be achieved, enabling fertility
problems to be identified rapidly.
The main disadvantages of the use of ultrasonography are
related to cost and time involved (Ultrasound machines are
expensive and it takes more time to perform a pregnancy diagnosis
with an ultrasound machine than by rectal palpation)
5. Abdominal palpation/Vaginal examination
Common in bitch and queen for diagnose pregnancy.
Because the uterus becomes uniformly enlarged, pregnancy
is more difficult to determine by palpation.
An abnormal condition (pyometra, mucometra, torsion) may
develop that can also cause the uterus to be enlarged. Such a
condition would need to be distinguished from a pregnant
Vaginal cytology is a simple technique that can be used to
characterize stages of the reproductive cycle of the bitch or to
evaluate certain diseases of the genital tract.
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