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There are 5 main steps you generally go through before you can have a meaningful and pleasing chart. Today we’re going to cover all 5 steps in Splunk. But before that, can you answer the obvious question…
Do you actually have a reason for making a chart? What is the desired outcome? -- want some business intelligence? -- need to monitor something? -- or just for the hell of it? If you don’t know…
Might I suggest GraphJam.com. -- can make lots of different charts -- can share them with friends -- can use pretty colors At least have a purpose in mind.
Step 1: do you prep work. -- due-diligence -- mis-en-place The right questions can make your charting easier.
Question #1: what data do you have at your disposal? -- Splunk can index anything -- any text, stream, file, packet, script Who owns the data? Are you going to have to ask permission?
Question #2: Who is going to read it? -- Consider your audience when picking data to display. -- Technical staff generally want detailed information. -- Your boss may not. What is the reader going to do with it? -- make business decisions -- incidence response -- feel good -- look at pretty pictures -- be able to assign blame There was a story about a potential customer who was so excited about Splunk, threw everything at it. Then tried to discover who was to blame for a current production problem. Found out it was his friend. Radio silence. Splunk was that good.
Think about what what format you want. More importantly, what will the caption be? You may end up a a slave to a less than desirable format if you just wing it. This chart: General Stanley McChrystal declared that &quot;When we understand that slide, we'll have won the war&quot; at a briefing in Kabul last summer Does not reflect well upon you.
One way to visualize is to think about the big picture first.
This is an example VP-level dashboard built entirely in Splunk * 60-day period * Shows medium-term trending; influences business decisions * dashboard.html template * custom view-specific CSS * HiddenSavedSearch module * HiddenChartFormatter module * SingleValue module
This is a real-time dashboard intended for a NOC situation -- everything is on a 30-second window -- shows info that people may need to react to quickly I’ll cover both of those examples later in the talk.
Note that both previous examples used tables! -- “visualization” doesn’t really just mean charts -- tables can be far more efficient at displaying certain kinds of data than charts
Even simpler are single numeric values -- Apple’s Q2 revenue for example -- if context is well known, there’s no need to complicate matters with “chartjunk”
OK, so on to charts. These are all native chart types that Splunk can render. I’ll be brief; I want to highlight how you match chart types to data. The column chart: -- great for inspecting discrete data -- can easily compare single value series on common axis -- identify trends
The line chart: -- great for comparing multiple series -- compare on similar Y-axis
Split line chart: -- variant of the line series -- great for when trending of individual series is wildly different
The area chart -- use to track multiple series in relationship to each other -- in 100% form, very quickly see proportional changes over time
The pie chart: do not use. -- cannot compare 2 slices together easily -- no common point of reference -- cannot determine distribution
A column chart lets you actually see the data on comparable terms -- ‘Georgian’ is more than half the value of ‘Hawaiian’ -- &quot;The only worse design than a pie chart is several of them.“ – Edward Tufte You can see the trend among data (in this case it’s exponential). Why is trending important?
Example: -- in basic medical triage you must always record vitals over time -- walking into ER and only saying your pulse is 90 is useless -- you need to know if it’s rising or falling, or stable So what are you trending over? Well Splunk likes time…
We’re going to focus on time-based ranges and the main modes of trending: Real-time: -- still one of the coolest things about splunk -- even if you know nothing about the data, it’s still cool to see stuff come in real-time What is it good for? -- things that require immediate response -- when you only need to see at most an hour of content; 30 seconds is also useful Examples: -- network operations -- security operations -- just in time operations
The flip side is historical; what people typically expect What is it good for? -- making business decisions based on data -- 7, 30 day moving trends Examples: -- infrastructure planning -- bandwidth usage -- peak/off-peak tracking
Finally! We cover the tools in Splunk that can make effective charts.
How many people are familiar with the report builder? The standard report builder is accessible from the search interface -- you can start charting searches that are still in flight -- easy dropdown-based chart building -- handles simple cases
How many people are familiar with the advanced charting view? Advanced charting is where most of us like to chart -- direct access to the search language -- tabular view below -- has common set of charting controls
The search language is inspired by the UNIX command line -- typically the first command is assumed to be the ‘search’ command -- any number of commands can be chained together -- there are over 100 search commands that come with Splunk How many people are familiar with the search language? Novice? Intermediate? Advanced? There were a bunch of sessions on the search language (check your preso material if you didn’t attend) I’ll go through some of the workhorse commands used to generate charts…
Splunk search results are nothing more than a big table of data -- the event text is copied into the ‘_raw’ field -- it’s just another field in the result set -- if you understand this, you will grasp the search language easily -- the UI depends on underscore fields (which are not displayed) Knowing that this is just a table, you can use search language to transform the results any which way you want
This is the heavy hitter for any IT ops commands -- shows you over time what something is doing -- can take any of the stats commands and generate multiple series -- can control the granularity of the bucketing
Here is an example of the timechart command that looks at Splunk internal components over time -- uses automatic defaults to determine sensible time buckets
The ‘top’ command does what it sounds like -- displays the top values of any field in your results -- can do top n combinations -- can specify how many ordered items to return
Display is great when paired with a bar chart, or column -- please don’t use pie charts (will cover that in a bit)
This is the generic version of timechart -- behind the scenes, this powers ‘timechart’ -- in essence, plots some function of field A by field B -- like ‘timechart’, you can actually invoke the eval() command
This example shows the average bytes transferred over a time period split by client IP addresses -- this is over every piece of data the Splunk knows about -- you can restrict by time window by just setting the time range
The contingency table is not a graphical command, but is equally as powerful -- contingency is used very often in statistical analysis: determine if variable X really has an effect on measured property Y -- essentially is a counter: will tally combinations of X/Y
Note that the Y is ‘clientip’ and X is ‘http_status’; the numbers in the middle of the table simply show the number of occurences -- you can then apply the heatmap decorator to visually differentiate hotspots
There are lots of other commands than can manipulate the data any which way you want.
Let Splunk do your dirty work -- automation can alleviate much of the manual labor -- no reason to always check splunk when it can email you
Scheduling a saved search is the best practice -- defer work to off-peak hours -- allow multiple users to share results -- have Splunk alert you when certain conditions are met -- receive results via email, RSS plug: customizing and using scripted alerts Plug: monitoring with splunk
Assembling multiple saved searches on a dashboard is great for overviews -- use simple dashboard creator -- takes existing saved searches and lets you arrange onto a dashboard -- don’t cram a ton of searches onto a dashboard: use multiple dashboards!
The main areas of presentation-layer customizations fall into: -- view-level CSS: full access to override any CSS rules -- chart-level properties: each chart can have its own formatting
This is the before picture: -- default CSS -- default charting properties -- uses the standard panels -- uses standard singleValue modules -- uses default charting properties: note the axis labels, legend, colors, etc
You can have as many different CSS files on a per-app basis -- each view can reference any CSS file that is available in its app -- not going to cover CSS customization here; plenty of online resources -- recommend Firebug+Firefox or Chrome+Web Inspector
After: -- this is simple CSS and charting properties applied -- no other structural changes involved Source is available online
There are many different properties you can adjust on a per-chart basis -- these are set in XML configuration -- each property name is hierarchical -- dots are used to denote hierarchy -- http://www.splunk.com/base/Documentation/latest/Developer/AdvancedCharting -- http://www.splunk.com/base/Documentation/latest/Developer/ChartReference
The dataset _time _raw host field1 18283495832 2010-08-10 08:52:01 ERROR: something went wrong on server Prod_apache_1 ERROR 18383827123 2010-08-10 08:52:01 INFO: redirect to a better page Prod_apache_2 INFO
Search language: timechart … | timechart span=1h count “ count the number of events per hour” … | timechart avg(delay) by host “ calculate the average delay and track each host separately” … | timechart avg(delay) min(delay) max(delay) “ calculate the average, minimum, and maximum delays per auto-bucket”
Search language: timechart index=_internal | timechart count by group
Search language: top … | top limit=50 users “ list the top 50 users” … | top major_version, minor_version “ list the top (10) combinations of major and minor versions” … | top source by host “ list the top sources grouped by most frequent host”
Search language: top index=_internal source="*access.log" | top uri_path | fields uri_path count
Search language: chart … | chart avg(delay) by sender “ list the average delay for every sender” … | chart max(bytes) over clientip by uri useother=f “ list the maximum bytes of the top ‘uri’ for every ‘clientip’”
Search language: ctable … | ctable clientip http_status “ list every combination of ‘clientip’ and ‘http_status’ and their freqencies” … | ctable clientip http_status maxcols=10 “… restrict to a max of 10 http_status columns’”
Search language: more stats : average, min, max, stdev, distinct count, mode, variance,… streamstats : calculate running statistics up to current event rangemap : bucket results into ranges like ‘low’, ‘medium’, ‘high’ kmeans : partition results into k-means clusters trendline : calculate moving averages accum : creates a new field of running total of any field
Schedule it <ul><li>Let Splunk run the search on your behalf </li></ul><ul><li>View results immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary server load </li></ul><ul><li>Receive automated alerts </li></ul>
What can you change? View CSS Chart properties
Custom CSS 1. Add custom CSS files to the app: $SPLUNK_HOME/etc/apps/<APP_NAME>/appserver/static/<FOO>.css 2. Restart splunkweb (only on first create) 3. Add to view: <view stylesheet=“FOO.css”> 4. Save to: $SPLUNK_HOME/etc/apps/<APP_NAME>/default/data/ui/views/<NAME>.css
Charting properties Hundreds of different properties available Ex: Common property to change tick label visibility: charting.primaryAxis.majorLabelVisibility = hide Ex: Area chart type-specific series stacking mode: charting.AreaChart.stackMode = stacked100 Ex: Common legend label width: charting.legend.labelStyle.maximumWidth = 500
Simple XML form <dashboard> <label>My dashboard</label> <row> <chart> <searchName>My saved report</searchName> <option name=" charting.seriesColors "> [0xFF0000,0xFFFF00,0x00FF00] </option> <option name=" charting.legend.placement "> top </option> </chart> </row> </dashboard>
Advanced XML form ... <module name="HiddenChartFormatter"> <param name=" charting.seriesColors "> [0xFF0000,0xFFFF00,0x00FF00] </param> <param name=" charting.legend.placement "> top </param> <module name="FlashChart" /> </module> ...
More help Charting reference documentation http://www.splunk.com/base/Documentation/latest/Developer/AdvancedCharting http://www.splunk.com/base/Documentation/latest/Developer/ChartReference Splunk community Q&A site http://answers.splunk.com Edward Tufte - “Father of data visualization” http://www.edwardtufte.com Blogs for inspiration http://infosthetics.com http:// smashingmagazine.com Demo material http://blogs.splunk.com/author/johnvey/