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Early childhood development

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Early childhood development

  2. 2. GUIDE QUESTIONS • What is early childhood? • What are the physical developments of early childhood? Cognitive? Socio – emotional? • How does these developments connected to each other? In what way?
  3. 3. What is Early Childhood Development?
  4. 4. • Early childhood development refers to the many skills and milestones that children are expected to reach by the time they reach the age of five. These milestones include learning how to run, how to talk using simple sentences and how to play with others.
  5. 5. • In most cases, this type of development occurs naturally when parents and children spend time playing, preparing dinner or looking at books together. Preschools and Head Start programs provide activities based on early childhood development guidelines. You can also find toys and books for both children and parents that promote developmental goals.
  6. 6. • Early childhood is a time of remarkable physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Infants enter the world with a limited range of skills and abilities. Watching a child develop new motor, cognitive, language and social skills is a source of wonder for parents and caregivers.
  8. 8. I. BODY GROWRTH A. Changes in Body Size and Proportions 1. On the average, 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in weight are added each year. 2. The child gradually becomes thinner; girls retain somewhat more body fat, whereas boys are slightly more muscular. 3. Posture and balance improve, resulting in gains in motor coordination.
  9. 9. 4. Individual differences in body size are even more apparent during early childhood than in infancy. 5. To determine if a child's atypical stature is a sign of a growth or health problem, the child's ethnic heritage must be considered.
  10. 10. B. Skeletal Growths in which cartilage 1. Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 epiphyses, or new growth center hardens into bone, emerge in various parts of the skeleton. 2. X-rays permit doctors to estimate children's skeletal age, the best available measure of progress toward physical maturity. 3. By the end of the preschool years, children start to lose their primary teeth. 4. Childhood tooth decay remains high, especially among low-SES youngsters in the United States.
  11. 11. C. Asynchronies in Physical Growth 1. Physical growth is an asynchronous process: different body systems have their own unique, carefully timed patterns of maturation. 2. The general growth curve is a curve that represents overall changes in body size-rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth once more during adolescence. 3. Exceptions to this trend are found in the development of the reproductive and lymph systems.
  12. 12. • Developmental milestones are abilities that most children are able to perform by a certain age. During the first year of a child’s life, physical milestones are centered on the infant learning to master self-movement, hold objects and hand-to-mouth coordination.
  13. 13. From Birth to 3 Months • At this age, most babies begin to: • Use rooting, sucking and grasping reflexes • Slightly raise the head when lying on the stomach • Hold head up for a few seconds with support • Clench hands into fists • Tug and pull on their own hands • Repeat body movements
  14. 14. From 3 to 6 Months At this age, babies begin to develop greater agility and strength. They also begin to: • Roll over • Pull their bodies forward • Pull themselves up by grasping the edge of the crib • Reach for and grasp object • Bring object they are holding to their mouths • Shake and play with objects
  15. 15. From 6 to 9 Months • During this time, children become increasingly mobile. They usually begin to: • Crawl • Grasp and pull object toward their own body • Transfer toys and objects from one hand to the other
  16. 16. From 6 to 9 Months • During this time, children become increasingly mobile. They usually begin to: • Crawl • Grasp and pull object toward their own body • Transfer toys and objects from one hand to the other
  17. 17. From 9 to 12 Months In addition to the major milestones such as standing up and walking, children also begin to develop more advanced fine-motor skills. In this window of development, most babies are able to:
  18. 18. • Sit up unaided • Stand without assistance • Walk without help • Pick up and throw objects • Roll a ball • Pick up objects between their thumb and one finger
  19. 19. From 1 to 2 Years Children become increasingly independent and this age and tasks requiring balance and hand-eye coordination begin to emerge. During this stage of development, most children are able to:
  20. 20. • Pick things up while standing up • Walk backwards • Walk up and down stair without assistance • Move and sway to music • Color or paint by moving the entire arm • Scribble with markers or crayons • Turn knobs and handles
  21. 21. From 2 to 3 Years Building on earlier skills, children become increasingly adept at activities that require coordination and speed. From one to three years of age, most kids begin to:
  22. 22. From 3 to 4 Years Physical abilities become more advanced as children develop better movement and balance skills. From age three to four, most kids begin to:
  23. 23. • Ride a tricycle • Go down a slide without help • Throw and catch a ball • Pull and steer toys • Walk in a straight line • Build a tall towers with toy blocks • Manipulate clay into shapes
  24. 24. From 4 to 5 Years • Jump on one foot • Walk backwards • Do somersaults • Cut paper with safety scissors • Print some letters • Copy shapes including squares and crosses
  27. 27. A. THE PREOPERARIONAL,PIAGET’S SECOND STAGE, IS MARKED BY RAPID GROWTH IN REPRESENTATIONAL, OR SYMBOLIC, MENTAL ACTIVITY. B. ADVANCES IN MENTRAL REPRESENTATIO0N 1. Language is our most flexible means of mental representation. 2. Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity provides the foundation for language, just as it under lies deferred imitation and make- believe play.
  28. 28. C.MAKE-BELIEVE PLAY 1. Make-believe play increases dramatically during early childhood. 2. Piaget believed that through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.
  29. 29. 3. Development of Make-Believe Play a. Over time, play becomes increasingly detached from the real-life conditions associated with it. b. Make-believe play gradually becomes less self-centred as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves. c. Play also includes increasingly more complex scheme combinations.
  30. 30. d. Sociodramatic play is the make-believe play with peers that first appears around age 2 1/2 and increases rapidly until 4 to 5 years. e. The emergence of sociodramatic play signals an awareness that make-believe play is a representational activity.
  31. 31. D. SPATIAL REPRESENTATION 1. Spatial understanding improves rapidly over the third year of life. With this representational capacity, children realize that a spatial symbol stands for a specific state of affairs in the real world. 2. Insight into one type of symbol-real world relation, such as that represented by a photograph, helps preschoolers understand others, such as simple maps.
  32. 32. 3. Providing children with many opportunities to learn about the functions of diverse symbols, such as picture books, models, maps, and drawings, enhances spatial representation.
  33. 33. E.LIMITATIONS OF PREOPERATIONBAL THOUGHT 1 . Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot, rather than can, understand. 2. Operations are mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
  34. 34. 3. In the preoperational stage, children's thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment 4. egocentric and animistic system Egocentrism is the inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
  35. 35. Animistic thinking is the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. 5. Inability to Conserve. Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when outward appearance changes.
  36. 36. 6. Transductive Reasoning. Transductive reasoning is reasoning from one particular event to another particular event, instead of from general to particular or particular to general.
  37. 37. 7. Lack of Hierarchical Classification. Hierarchical classification is the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences between the groups.
  38. 38. EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT FAMILIES Peer Relations Socio-Emotional Development in Early Childhood
  40. 40. The Self • Initiative Versus Guilt • Self-Understanding
  41. 41. INITIATIVE VS. GUILT • Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen. • The governor of initiative is conscience, as children begin to hear the inner voice of self - observation. • Initiative may bring rewards or punishment.
  42. 42. • Widespread disappointment leads to an unleashing of guilt that lowers self-esteem. • Leaving this stage with a sense of initiative rather than guilt depends on parental responses to children’s self-initiated activities.
  43. 43. SELF-UNDERSTANDING • The child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child’s self conceptions. • Based on the various roles and membership categories that define who they are. • In early childhood, children usually conceive of the self in physical terms. • The active dimension is a central component of the self, as children describe themselves in terms of such activities as play
  44. 44. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding • Self-Conscious Emotions
  45. 45. YOUNG CHILDREN’S EMOTION LANGUAGE AND UNDERSTANDING • Important changes in emotional development are the increased use of emotion language and the understanding of emotion. • Between 2 and 3 years, children considerably increase the number of terms they use to describe emotion.
  46. 46. • Children also begin to learn about the causes and consequences of feelings. • At 4 -5 years, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions and a growing awareness about controlling and managing emotions to meet social standards.
  47. 47. FAMILIES Parenting Sibling Relationships and Birth Order The Changing Family in a Changing Society
  48. 48. Parenting Styles • Authoritarian Parenting • Authoritative Parenting • Neglectful Parenting • Indulgent Parenting
  49. 49. PEER RELATIONS Peers - children of about the same age or maturity. The peer group provides a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family. Children receive feedback on their abilities from peers.
  50. 50. Good peer relations appear to be necessary for normal social development. Children who are rejected by peers are at risk for depression.  Aggressive children are at risk for many problems.
  51. 51. Group 4 • Briones, Baby Mariel • Macariola, Jocelle • Macalalad, Mary Jane • Malinao, Vivian
  52. 52. THANK YOU!!!