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Presented by: Engr. Joel C. De GuzmanProfessor: Dr. Josefina B. BitonioSubject: Strategic Management of Engineering Enterprise
GREEN ECONOMY - INTRODUCTION• Cities around the globe are trying to figure out how to grow green – i.e., how to generate economic activity that preserves and enhances environmental quality while using natural resources more efficiently. Though the path to reducing human impact on the environment is clear, we are less sure about how to grow our economies and benefit society’s least advantaged members at the same time – in other words, how to link the three E’s (environment, economy, and equity) of development
38%? Says who?Bob Willard - is a leading expert on quantifying and selling the business value of corporate sustainability strategies.- authored three books: The Sustainability Advantage (2002), The Next Sustainability Wave (2005), and The Sustainability Champion’s Guidebook (2009)- serves on the advisory boards of The Natural Step Canada, Learning for a Sustainable Future, and Durham Sustain Ability, and is a member of the Education Alliance for a Sustainable Ontario, the Durham Region Roundtable on Climate Change (DRRCC), and the International Society of Sustainability Professionals (ISSP).
OIL PRICE TRENDSSource: New York Mercantile Exchange for World Texas Intermediate 1996-2010
The Global ContextMultiple crises:• Financial - 18 to 51 million unemployed over 2007 levels & the number of extremely poor has increased by at least 100 million people worldwide;• Fuel - rising prices cost developing economies USD 400 bn in higher energy bills in 2007;• Food - rising prices cost developing countries USD 324 bn in 2007;• Ecosystem – EUR 50 bn worth of biodiversity is being lost each year; and• Climate - current global GHG emissions at 42 Gt per annum - 5 times higher than the threshold.
The global contextEmerging opportunities:• Opportunities from stimulus packages to jump start a transition towards a green economy: out of the USD 3.1 trillion stimulus packages, USD 512 (16%) bn have been identified as green stimulus.• Opportunity from the global collective rethinking of the development and business models of the last century – an overwhelming acceptance of the need to move towards a green economy.• Support for transition to a green economy from UNGA, World Leaders, G8, G20, UNEP, CSD, OECD, CEB, EMG etc.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/INSTITUTIONS ON GREEN ECONOMY• UNGA- United Nation General Assembly (comprised of 193 members of UN)• G8- Group of 8 nations (France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Japan, European Union, Canada and Russia)• G20- Group of 20 nations• UNEP- United Nation Environment Program (the voice for the environment in the UN system)• CSD- Commission on Sustainable Development• OECD- Organization for the Economic Co-operation and Development• IEA- International Energy Agency
Some Green economy concepts• A low carbon economy: part of a GE measured by the carbon level of economic activities• Green growth: GDP growth subject to green conditions as well as focusing on green sectors as new growth engines - growth in a GE is green growth• Green jobs: jobs in green sectors, also known as green collar jobs• Circular economy: an economy in which the waste from one production/consumption process is circulated as a new input into the same or a difference process – one of the approaches to a GE• Ecological economy: an economy subject to ecological principles (eg biodiversity & carry capacity) as well as utilizing ecological functions to contribute to both the economy and ecosystems (eg organic farming) – one of the approaches to a GE
GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE (GEI) (UNEP-led GEI) is designed to assist governments in " greening" their economies by reshaping and refocusing policies, investments and spending towards a range of sectors, such as clean technologies, renewable energies, water services, green transportation, waste management, green buildings and sustainable agriculture and forests. Launched in October 2008
• With this action, the International Energy Agency (IEA) recommended the adoption of a broad range of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 Summits. The consolidated set of recommendations from these Summits covers some priority areas: buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, and industry.
G8 – Group of 81. FRANCE 5. GERMANY2. UNITED STATES 6. JAPAN3. UNITED KINGDOM 7. ITALY4. RUSSIA 8. CANADA
Let us take the example of the “G8” countries energy efficiency policies on some priority areas 1. Building 2. Appliances 3. Transport 4. Lightings 5. Industry
191. Buildings - Promoting high efficiency in newbuildings is highly cost effective and needs to be atthe forefront of energy efficiency policies. Key elements of a Passive House :1. Super Insulation that is airtight and minimizes thermal bridging2. Highly Efficient Windows3. Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery4. Innovative & Efficient Heating Technology
2. Appliances- G8 countries are actively creatingand implementing energy efficiency policies for appliances - Regulating standby power (off-mode cannot exceed 1 Watt ) - Eco-design products (such as on TVs)
253. Lighting - All G8 countries have pursued policies toincrease the energy efficiency in the lighting sector - Phasing out incandescent lamps (first priority for energy-efficient lighting policy), - these lamps were to be replaced by compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs),
3. Lighting - All G8 countries have pursued policies toincrease the energy efficiency in the lighting sector- Phasing out incandescent lamps (first priority for energy- efficient lighting policy),- these lamps were to be replaced by compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and/or Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps.
CFL bulbs have a higher percentage on converting electricity to light (17%-21%), whereas incandescent bulbs convert only the 10% of electricity into light (the rest is radiated as heat). In addition, energy efficient light bulbs produce more light (called lumens) per watt, which is around 60-72 lm/W whereas incandescent bulbs convert only 8-17 lm/W Combining these two advantages of compact fluorescent light bulbs, we achieve enormous energy sustainability standards. It was calculated that CFLs reduce overall energy use for lighting by 60%-70%.
RESULT?cumulatively this would reduce global net lighting costs by USD 1.3 trillion from 2008 to 2030, and avoid 6.4 GtCO2 emissions
304. Transport – is often regarded is the mostchallenging areas in which to achieve energy efficiencyimprovements- Set fuel efficiency standards (esp. for heavy vehicles, i.e., trucks and buses)- Low rolling resistance and appropriate inflation levels of tires- Eco-drive policies- vehicle scrapping schemes
IEA analysis suggests that over the mid-term (<3 years), average fuel savings of 10% are feasible from promoting eco-drive policies. Roughly 20% of a motor vehicle’s fuel consumption is used to overcome tire rolling resistance. Additional fuel is required when tires are under-inflated
Proper tire pressure is a big deal. Maintain it with nitrogen, and youll see these three primary benefits:• Increased Fuel Efficiency – Correct tire pressure keeps the manufacturers recommended “contact patch” on the road. This lessens the rolling resistance and maximizes fuel efficiency.• Longer Tire Life – When it comes in contact with other materials, oxygen causes oxidation. Oxidation can make rubber brittle and cause it to lose tensile strength. In addition, at high temperatures and pressures, oxygen reacts and damages inner tire liners and belt packages; nitrogen does not.• Increased Safety – Under-inflated tires cause 90% of blowouts. Nitrogen provides more reliable pressure for reduced blowout potential
RESULT?There is now consensus that policies can achieve as much as a 5% reduction in overall vehicle fuel consumption in this area!
5. IndustryIndustry accounts for nearly one third of total global primary energy supply and 36% of CO₂ emissions. The large primary-materials industries – chemicals, petro-chemicals, iron and steel, cement, paper, pulp and paper and other minerals and metals – account for more than two thirds of this amount. IEA analysis shows that substantial opportunities to improve industrial energy efficiency remain.
In order to capture this energy efficiency potential, G8countries need to increase their efforts in these areas.- enhanced energy efficiency policies for motors. The IEA estimates that if all countries adopt best practice minimum energy performance standards for industrial electric motors, between 240 and 475 TWh of electricity demand could be saved by 2030- promoting energy management in industry- benchmarking information needs to be made available to SMEs- appropriate incentives need to be developed and implemented to encourage SMEs to make least-life-cycle cost capital acquisition decisions
The government has laid out plans for the gradual shift towards a greener Philippine economy in order to ensure sustainable economic growth despite the threat of climate change.“Let us not forget that it is us who caused climate change. So, while we cannot reduce the impacts of climate change, we can definitely reduce the human factor that brought about climate change”.-Mary Ann Lucille L. Sering (Vice Chair of the Climate Change Commission)
REPUBLIC ACT No. 8749AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
(PHILIPPINE CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1999) ARTICLE 3 – Pollution From Stationary Sources ARTICLE 4 – Pollution From Motor Vehicles ARTICLE 5 – Pollution From Other Sources
RIVERS REVIVAL PROGRAM “ILOG KO, IROG KO (Navotas-Malabon-Tenejeros-Tullahan river system) MANILA BAY CLEAN UP PROJECT DENR- committed to lower the industrial pollution load by 60% MWSS- is committed to implement a basin-wide septic tank cleaning program that will lower the sewage load NHA- committed to remove all the squatter shanties lined along the 26 kilometer waterway and relocate them DPWH- committed to dredge the 26 kilometer waterway and build (2) parallel roads along the waterway.
BAN OF PLASTICS (SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT) Quezon City, September 1, 2012 Municipality of Pozorrubio (no plastic policy during MWF)