2. A- Articles of Confederation
• First form of the U.S. Constitution (1787-89). The Articles of Confederation served
as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the
Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the United
States Constitution of 1787.
3. B-Battle of Gettysburg
• During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in Pennsylvania from July
1-3, 1863. The battle was said to have been fought in or around the town of Gettysburg
between Union and Confederate forces.
4. C- Civil War (1861-1865)
• The American Civil War was fought between the southern and northern states.
The southern states failed to abide by laws from the northern states, therefore
resulting in the southern states breaking away to form the Confederacy. The Civil
War was a major event lasting from 1861-1865.
5. D- Day
• The invasion of France on June 6, 1944 was a triumph of intelligence, coordination, secrecy,
and planning. The bold attack was also a tremendous risk. Ultimately it succeeded because of
individual soldiers' bravery in combat.
6. E- English Colonies
• The thirteen colonies were established on the Atlantic coastline. There where three different types of
charters that developed each colony. (corporate colonies, royal colonies, and proprietary colonies)
• Division of the three geographical regions:
7. F- Fifth Amendment
• The Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution is the section of the Bill of
Rights that protects you from being held for committing a crime unless you have
been indicted correctly by the law. Under the Fifth Amendment, the state and
country have to honor your legal rights, which is a guarantee of due process.
8. G- Government
• the governing body of a nation, state, or community
• the exercise of political authority over the actions, affairs, etc, of a political unit, people, etc, as well as the
performance of certain functions for this unit or body; the action of governing; political rule and
9. H- Hiroshima
• On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber
dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of
10. I- Indentured Servant
• Indentured servants were both men and women who signed a contract (also
known as an indenture or a covenant). Individuals agreed to work for a certain
amount of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia.
11. J- Judicial Branch
• The Judicial Branch of the United States government is responsible for the
administration of justice.
• Headed by the Supreme Court. Its powers include interpreting the Constitution,
reviewing laws, and deciding cases involving states' rights.
12. K- Ku Klux Klan
• The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is a white supremacy organization in the United States. The
organization is dedicated to opposing civil rights for Blacks, Jews, and other ethnic,
racial, social or religious groups.
13. L- Longitude/Latitude
Horizontal mapping lines on Earth are lines of latitude. They are known as "parallels" of
latitude, because they run parallel to the equator. Lines run east to west
Vertical mapping lines on Earth are lines of longitude, known as "meridians". Lines run north
14. M- Market Economy
• An economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources
and to determine prices
15. N- Ninth Amendment
• The Ninth Amendment implicitly refers to natural rights, which the Founders believed all people were
born with as the gift of God or nature. As stated in the Declaration of Independence, they include life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
16. O- Oregon Treaty- 1846
• The United States and Great Britain signed the Treaty of Oregon on June 15, 1846, ending 28 years of joint
occupancy of the Pacific Northwest. The treaty established the 49thparallel as the border between the two
countries. The United States and Great Britain ended the War of 1812 with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814,
and four years later agreed to a 10-year period of joint occupancy of the Northwest
17. P-Popular Sovereignty
• American History . (before the Civil War) a doc
trine, held chiefly by the opponents of the abo
litionists,that the people living in a territory sh
ould be free of federal interference in determi
ningdomestic policy, especially with respect to
18. Q- Quest
• During the age of discovery, a quest was
known as a trip
19. R- Republicanism
• Republicanism is the political theory that holds that the best form of government
is a republic as opposed to a monarchy.
20. S- Sam Houston
• United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from
Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
21. T- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
• The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the treaty that ended the Mexican
War. In the treaty, Mexico gave up a huge tract of land (known as the
Mexican Cession) that included Texas, California and most of Arizona and
New Mexico to the United States for a sum of $15 million. The treaty was
signed on February 2, 1848 and ratified by the United States Senate on
March 10 and by Mexico on May 19, 1848.
22. U- United States Constitution
• The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the
Articles of Confederation.
23. V- Virginia (1607)
• The founding of Jamestown, America’s first permanent English colony, in Virginia in 1607
24. W- Women’s Rights
• an amendment to the U.S. constitution, ratified in 1920, guaranteeing women the right to
25. X- XYZ Affair
• The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a
limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the
Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.
26. Y- Yalta Conference
• The Yalta Conference, 1945
• (February 4–11, 1945), major World War II conference of the three chief Allied leaders,
Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great
Britain, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, which met at Yalta in Crimea to plan
the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.