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Knowing What We Know
Combining Ethnography, Archival Data, and
Social Network Analysis to Better Understand an
Industry
Jo...
Preface
• This presentation was given at Sunbelt XXXII to a tech-savvy audience
to persuade its members that historical an...
Proposition
• Imagine if cultural anthropologists behaved more like archeologists,
using scientific tools to contextualize ...
AWork in Progress
Archival
Data
SNA
Desk
Research
Interviews
Credits from the Tokyo Copywriters Club Advertising
Copy Annu...
Super Network 81-06
p-Core Distribution
Arithmetic mean: 2.3027
Median: 1.0000
Standard deviation: 3.1723
2.5% Quantile: 1...
The Super Stars (0.064%)
Subnetwork of top 45 vertices. Extracted from partition based on p-Core Vector
The Super Super Stars
(Vertex size reflect betweenness scores)
The Ethnographer’s Eye
(The circles indicate where my eye turns)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (19...
Founders Generation
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasaki
Team
Tugboat
Maki Jun (1948)
Itoi ...
Akiyama Sho
(Autobiographical Statement Found Online)
• Born in Tokyo in 1936, he graduated from the Rikkyo
University Fac...
The Copywriter Boom
(“Hitmen” as celebrities)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasaki
Team
Tug...
The Miyazaki Group
(Once they were the brightest stars)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasak...
The Sasaki Team
(Dominant in the Late 1990s)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasaki
Team
Tugb...
Tugboat
(The Rebel Angels)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasaki
Team
Tugboat
Maki Jun (1948...
Lessons Learned
Time Matters
(It Really Does)
• Age Matters
Most super stars have had long successful careers. Except for the occasional s...
Two Surprises
Who is this?
(The SNA Surprise)
Akiyama Sho (1936)
Light Publicity
Nakahata
Takahashi (1947)
Sasaki
Team
Tugboat
Maki Jun ...
What are we not seeing here?
(The HER Surprise)
A Special Relationship
Sasaki Hiroshi
Anzai Toshio
そうだ京都、いこう
That’s It, Kyoto. Let’s go.
• One of the most successful and longest-running
campaigns in Japan’s advertising hi...
In Sum
• SNA makes it possible to focus quickly and precisely on key players in a
network too large to grasp with the nake...
Possible Applications
• Identify highly productive teams and combinations of
individuals that generate strong creative che...
Thank You
Appendices
Appendix 1
How the Subnetwork was Selected
• Combine six primary networks into one super network
• Simplify super network
...
Appendix 2
p-Core 81-06 (3-*), Top 238
Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator
1 Soe903 51 Ter536...
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Knowing what we know

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Thoughts on combining ethnography, archival data and social network analysis to better understand an industry: the advertising industry in Japan.

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Knowing what we know

  1. 1. Knowing What We Know Combining Ethnography, Archival Data, and Social Network Analysis to Better Understand an Industry John McCreery AJJ, April 2012
  2. 2. Preface • This presentation was given at Sunbelt XXXII to a tech-savvy audience to persuade its members that historical and ethnographic research (HER) has something to contribute to social network analysis (SNA). • At AJJ, I hope to persuade anthropologists that social network analysis (SNA) has something to contribute to the historical and ethnographic research (HER) with which they are more familiar.
  3. 3. Proposition • Imagine if cultural anthropologists behaved more like archeologists, using scientific tools to contextualize their observations. • Business anthropologists, in particular, may have a wealth of on-site, archival data to work with.
  4. 4. AWork in Progress Archival Data SNA Desk Research Interviews Credits from the Tokyo Copywriters Club Advertising Copy Annual (1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006), manually entered into a Filemaker Pro Database Six 2-mode multiple edge affiliation networks that contain a total of 7018 creators connected by 27, 314 roles to 3,634 award-winning ads, analyzed using Pajek. Many high-centrality creators are authors or frequently interviewed in a large and active trade press—monthly magazines, numerous new books each year, and now Websites and blogs as well. Interviews with high-centrality creators using results of SNA and Desk Research as stimulus material.
  5. 5. Super Network 81-06 p-Core Distribution Arithmetic mean: 2.3027 Median: 1.0000 Standard deviation: 3.1723 2.5% Quantile: 1.0000 5.0% Quantile: 1.0000 95.0% Quantile: 7.0000 97.5% Quantile: 10.0000 Vector Values Frequency Freq% CumFreq CumFreq% ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ( ... 0.000] 28 0.3990 28 0.3990 ( 0.000 ... 8.778] 6752 96.2097 6780 96.6087 ( 8.778 ... 17.556] 193 2.7501 6973 99.3588 ( 17.556 ... 26.333] 33 0.4702 7006 99.8290 ( 26.333 ... 35.111] 6 0.0855 7012 99.9145 ( 35.111 ... 43.889] 1 0.0142 7013 99.9288 ( 43.889 ... 52.667] 1 0.0142 7014 99.9430 ( 52.667 ... 61.444] 2 0.0285 7016 99.9715 ( 61.444 ... 70.222] 0 0.0000 7016 99.9715 ( 70.222 ... 79.000] 2 0.0285 7018 100.0000 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 7018 100.0000 Produced by combining six 2-mode networks, simplifying the result, projecting the 1-mode creators network in which line values are the numbers of projects on which pairs of creators have both worked, and then performing p-Core analysis. (See Appendix 1 for details).
  6. 6. The Super Stars (0.064%) Subnetwork of top 45 vertices. Extracted from partition based on p-Core Vector
  7. 7. The Super Super Stars (Vertex size reflect betweenness scores)
  8. 8. The Ethnographer’s Eye (The circles indicate where my eye turns) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  9. 9. Founders Generation Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku Tada (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  10. 10. Akiyama Sho (Autobiographical Statement Found Online) • Born in Tokyo in 1936, he graduated from the Rikkyo University Faculty of Economics in 1958, and joined the Kodansha advertising department the same year. He joined Light Publicity Ltd. in 1964, and he is currently president of that firm. His work involves advertising production, including both graphic and film direction, and copywriting. He cherishes the words of Takashi Nakahata, "The bullet has a beautiful form because it speeds to its target." 
  11. 11. The Copywriter Boom (“Hitmen” as celebrities) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku Tada (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  12. 12. The Miyazaki Group (Once they were the brightest stars) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  13. 13. The Sasaki Team (Dominant in the Late 1990s) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  14. 14. Tugboat (The Rebel Angels) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  15. 15. Lessons Learned
  16. 16. Time Matters (It Really Does) • Age Matters Most super stars have had long successful careers. Except for the occasional supernova—Tada Taku, who burst on the scene with an unprecedented triple Grand Prix is one example, Itoi Shigesato was another — it takes time to become a super star. • Sampling Matters To appear in our network, our stars’ glory days had to have been within the years our sample spans (1981-2006). Many historically famous names do not appear because their glory days were in the 1960s and 70s.
  17. 17. Two Surprises
  18. 18. Who is this? (The SNA Surprise) Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Sasaki Team Tugboat Maki Jun (1948) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Miyazaki Group Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  19. 19. What are we not seeing here? (The HER Surprise)
  20. 20. A Special Relationship Sasaki Hiroshi Anzai Toshio
  21. 21. そうだ京都、いこう That’s It, Kyoto. Let’s go. • One of the most successful and longest-running campaigns in Japan’s advertising history. • Sasaki and Anzai worked together on this campaign. Sasaki was younger and a copywriter, Anzai older and a CM planner. • Anzai tells me a story about this collaboration...
  22. 22. In Sum • SNA makes it possible to focus quickly and precisely on key players in a network too large to grasp with the naked eye alone. • SNA can surprise us, identifying key players who were off our radar, Iwasaki Shunichi (1947), for example. • Historical and ethnographic research (HER) adds depth to our understanding of important relationships and reminds us that time matters when examining archival data. • HER can also surprise us, by identifying relationships that may not seem so important in purely SNA terms but may be very important, indeed, in how the actors we study perceive their networks.*
  23. 23. Possible Applications • Identify highly productive teams and combinations of individuals that generate strong creative chemistry. • Include organizational network analysis (ONA) in studies of corporate culture. For examples, see Rob Cross and Robert J. Thomas (2009) Driving Results Through Social Networks.
  24. 24. Thank You
  25. 25. Appendices
  26. 26. Appendix 1 How the Subnetwork was Selected • Combine six primary networks into one super network • Simplify super network • Net>Transform>Remove>Multiple Lines>Single Line • Project 1-mode creator network • Net>Transform>2-Mode to 1-Mode>Rows • p-Core analysis • Net>Vector>PCore>Max>All • Extract top p-cores • Vector>Make Partition>By Intervals>Selected Thresholds>#10 • Operations>Extract from Network>Partition>4-10
  27. 27. Appendix 2 p-Core 81-06 (3-*), Top 238 Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator 1 Soe903 51 Ter536 101 Kit214 151 Saw8 201 Ooy1250 2 Nak190 52 Kan821 102 Tsu1919 152 Tan924 202 Hor6938 3 Aki264 53 Yok747 103 Ood1258 153 Tak7009 203 Mae749 4 Hos265 54 Wat1242 104 Azu155 154 Yon37 204 Yas923 5 Yos6391 55 Ish680 105 Izu5654 155 Sai36 205 Tsu1397 6 Yas268 56 Mun763 106 Oka1165 156 Nak593 206 Ino1182 7 Ina8015 57 Abu5717 107 Miy267 157 Kaw3317 207 Kom1289 8 Mun401 58 Mor1489 108 Aso467 158 Ino629 208 Ish370 9 Mak65 59 Miy1417 109 Mae6378 159 Koi6345 209 Sak1848 10 Oku6805 60 Sat1271 110 Shi137 160 Tom392 210 Mar1152 11 Kiz1178 61 Tak3987 111 Yor136 161 Tak1713 211 Fuc3149 12 Tod695 62 Uch7027 112 Aiz134 162 Tam3147 212 Kam1244 13 And297 63 Mur6598 113 Yam129 163 Uts287 213 Iwa1714 14 Nis1181 64 Ima6400 114 Aso6376 164 Sek282 214 Nag1145 15 Asa4361 65 Tsu5836 115 Yam6495 165 Dom2 215 Yan1061 16 Ono79 66 Kur1998 116 Saw123 166 Nun1712 216 Ebi955 17 Sas3 67 Shi5571 117 Kam122 167 Kin481 217 Mat1248 18 Sug6917 68 Yan486 118 Uch7072 168 Yod68 218 Kon1153 19 Has6 69 Hir5682 119 Sek109 169 Tak6878 219 Nak1708 20 Tak1144 70 Kaz1985 120 Ues5603 170 Yag350 220 Har5921 21 Nak1 71 Yon1982 121 Sak1349 171 Kus755 221 Sus5778 22 Tan418 72 Uch1981 122 Fuk240 172 Sat1871 222 Nag658 23 Ito6226 73 Har600 123 Hyo305 173 Sig283 223 Kaj648 24 Iwa101 74 Hir688 124 Tak107 174 Nag88 224 Tom634 25 Sas1520 75 Suz1259 125 Shi935 175 Mat150 225 Wad7 26 Oot558 76 Kad641 126 Kar6970 176 Fuj76 226 Yam6828 27 Hos1888 77 Sai1735 127 Ued85 177 Sei3881 227 Ton2684 28 Fuk7576 78 Sek503 128 Has5607 178 Koj74 228 Mis3679 29 Hay725 79 Nak746 129 Nis1415 179 Nak39 229 Sek3678 30 Oon1719 80 Tor652 130 Shi5569 180 Kim7588 230 Ish2341 31 Miy952 81 Kan3450 131 Nom5568 181 Miu2992 231 Yos1189 32 Oka6907 82 Kai1940 132 Nag5567 182 Kas20 232 Meg6941 33 Ooh5602 83 Uru5732 133 Koj108 183 Yum5726 233 Ui 34 Tsu6310 84 Tak266 134 Nak686 184 Sat3041 234 Sak3030 35 Kas90 85 Fuk6515 135 Kaw304 185 Ish6781 235 Ook2334 36 Ino5617 86 Nak4941 136 Shi6949 186 Shu1257 236 Fuk2135 37 Tai6939 87 Sat261 137 Shi2316 187 Mat1148 237 Hig5566 38 Miz4 88 Tak6396 138 Sug5587 188 Oka5585 238 Sai8003 39 Ish98 89 Oot7867 139 Kaw54 189 Yos313 40 Anz1143 90 Ich674 140 Sak118 190 Kim462 41 Suz1207 91 Tak6990 141 Yan6924 191 Yam2642 42 Tan31 92 Kit1916 142 Jum193 192 Mur2641 43 Tad27 93 Ike444 143 Tak412 193 Saw5 44 Oka258 94 Yan231 144 Nak6594 194 Yok3148 45 Oka362 95 Mor230 145 Mae445 195 Oos113 46 Nak601 96 Mot202 146 Koi5578 196 Oga8143 47 Tan598 97 Kos962 147 Ato51 197 Kan5577 48 Kob7985 98 Ook5611 148 Fuj112 198 Yat590 49 Tak5570 99 Kad1282 149 Ish7872 199 Iku7327 50 Oka1889 100 Suz1281 150 Osa11 200 Yam344

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