Research has shown that most people would rather
die than give a speech.
Giving a presentation is a skill, like driving a car.
It can be learned.
A presentation is less formal. Its purpose is to teach
something to the audience.
It is used in classes, interviews, business meetings,
committees or groups.
A presentation is a form of communication with an
The object of a presentation is to transmit information
and opinion to the audience in your own words, within
a limited amount of time.
Who are the audience?
What points do U want to get across?
How much time have U got?
What Audio-visual aids are available? Power-point
projector? flip chart? Etc.,
Who is your audience?
Begin with a reporter’s five questions of:
Who, What, When, Where and Why?
Who will be in the audience?
Will they be colleagues, teachers, friends, children,
or a mixture? Will they be male or female?
Things to consider when assessing your audience:
Gender, Age, Occupation, Education, Religion,
Hobbies, Political Belief and Attitudes.
What are the issues or concerns of your
audience? How can you address
them?, what is the purpose of your
When will you be presenting?
In the morning when the audience is alert
after lunch when the audience is full and a
little sleepy?--- using a little humor or
maybe an activity.
Are there other speakers on the agenda?
Where will you be presenting? In an auditorium,
classroom, or outside?
Consider how your audience is feeling. Are
they comfortable in cushioned chairs in an
Will you be speaking in a noisy area?
Why have they come? What does the
audience expect to gain? Information, views
or to be entertained?
When planning your presentation, write it so
you would want to hear it, if you were in the
HAVE A STRUCTURE
Have a beginning, middle and an end.
The Basic presentation
Welcome the audience.
Say what your presentation will be
about: the aims and objectives.
The introduction should catch the
Perhaps a provocative statement or a
The first thirty seconds are probably the most
In that period of time you must grab the attention of
There are several effective opening techniques:
start with a thought-provoking question, make an
interesting or controversial statement, recite a
relevant quotation or recount a joke.
Your opening should also indicate your subject (Tell
them what you are going to talk about).
largest part of your presentation, approximately
The body of the presentation should prove statements
made in the opening.
Formulate a series of points.
Organize your points so as to follow one another so each
point builds upon the previous one.
limit the main points. State the purpose, then
demonstrate, or recapitulate.
Ways to demonstrate a point:
Appeal to reason, cite examples, quote statistics, quote
an authority, draw a comparison
Don't try to say too much content in or you
will talk non- stop trying to get all your content
and the audience will switch off with information
overload long before the end.
*It should be approximately 10% of your presentation.
*The closing is just as important as the opening.
*It should be clever, thought provoking, strong, clear
*This is your opportunity to sum it up.
Briefly summarise your main points.
Answer any questions.
Thank the audience for listening.
Look at the audience again, smile and slow down.
The end should be on a strong or positive note –
The above has been neatly summarised as
"Tell them what you will tell them
(introduction), tell them (development),
tell them what you told them
USING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS-
(POWERPOINT, OVERHEAD PROJECTOR OR FLIP CHART, etc.,)
You may be allowed to use any AVA!
then it's wise to try to practice on one
beforehand so you know what you are doing!
Check the computer and the lighting:
Stand to one side .
Face and speak to your audience, not the
All too often the slides are just a security
blanket for the speaker,
Don't use too many slides:
Don't try to write too much on each slide: 30 to 40
words in a large font size is ample for one
transparency. The best slides contain just one
Slides can contain prompts to remind you of,
what you will say next.
Use a large (about 24 point) Don't put everything in
upper case as this looks crude.
Use colour and bold for emphasis
Pictures, especially tables, diagrams and
charts are good
A little humour can grab the attention of the audience.
Don't get carried away with flashy PowerPoint
transition effects as these may distract
attention form the content.
Write down main points on a postcard sized
piece of card as a prompt and also as a backup
in case the technology fails!
Too many bullets can machine gun your
audience to sleep!
Non-Verbal communication is more powerful
than verbal communication.
“Action Speaks Louder Than Words”
Body Language is any communication created
by your body. Ex: eye contact, gestures,
expression, posture, appearance etc.
“Live Eyes Are the Windows to the Soul”
The eyes can tell you if a person is happy,
sad, scared, in pain, etc.
They communicate messages.
Just like the eyes, facial
messages and emotions.
Smile before you begin
A smile will make you
audience feel good about
you and will help you speak
with confidence and ease.
Hand gestures can enhance a
speech by providing symbols that
replace a verbal message, such as
the “peace” sign or the symbol for
Be careful when using hand
gestures because meanings vary in
Look like you are happy to
A speaker should dress in a
manner that will effectively
Dress appropriately for the
occasion, not too dressy or
Your appearance can create a positive first impression,
and make you more credible and
“General Guidelines: Always look professional
When you have to speak in public: Yes No
Your hands or legs shake
Your knees give way
You feel sick
You experience a rapid heart beat
Your stomach hurts
You have a hard time breathing
Your voice cracks or shakes
Your mouth becomes dry
You begin to sweat
You experience chest pains
You begin to stutter(stammer)
You start to twitch
You wish you were dead
You forget what you wanted to say
You freeze up
1. Admit you have stage
fight. A little anxiety is
good. It will improve
recall, raise energy levels
and make for a more
focused, dynamic speech.
2. Arrive early or arrange in advance to go to the
event location. This will enable you to become familiar
with the setting.
3. Practice, Practice, Practice - Practice in front of
family &/or friends, video tape it and review or talk in the
4. Practice using your visual aids. Know your
5. Prepare - If you know your material and
believe in it you will be more confident and
it will show in your speech.
6. Meet and Greet your audience before the
program begins. Familiarity breeds comfort.
7. Take a deep breath
8. Make eye contact with friendly and/or a
familiar face, as you become
9. Leave your notes on the podium. If your hands
are shaking there is a chance, you will drop them.
10. Take care of yourself. Eat well and get plenty of
11. Don’t eat a heavy meal just before you speak.
12. Drink plenty of water and remember to go to
the rest room before your speech.
Key Secrets of Effective Presentation:
1. Be Prepared
2. Give yourself to the audience
3. Stay Relaxed
4. Add Natural Humour
5. Plan your Body and Hand Positions
6. Pay attention to all details
7. Maintain your anxiety-
8. Never Apologize, Confess or make Excuses
9. Give the audience all the enthusiasm you
10. Get the audience involved in your
It is very important that you pay attention to
even the smallest details. You can never over
The person, who fails to plan, is actually
planning for a failure
Dr. Jagannath K. Dange
Department of Education