Dr. Jagannath K. Dange
Dept. of P G Studies and Research in Education
SHANKARAGHATTA – 577451, INDIA
Background and Status of Education-Learning
Approach, Method, Procedure and Technique
Innovative Teaching Approaches
Shifting role of the teachers in present scenario
Education is a basic human right, and it is central to
unlocking human capabilities.
Education raises human capital, productivity,
incomes, employability, and economic growth.
And it generates trust, boosts social capital, and
creates institutions that promote inclusion and
Amartya Sen’s capability approach, education
increases both an individual’s assets and his or
her ability to transform them into well-being—or
what has been called the individual’s “beings
and doings” and “capabilities.”
Poverty, gender, ethnicity, disability, and location
explain most remaining schooling disparities
Children from the poorest families are less likely to
start school. more likely to drop out early.
Violence at the societal level, school-level violence hinders
learning. Physical and psychological violence are
common forms of so-called discipline.
Children already discriminated against based on
disability, poverty, caste, class, ethnicity, or sexual
orientation are more likely than their peers to suffer
Poor children learn the least, which hurts them the
In nearly all countries, students’ family
backgrounds—including parental education,
socioeconomic status, and conditions at home—
remain the largest predictors of learning outcomes
Schools are failing learners
Struggling education systems lack one or more of four key school-level ingredients
for learning: prepared learners, effective teaching, learning focused inputs, and
the skilled management and governance that pulls them all together.
First, children often arrive in school unprepared to learn.
Malnutrition, illness, low parental investments, and the
harsh environments associated.
Second, teachers often lack the skills or motivation to
Third, inputs often fail to reach classrooms or to affect
learning when they do. Devoting enough resources to
education is crucial.
Similarly, many technological interventions fail before
they reach classrooms, and even when they do make it to
classrooms, they often do not enhance teaching or learning.
Fourth, poor management and governance often
undermine schooling quality. Although effective school
leadership does not raise student learning directly, it does
so indirectly by improving teaching quality and ensuring
effective use of resources.
Characteristics of Learners which are relevant to teaching.
1. Learners learn and develop as a whole person. The
learners’ cognitive, affective, physical, social and
emotional areas are intricately intertwined.
2. children of the same age group may not exhibit
3. Learners learn best through active involvement with
4. Learners are curious and eager to learn. When the
teacher fits the learning environment to learners’ interests,
needs and their levels of maturity, they become highly
5. Learners have different learning styles.
Use a variety of approaches in teaching.
•Dr. Rita Dunn, Director, International Learning Styles
Network, “Students can learn any subject matter when
they are taught with methods and approaches responsive
to their learning styles.”
Approaches to teaching
‘Good teaching and good learning are linked
through the student’s experience of what we do. It
follows that we cannot teach better unless we are
able to see what we are doing from their point of
view’ (Ramsden, 2003, p. 84).
Approach, Method, Procedure, and
Techniques In Learning
Approaches: An approach is a theory about learning or
even a philosophy of how people learn in general. They
can be psychologically focused such as behaviorism or
cognitivism. They can also be based on older philosophies
such as idealism or realism.
a way of dealing with a situation or problem.
A way of looking at teaching and learning.
An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching
something, which use classroom activities or techniques to
help learners learn.
Teachers select techniques from various approaches
according to the different needs of their learners.
An approach that leads to a method.
Method: A method is an application of an approach in the
context of teaching.
Procedures: Procedures are the step-by-step measures to
execute a method. These step-by-step measures are called
Techniques: A technique is a single activity that comes
from a procedure. Anyone of the steps of the procedure list
above qualifies as a technique. Naturally, various methods
employ various techniques.
Teaching involves approaches that lead to methods,
methods that are broken down into procedures, and
procedures that are a collection of techniques.
Understanding how these concepts interrelate can help a teacher know
the reasons behind their choices in how they choose to teach.
TEACHER-CENTERED APPROACH The teacher is
perceived to be the only reliable source of information
in contrast to the learner-centered approach.
LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACH In which it is
premised on the belief that the learner is also an
important resource because he/she too knows
something and is therefore capable of sharing
SUBJECT MATTER-CENTERED APPROACH Subject
matter gains primacy over that of the learner.
INTERACTIVE APPROACH In this approach, an
interactive classroom will have more student talk and
less teacher talk. Students are given the opportunity to
interact with teacher and with other students.
BANKING APPROACH The teacher deposits
knowledge into the “empty” minds of students for
students to commit to memory.
DISCIPLINAL APPROACH It limits the teacher to
discussing his/her lessons within the boundary of
INDIVIDUALISTIC APPROACH It wants the
individual students to work by themselves.
DIRECT TEACHING APPROACH: The teacher
directly tells or shows or demonstrates what is to be
INDIRECT,GUIDED APPROACH: The teacher
guides the learner to discover things for
himself/herself. The teacher facilitates the learning
process by allowing the learner to be engaged in the
learning process with his/her guidance.
INQUIRY APPROACH: This approach teaches
students to handle situations they meet in the
physical world. To use the inquiry approach in the
teaching, you need to prepare activities that will
allow students to develop Inquiry skills.
CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH The students are
expected to construct knowledge and meaning out for
what they are taught by connecting them to prior
Constructivism emphasizes how individuals actively
construct knowledge and understanding.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH
Social constructivist approaches emphasize the social
contexts of learning, and that knowledge is mutually
built and constructed.
COLLABORATIVE APPROACH It will welcome group
work, teamwork, partnerships, and group discussion.
MEANING OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Collaborative learning requires working together
toward a common goal.
Collaboration entails the whole process of learning.
This may include students teaching one another,
students teaching the teacher, and of course the
teacher teaching the students too.
More importantly, it means that students are
responsible for one another's learning as well as
their own and that reaching the goal implies that
students have helped each other to understand and
NEW FORMS OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Collaborative Networked Learning – According to
Findley (1987) "Collaborative Networked Learning
(CNL) is that learning which occurs via electronic
dialogue between self-directed co-learners and
learners and experts.
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is
a relatively new educational paradigm within
collaborative learning which uses technology in a
learning environment to help mediate and support
group interactions in a collaborative learning context.
Learning management system In this context,
collaborative learning refers to a collection of tools
which learners can use to assist, or be assisted by
Such tools include Virtual Classrooms (i.e.
geographically distributed classrooms linked by audio-
visual network connections), chat, discussion
threads, application sharing (e.g. a colleague
projects spreadsheet on another colleague’s screen
across a network link for the purpose of collaboration),
among many others.
ADVANTAGES OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Enhances Learning - Learners gain rich insights
from cross-class exchanges.
Encourages Ownership of Ideas -Each group
shapes a part of the interaction for the group
Develops Reading/Writing Skills -Learners use
written communication skills to exchange ideas.
Enhances Teaching Curriculum - Provide an
exciting and innovative forum for teaching
Stimulates Teacher Creativity - Teachers develop new
instructional techniques by sharing project ideas with
Expands Teaching and Learning Horizons -Collaborative
projects take learners beyond the classroom to draw on
family and community resources for information,
making them more aware of their social and physical
Integrates Computer and Technology -Teachers and
learners learn technical skills.
Collaborative learning- can lead to student success by
deepening the understanding of a given topic.
• In cooperative learning small groups of students who
differ in ability work together as a group on an
• Vary ability, gender, ethnic & SES differences.
• Rather than competing, members of the group work
together and are evaluated as a team (group rewards).
• After students work together during the learning
phase, they are evaluated separately (individuals are
• Individual improvement scores are added together for
a group improvement score
Think/Write, Pair, Share: The think/write, pair, share
strategy is a cooperative learning technique that
encourages individual participation and is applicable
across all grade levels and class sizes.
Students think through questions using three distinct
steps: 1. Think/Write: Students think independently
about a question that has been posed, forming ideas of
their own and write them down.
2. Pair: Students are grouped in pairs to discuss their
thoughts. This step allows students to articulate their ideas
and to consider those of others.
3. Share: Student pairs share their ideas with a larger
group, such as the whole class. Often, students are more
comfortable presenting ideas to a group with the support of
Jigsaw: Jigsaw is a co-operative learning technique that
gives students practice in the acquisition and
presentation of new material, in review, and in
Interdependence and status equalization are
developed. The method is:
1. Each student on the team becomes an “expert” on
2. “Experts” group with members from other teams
assigned the corresponding expert topic.
3. Upon returning to their teams, each one, in turn,
teaches the group.
4. Students are all assessed on all aspects of the
Objective: To increase student’s sense of responsibility by
making each one an expert on one part of a unit then having
each student teach the part for which he/she has become an
expert to the other members of his/her team.
• Students are assigned to teams to work on content material
that has been divided into sections.
• Students read the entire selection focusing on their
assigned part of the lesson/topic.
• Then students meet with their expert group, which has
members of different teams who have studied the same
selection, to discuss questions provided by the teacher.
• Students return to their original teams and take turns
teaching teammates about the section they have studied.
• The teacher then assesses the mastery of the overall topic.
Numbered Heads Together
Objective: To group students and structure the
questions/answer period so that all students engage in
discussion about the issues presented.
• The teacher arranges students in groups or teams of 4 or 5,
assigning a number to each individual within a group.
• The teacher asks a question of the entire class.
• Students are then directed to “put their heads together” to
discuss the answer and to be sure everyone in their group
knows the correct answer.
• Then the teacher calls a number at random and each
individual with that number must be ready with an answer
because no one knows which teams member will be called
to answer the question.
• If an incorrect answer is given, the teacher can call on
another group or team.
Student Teams-Achievement Division-STAD
Cooperative learning strategy where students work
together to learn and are responsible for their
team-mates learning as well as their own and take
individual quizzes to test for learning.
1. Teacher presents the material.
2. Students work in teams of 4-5 to prepare team
members for a quiz.
3. Students take quiz individually.
4. Students are assigned individual improvement
5. Teams are recognized for highest scores
Things to remember
Students work toward mastery of material
Cannot help one another out during quizzes
Score is based on previous score, higher individual
score=higher team score
Must test every week for it to work, looking for
Students like to contribute=work harder, see
See learning as social instead of isolated
Students begin help one another out
Overview Three-step interview is an effective way to
encourage students to share their thinking, ask
questions, and take notes. It works best with three
students per group, but it can be modified for groups
1. Place students into groups of three.
2. Assign each student a letter and a role.
Example: A = Interviewer, B = Interviewee, C =
3. Rotate roles after each interview.
4. Have students do a Round Robin and share the key
information they recorded when they were person ‘C’.
Hints and Management Ideas
Questioning. Before students try this strategy, have them
explore the types of questions reporters ask and at what point in
the interview they ask them.
Reinforcing the need to ‘take time’. Talk about the issue of
taking time to think or deciding whether or not to answer a
question during an interview.
Using recording sheets. Consider providing students with
recording sheets to use when they are in the role of 'Reporter'.
Determining the length of time for each interview.
Depending on the age of your students and their experience
with this cooperative learning strategy, you may have to adjust
the length of time for the interviews.
Benefits of Three-Step Interview
Three-Step Interview creates simultaneous accountability.
Students share and apply different questioning strategies.
Over time, students can be introduced to different taxonomies
of thinking to extend their ability to use different levels of
questioning and thinking.
In Send-A-Problem, student teams
participate in a series of problem solving
rounds, and then evaluate alternative
solutions offered by the different
Groups of two to four students work on
different problems during the same
period of time.
The Discovery Approach by Jerome Bruner
The lesson proceeds through a hierarchy of stages
which may be associated with Bruner’s levels of thought.
These stages are the following:
a) Enactive level At this stage, the students perform
hands- on activities directly related to what is to be
b) Ikonic level After the students have done the hands-on
activity and gain some experiences, the teacher directs the
thinking of the students using experiential situations to
the mental images or models of the objects used upon
which the discovery is to be based.
c) Symbolic level At this point, the students are guided to
replace mental images with symbols to increase
generality and abstraction which eventually results in the
discovery planned by the teacher in advance.
It makes the teacher connects to other lessons of the same
subject (intra-disciplinary) or connects his/her lessons with
other subjects thus making his/her approach interdisciplinary
Disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches
There are many areas of overlap between subjects.
The school curriculum should therefore enable students to
develop a holistic understanding of themselves as learners, and
to reflect on the similarities and differences between
different subject approaches.
The main reason is to think critically and solve problems
with applications that are not easily acquired from everyday
experience. Michael Young describes this as ‘powerful
The humanities, social sciences, science, mathematics,
languages and the arts – when well taught and appropriately
assessed – all develop the ability to think critically and
Interdisciplinary understanding is extremely important. It
refers to the ability – and confidence – to navigate
between disciplines, make connections and develop a
holistic appreciation of knowledge that provides new
Teachers need to understand what their colleagues are
teaching to a particular year group in order to make
connections with their own classes.
Some schools identify interdisciplinary links in the
This may be done in an informal way with individual
teachers sharing their teaching plans in the staff
room, or during meetings scheduled for this purpose.
One simple example of this would be where students have
learned some statistical skills in mathematics, and the
geography teacher makes them apply this knowledge to
their geography coursework, thereby reinforcing the
Curriculum planning is very important when it comes to
choosing the activities, courses and qualifications that will
enable learners to draw on their experiences across the
curriculum in order to think in interdisciplinary ways.
Learners need to be challenged, required to produce
extended project work and make presentations on their
findings, working collectively and individually on different
Other teaching approaches cited in education are:
RESEARCH-BASED APPROACH As the name implies,
teaching and learning are anchored on research findings.
WHOLE CHILD APPROACH The learning process itself
takes into account not only the academic needs of the
learners, but also their emotional, creative, psychological,
spiritual, and developmental needs.
METACOGNITIVE APPROACH The teaching process
brings the learner to the process of thinking about
thinking. The learner reflects on what he learned and on
his/her ways of learning.
PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH As the name implies,
the teaching- learning process is focused on problems.
Time is spent on analyzing and solving problems.
New Approaches to Teaching and Learning:
1. Hip-Hop Education (HipHopEd)(Subject text as Lyric of
HipHopEd is an approach to teaching and learning that focuses
on the use of hip-hop culture and its elements in teaching
and learning both within and outside of traditional
HipHopEd involves the use of hip-hop music, art and
culture to create philosophies for teaching. In its simplest
form, HipHopEd involves the use of rap lyrics as text to be
used in the classroom. In a more complex form, it involves
raps created by students as classroom assignments that are
used to measure knowledge.
This approach has been used to increase student
attendance, motivation and content knowledge.
2. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons (POGIL)
Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons has both a
constructivist and social component.
In other words, it focuses on using the real life experiences of
the learner to create knowledge and considers how students
relates to the environment where they are taught.
When engaging in POGIL’s, the teacher assigns text to
students, and then poses a set of questions that they can only
answer by exploring the text that was given.
In a POGIL classroom, students develop conclusions about
the text they are interrogating that will increase their
knowledge. As students answer questions, teachers “guide the
inquiry” by asking supplemental questions that will eventually
move the students towards thinking deeply and drawing
more complex conclusions.
This approach has resulted in increased student interest in the
subject being taught and increased mastery of content.
3. Project Based Learning (PBL)
Project-based learning is an approach to teaching that
focuses primarily on having students engage in
explorations of real-world problems and challenges.
Through these explorations, they develop their content
knowledge, but also develop solutions to problems.
This approach to teaching functions to engage students to
identify problems in their community or the world at
large that they want to solve.
It also provides teachers and students with opportunities
to be creative.
In this process, the teacher looks for ways to connect
the subject to the project. In turn, students look to the
teacher for content knowledge so they can complete their
4. Reality Pedagogy
Focuses on teachers gaining an understanding of student realities,
and then using this information as the starting point for
instruction. It begins with the students expertise on how to teach,
and on content.
Reality pedagogues/teachers believe that, for teaching and learning
to happen, there has to be an exchange of expertise between
students and teacher. For this exchange to happen, teachers need a
set of tools called the “5 C’s” to gain insight into student realities.
These tools are:
1. Co-generative dialogues: Where teachers and students discuss
in the classroom and both suggest ways to improve it.
2. Co-teaching: Where students get opportunities to learn content
and then teach the class.
3. Cosmopolitanism(Diverse/Multicultural): Where students have
a role in how the class operates and in what is taught.
4. Context: Where the neighborhood and community of the school
is seen as part of the classroom.
5. Content: Where the teacher has to acknowledge the limitations
of his/her content knowledge and work to build his/her content
expertise with students.
5. Flipped Classroom
This approach involves a process where the typical lecture
that happens in the classroom occurs at home.
Students watch lectures on video, and then return to
school to engage in the exercises they would traditionally
have for homework, and to ask questions based on the
lecture they watched on their own at home.
When students watch videos at home, they can stop and go
and at their own pace, and take notes a their leisure. When
they return to school, they can work in groups to discuss
what they watched, and/or have their questions answered by
In this process, students create, collaborate and learn at
their own pace, and apply what they have learned at home in
“Young and Old in School” programme teaches valuable work
and life skills
In 2007 the August-Claas-School, a secondary school in Germany,
launched Young and Old in School (Jung und Alt im Unterricht).
The programme brought ten retired craftsmen and industrial
experts to teach 15-17 year-old pupils skills in engineering and
construction. Young, middle and elder generations co-operated to
repair bicycles and build furniture, playground equipment, and a
The project explores intergenerational approaches to helping
students transition into working life and improving
The project workgroups intend to expand their offering to include
gardening and landscaping, metal processing, automobile
technology, warehouse logistics and agriculture.
More information: www.emil-network.eu/resources/case-
It is a partnership between a general
education teacher and a teacher who is
experienced in teaching students with
8.Service learning (experiential learning approach)
It is an experiential learning approach that combines
learning processes in the classroom with community
service so that students learn as they work on addressing the
real needs in the community.
On the one hand, learning and service need to be well
Well-planned projects will establish a clear set of learning
objectives and identify the kind of service opportunity that
best suits them.
On the other hand, a well-planned service learning project
needs to incorporate sufficient time for in-class structured
reflection, the process by which practical experience is
transformed into academic learning.
Structured reflection can come in the form of class discussions,
debates or written assignments in which students connect their
service experience(s) with the specific curriculum goals.
Service learning has positive effects on academic, personal and social
9. Deep Learning
• Deep learning is based on the ability to
relate ideas and concepts to previous
knowledge and experiences.
• Learners interpret their knowledge into
interrelated conceptual systems.
• They evolve new ideas and relate them to
conclusions, dialogs through which
knowledge is created and reflect on their
10. Reciprocal Teaching
Reciprocal teaching means a dialogue between teachers
and students for jointly constructing the meaning of
It is designed to enhance comprehension by enabling
students to take on a more active role in discussing their
improving both comprehension and in-class
In this context, teacher credibility is a critical factor in
Students are highly perceptive about knowing which
teachers can make a difference to their learning. Instilling
confidence through credible teaching.
11. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL)
Problem based learning (PBL) is characterised by a student-
centered approach, teachers as facilitators rather than
disseminators‘ and open ended problem that serves as
initial stimulus and framework for learning.
PBL begins with assumptions that the learning is an active,
integrated and constructive process influenced by the
social and contextual factors.
It is a concept used to enhance multidisciplinary skills
through planned problem scenarios. It is an active way of
learning problem solving skills, while allowing students to
acquire basic knowledge.
7-steps plan for a systematic working for all the PBL studies.
Step 1: Explain unknown wording, statements and
Step 2: Define the problem(s)
Step 3: Brainstorm - analyse/try to explain the problem(s)
Step 4: Make a systematic inventory of explanations
Step 5: Formulate self-study assignments
Step 6: Perform self-study assignments
Step 7: Report and evaluate on self-study
•Multimedia: refers to the integration of text, image,
audio, video, graphics and animation in a variety of
12. Multimedia Approach
A Classification of Multimedia:
•Text - HTML, PDF
•Audio – Sound, music, speech.
•Still Image - photo, scanned image
•Video (Moving Images) – Movie, a sequence of pictures
•Graphics – Computer produced image
•Animation – A sequence of graphics images
In multimedia approach, several media and
techniques are used as powerful means of
Multimedia system permits the delivery of a range
of instructional and informational support.
The multimedia system is markedly greater in
creating a variety of learning models.
This multimedia device is striking (Impressive)
because it provides the opportunity to learn
exceedingly complex skills.
Multimedia devices are useful in adopting most of
teaching strategies, methods and models.
Features of a multimedia system:
Audio – It comprises audio adopter, audio input devices.
Video – Delivering a live presentation, requires high speed,
high band width networks.
Video – conferencing – is another real time application –
VC is point to point between two locations, include several
Animations – Another striking feature of Multi- media
Two – dimensional – cartoons.
Three – dimensional – computer aided design (CAD)
This feature will also get into applications like on-line
tutorials, simulations, and virtual reality.
Virtual reality – (VR)
Applications are programmes that could envelop a user
within a 3 – D simulated environment of sight, movement,
sound and possibly touch in future.
Text – materials, Strategies, Methods of teaching also
Procedure for adopting multimedia approach:
Stage 1 – Teacher initiates teaching-learning activities
Teacher delivers a well prepared lesson based on objectives
formulated. He could use verities of media for presentation.
Stage 2 – Teacher demonstrates a specific and specialized unit.
By using a mix of media, Teacher may provide the learner with
programmed learning materials, CD’s, online content etc.
Stage 3 – Preparation and ground work for students, to embark on
The students discuss with peer group and teachers about
their plan of action.
Stage 4 – Stage of students active participation.
student uses a variety of media and materials in his/her self-
Stage 5 – Integration of theory and practical.
The learner integrates his/her learning theory with practice .
Stage 6 – Exchange of ideas – critical analyses.
Learner finds that teaching-learning activities have to be
organized on higher levels.
The student is involved in critical analysis, critical evolution
and exchange and ideas.
13. Inclusive approach- TYPES OF
Segregation is also seen in….
Type of Schools- Government, Private, Aided
Socio-Economic Status- High, Middle, Low
Health- Global Hunger Index-2018
India ranked 103 among 119 countries
National family Health survey-2016
Stunted children under 5yrs (53.3 million)
Low height- India (38%), Global (22.9)
Low weight- India (35.7%), Global (13.5)
Food intake India- Listed 19 Food items- only 23% of children
consumed more than 5 items.
World Development Report- Poverty Hinders biological
development and Undermines learning
“One country One Education system”
It’s a hard need to provide the space for inclusion under
Education is one such… Which should provide equal
opportunities and freedom to all.
We all know that, students with specially challenged
have received their education in special schools, but
many a times special schools do not fulfill the objectives of
But in special schools the children with challenges will not
get much exposure of social interaction with normal
To solve this problem the concept of Inclusive education
was introduced in which normal children with challenged
children get education under one roof.
Inclusive education implies all young learners,
young people-with or without disabilities being
able to learn together through access to common
education with an appropriate network of support
Indian Constitution provides this…..
Education without discrimination: It is unlawful for any
education provider, including a private or independent
provider, to discriminate between pupils on grounds of
race, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender
reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, and religion or
belief in admissions, access to benefits or services,
exclusions, and in the employment of staff.
Inclusion in education is an approach to educating
students with special educational needs.
Under the inclusion model, students with special needs
spend most or all of their time with non-special needs
Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or classrooms
to separate students with disabilities from students without
Inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the
school’s duty to accept the child.
Inclusion is an effort to improve quality in education.
Inclusion requires some changes in how teachers teach,
as well as changes in how students with and without
special needs interact with and relate to one another.
Inclusive education practices frequently rely on active
authentic assessment practices,
multi-level instructional approaches, and
increased attention to diverse student needs and
COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR AN INCLUSIVE
Should have the ability to solve problems.
Should know about the interest, aptitude and abilities of
the disabled children and use them to develop various skills in
Have the ability to set high targets for disabled children.
Have the ability to provide success experiences to the
Should have the knowledge of special instructional
material and how to use them.
Should be highly patient, welcoming, polite and devoted.
Should work as team with parents and special educators.
Keep a record of the child’s achievements and failures
Happy means an enjoyable or satisfied state of being, it’s
a Feeling or showing pleasure or contentment and Happy is
a feeling of joy.
Aristotle: “Happiness to be the end goal of education and
Happiness is a state of activity.
Mahatma Gandhi: “Happiness is when what you think,
what you say, and what you do are in harmony”.
Ben-Shahar:“True happiness is archived when there is a
perfect balance between present pleasure and future
How to create higher performing, happier classrooms ?
1. Collaborative learning: Learning tasks or activities where students
work together in a group.
2. Feedback: Information given to the learner and/or teacher about the
learner’s performance relative to learning goals.
3. Mastery learning: Mastery learning breaks subject matter and
learning content into units with clearly specified objectives, which
are pursued until they are achieved.
4. Metacognition and self-regulation: Learning-to-learn approaches
that help students think about their learning more explicitly.
5. One-on-one tuition: One-on-one tuition, or tutoring, is where a
teacher, teaching assistant, or other adult gives a pupil intensive
6. Peer tutoring: A range of approaches in which learners work in
pairs or small groups to provide each other teaching support.
7. Comprehension strategies: Helping learners understand texts by
using graphic organizers, developing questioning strategies, and
having students monitor their own comprehension.
Correct with love
Two phases(first and second awareness model)
Posing and completing the task
Discussion and analysis of phase one
S. No Dimensions Elements
Well-being ,Setting and communicating high expectations, Providing
high level of support, Extroversion, Withdrawal of negative thinking,
Encourage strengths, Encourage positive self –narrative, Open-minded,
Loving and caring, Empathy, Humour, Willingness and Good rapport
2. Goal setting Motivation, Industriousness(hard work), Envision possibilities,
Discourage fear, Prioritize emotions, Trust, Develop creativity and
imagination, Self-esteem, Critical thinking, Preparatory, Instructional
Reinforcement, Rediscovering the joy, Fun of teaching, More
entertainment and Correct with love
Orderliness, Engage strengths, Activate positive memory, Encourage
positive self-narrative, Development of socio-emotional skills, Give
student choice, Performing happily activities, Rational approach,
Reducing student stress, Enhance students innovation ability, Preserve
and recover knowledge of the students, Sound in technology
4. Ethics Practising acts of Kindness, Learning to forgive, No punishment,
Discipline, Emphasize respect for each child’s individuality and chance
for each child to develop as a unique, Encourage children to pay
attention to other peoples’ needs and interests to care about others,
Towards holistic learning, Praising and criticizing, Satisfaction from
1. Cognition and
Growth mind-set, Prior knowledge, Self- regulation and
2. Self-motivate Intrinsic motivation, Develop ability, Well-being, Withdrawal
of negativity, Enjoyable , Self-confidence and Use more
3. Goal setting Ambitious, Politeness, Self-confidence, High degree of
student engagement, Practising positive thinking and
Facilitating content, Small discussions, Collaborative learning, Active experimentation,
Individual attention to each child, Manage energy, Making a beauty environment,
Artistic class, Proficient managing time, Group games, Improvement of
comprehension, Making connections predicting and inferring questioning, Practising
6. Employability Work experience, Involvement, Develop and promote skills and attributes, Team work,
7. Assessment Feedback, Fair interpretation in evaluation, Monitoring and clarifying summarizing and
In all of these approaches, the most powerful thing
to recognize is that they focus explicitly on
engaging both the student and the teacher.
When teachers are treated like the intelligent
professionals that they are, and given the flexibility to
engage in approaches to teaching and learning that go
beyond archaic models that they are often bound to,
students respond differently, and education is
This is new environment also involves a change in the roles
of both teachers and students.
The role of the teacher will change from knowledge
transmitter to that of learning facilitator, knowledge
guide, knowledge navigator and co-learner with the
ICTs provide powerful effectivve tools to support the shift
to student centered learning and the new roles of
teachers and students.
Shifting role of the teachers in present scenario
The success of student depends essentially upon the
competence of the teachers, their sense of dedication and
their identification with the interests of the students
committed to their care.
1. Encourage Thinking:
Teachers are being challenged to utilize new approaches
and methods in an effort to improve learning outcomes:
They have to seek improved ways of teaching by developing
new programmes and instructional strategies such as
enquiry approaches, Simulation games, computer
assisted instructions and programmed learning material.
2. The information Provider
A traditional responsibility of the teachers is to pass on to
students the information, knowledge and understanding
on a topic appropriate at the stage of their studies.
3. The Role Model
The teacher should model or exemplify what should be
learned. Students learn not just from what their teachers
say but from what they see in the practice and the
knowledge, Skills and attitudes they exhibit.
4. Teachers as a Facilitator
The key role of teacher is as a facilitator and a support to
ensuring, learning. Teacher is the one who facilitates
learners to realize their potentials, articulate their
personal and context specific experiences in ways that are
acceptable in the wider context of our nation.
5. Teacher as a Participant in the Learners Efforts
Teachers have to recognize that in a learner centered
situation curriculum evolves and is not pre-designed
teacher is merely prepared for providing possible supports
in the process of learning.
Every subsequent learning situation cumulatively provides
better insight to teacher in discerning learner needs and
creates pool and identities varied learning supports.
In this sense. Teacher is a participant in the learner's efforts at
evolving learning experiences and helping to develop
programme for learning.
6. Teacher to Find his Own Teaching Style
There is no one method that is effective in causing all
learners to learn in similar ways.
Each teacher has to find one's style of teaching through
7. Recognize Himself as a Professional
Teacher needs to recognize himself or herself as a
S/He should be endowed with the necessary
knowledge, attitude, competence, and commitment,
and enthusiasm, spirit of seeking new ways and
means, capable of reflection and sensitive. S/He
should he perceptive not only to the learners and the
institution but also to the emergent concerns in the
larger social perspective within which one function.
8. Teacher's Sensitivity to Student's Needs and
One of the most important characteristics of good teacher
is the ability to identify student's problems and
Every Body and any body can't teach,
Teaching requires passion and it’s a mission
Dr. Jagannath K. Dange
Department of Education