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Teaching and learning theories from EDLE 5010

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Teaching and learning theories from EDLE 5010

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Directions:

Imagine you are the principal in a school with a large influx of new teachers who have been prepared to use constructivist teaching strategies and to distrust direct instruction. Your older teachers, on the other hand, are the opposite – they distrust the new constructivist approaches and believe strongly in “traditional teaching.”

Prepare a 20 minute (or longer) discussion/presentation about different theories of teaching and learning, including direct instruction. Include a PowerPoint presentation with recorded audio on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the learning perspectives discussed in this chapter –behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist. Be sure to discuss the situations for which the behavioral approach is best. Give at least one example for each approach. Make sure that during your presentation, you:

Consider the pros and cons of direct instruction
Contrast direct instruction with a constructivist approach to teaching
Examine under what situations each approach is appropriate
Propose and defend a balanced approach to teaching.

This is a wonderful information and cite the author if you are using it in your presentation. Thank you for checking it out.

Directions:

Imagine you are the principal in a school with a large influx of new teachers who have been prepared to use constructivist teaching strategies and to distrust direct instruction. Your older teachers, on the other hand, are the opposite – they distrust the new constructivist approaches and believe strongly in “traditional teaching.”

Prepare a 20 minute (or longer) discussion/presentation about different theories of teaching and learning, including direct instruction. Include a PowerPoint presentation with recorded audio on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the learning perspectives discussed in this chapter –behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist. Be sure to discuss the situations for which the behavioral approach is best. Give at least one example for each approach. Make sure that during your presentation, you:

Consider the pros and cons of direct instruction
Contrast direct instruction with a constructivist approach to teaching
Examine under what situations each approach is appropriate
Propose and defend a balanced approach to teaching.

This is a wonderful information and cite the author if you are using it in your presentation. Thank you for checking it out.

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Teaching and learning theories from EDLE 5010

  1. 1. Irene Hawkins
  2. 2. What is learning?
  3. 3. What is learning? • Learning happens when experience produces a stable change in someone’s knowledge or behavior.
  4. 4. What is Direct Instruction? • Direct instruction, also known as explicit teaching, is the traditional method of teaching whereby the teacher lectures and then questions students on the content presented.
  5. 5. Pros of Direct Instruction • It ensures that state mandated topics of study are covered prior to state achievement tests • It is easy to manage available instructional time to include everything that needs to be taught • It includes an opportunity for informal student assessment and reteaching • It keeps student behavior issues to a minimum
  6. 6. Cons of Direct Instruction • Limited to lower-level objectives • Ignores innovative models of teaching • Discourages students’ independent thoughts and actions
  7. 7. Is direct instruction bad?
  8. 8. Three General Theories of Learning •1. Behavioral •2. Cognitive •3. Constructivist
  9. 9. Behavioral Perspective on Learning A-B-C: Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence
  10. 10. • Reinforcement (encourages or strengthens behavior) • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment (suppresses or weakens behavior) • Direct punishment • Removal punishment Consequences
  11. 11. Positive Reinforcement High grades Good behavior rewards Money for chores The student is getting something he or she wants; therefore, the behavior is reinforced and strengthens.
  12. 12. Exempt a student from a test Excuse a student from class Excuse a child from chores Although something is being taken away, it is something that the child does not want to do; therefore, the behavior is reinforced and is strengthened. Negative Reinforcement
  13. 13. Direct Punishment • Detention • In School Suspension • Punish work The student is receiving something they do not want; therefore, the behavior weakens.
  14. 14. Removal Punishment • Not going out for recess • Not allowed to go to school dance • Not receiving chore money The child is losing something they want to do; therefore, the behavior weakens.
  15. 15. Behavioral (Strengths) • Highly effective way to target unwanted behaviors • Based on observable behaviors
  16. 16. Behavioral (Weaknesses) • What works for one student may not work for all. • You must know, beforehand, what the student’s motivating force is.
  17. 17. When should I use a behavioral approach? “Identify a situation in your school that you would like to change. Think about the participants (students, parents, or teachers) whose behaviors could change for the better to improve the situation. Now identify the possible reinforcers for their current behavior – what desirable outcomes do they achieve for acting the way they do or what unpleasant outcomes do they escape?” -Hoy & Miskel
  18. 18. Behavioral Approach Example: • The Good Behavior Game • The entire class earns rewards based on the collective behavior of the class. This is usually based on a point system going toward the class total. • Divide class into teams. • Students receive points for inappropriate classroom behaviors. • The team with the fewest points at the end of the predetermined period of time wins. • If all teams have fewer than a predetermined amount, everyone wins!
  19. 19. Cognitive Approach to Teaching • Uses the way people think to solve problems • Takes what students already know to guide future learning
  20. 20. Two Kinds of Knowledge • General Knowledge • Applies to a variety of situations • How to use a computer • How to read • Domain-specific Knowledge • Relates to a specific task or subject area • Using Microsoft Word to type an essay • Learning lines from Shakespeare
  21. 21. • Rehearsal: • Maintenance Rehearsal •Repeat information to get it to last longer • Elaborate Rehearsal •Associate information to something you already know Working Memory
  22. 22. Long-Term Memory • Memorization strategies: • Underline and highlight information • Take notes • Visual mapping • Mnemonics • Application strategies: • Translate information into own words • Create examples • Explain to a friend • Act out a concept • Draw a diagram • Apply knowledge to new problems
  23. 23. When to use Cognitive Approach to Learning • Use when you want students to understand and recall information for a later time.
  24. 24. Cognitive (Strengths) • Allows students to remember vast amounts of knowledge. • Helps students focus on the most important information. • Makes use of prior knowledge to learn new concepts • Students mentally organize information into meaningful chunks of knowledge • Provides review and repetition of information • Focuses on the meaning of the content, not just memorization!
  25. 25. Cognitive (Weaknesses) • The information students learn becomes part of their long-term memories. If they learn it incorrectly the first time, it is likely they will always remember it that way.
  26. 26. Constructivist Approach to Teaching • Students take an active role in their own learning. • Social interactions improve learning.
  27. 27. • “Knowledge is not a copy of reality. To know an object, to know an event, is not simply to look at it and make a mental copy or image of it. To know an object is to act on it. To know is to modify, to transform the object, and to understand the process in this transformation, and as a consequence to understand the way the object is constructed.” Jean Piaget
  28. 28. Three Characteristics • Contingency Support: The teacher is constantly adjusting and tailoring responses to the student. • Fading: The teacher gradually withdraws support as the students develop understanding and skills. • Transferring Responsibility: Students assume more and more responsibility for their own learning. -Hoy & Miskel
  29. 29. When to use Constructivist Approach • Use with information that you want students to be able to apply to the real world.
  30. 30. Classroom Examples: • Jigsaw: Students are separated into learning sections where they each learn something different and teach it to the rest of the class. • Scripted Cooperation: Students work in pairs to complete an assignment then take turns sharing information learned. One partner summarizes the information learned while the other listens, takes notes, then fills in incorrect or missing information.
  31. 31. Constructivist (Strengths) • This method is beneficial to ELL students since it encourages them to speak and explain themselves.
  32. 32. Constructivist (Weaknesses) • Students with special needs • These students need more time for planning and preparation. They may have difficulty quickly understanding new concepts; and therefore, struggle with these activities. • Gifted students • If the class involves mixed ability groups, this may not be beneficial to gifted students because the pace is often too slow and repetitive. This leads to them taking over the assignment rather than sharing responsibility and learning from one another.
  33. 33. Review: • Behavioral Approach: – Use it to control classroom misbehaviors so that all students can gain the most from instruction. • Cognitive Approach: – Use what students already know to be able to learn new information. Repetition is key to improve long-term memory. • Constructivist Approach: – Allow students to work collaboratively to learn, but also to learn how to present information to others.
  34. 34. Works Cited Hoy, W.K., & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Welcome! Today we are going to talk about some of the various types of teaching and learning and how you can incorporate these methods into your daily instruction.

    As educators, we all want the best for our students. We want them not only learn, but to retain new information so that they can apply it to their daily lives.
    We know that our number one job as teacher is to, well, teach. And thereby the number one job of our students, is to learn.
  • But what is learning? I want you to take a moment to think about your definition of learning.
    Some of you may have mentioned things like…gaining new knowledge, becoming smarter, or even being able to do something that you couldn’t have done previously.
  • While all of these are true, the overall definition, is “learning is what happens when experience and practice produces a stable change in someone’s knowledge or behavior”
    Think about that. We don’t only do this through experiences, but also through practice. And if that change does not occur, learning does not take place.
    So how is that so different from traditional instruction? Well, let’s take a look at how teaching and learning has been done in the past.
  • Direct instruction is how we traditionally have taught. The teacher begins the lesson by reviewing the previous day’s work, questioning students, and reteaching if necessary. She then stands at the front of the room and teaches a set of important topics that will be tested on the state achievement tests. She may provide examples of proper and incorrect technique. Students listen and take notes. The teacher then questions students about the material taught and provides feedback on student responses. Students then complete a practice assignment either independently or even in small cooperative groups. Homework assignments are given. Testing follows which leads to either reteaching or moving to the next topic of study that needs to be completed before that all important achievement test that will happen at the end of the year.
    This is the way we have always known the classroom to exist. It is the way that most of us learned new information while we were in school. It worked for us or we wouldn’t be where we are today. So many of us wonder, why change what isn’t broken? Why reinvent the wheel now?
  • Let’s look at the Pros of Direct Instruction:
    It ensures that state mandated topics of study are covered prior to state achievement tests
    It is easy to manage available instructional time to include everything that needs to be taught
    It includes an opportunity for informal student assessment and reteaching
    It keeps student behavior issues to a minimum
     
    Direct instruction provides the teacher with an opportunity to teach new information in a structured atmosphere to meet the needs of the majority of the students in the class. Is this wrong? Absolutely not! These are all qualities of good teaching strategies. Feedback, review, and reteaching should always be a part of the classroom.
  • Then what is so bad about direct instruction that cause it to be such a controversy? Let’s look at a few of the criticisms that occur in relation to direct instruction.
    One reason that critics argue that direct instruction is inadequate is that it is limited to lower-level objectives. By providing new information, questioning students about the lesson, and then testing that knowledge, teachers are not providing students with the opportunity to reach beyond the basic levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.
    Another reason critics argue against direct instruction is that, well, it isn’t very interesting. This method tends to ignore innovative methods of teaching and learning that are geared to hold students’ interest.
    Probably the largest criticism, though, would have to be that it discourages students’ independent thoughts and actions. Students are seen as somewhat of an “empty vessel” that is waiting to be filled with new knowledge but they are not becoming active constructors of knowledge. We aren’t providing opportunities for them to think for themselves. Thereby, we are not preparing them for the future when they will have to be independent thinkers.
  • So now the big question is “Is Direct Instruction Bad?” My answer to that would have to be “absolutely not!” Direct Instruction in the proper context remains one of the best ways to ensure that students are presented with and retain “specific skills and behaviors”. Let me repeat that… “specific skills and behavors”. This works well for specific knowledge such as basic math facts, vocabulary definitions, or specific important historical dates. Let’s look, however, at some other methods that can be used to target the higher order needs of student learning.
  • There are three general theories of learning that we will discuss. Behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist.
  • Let’s look first at the Behavioral Approach to Learning. This is based on the research from Skinner. As teachers, we want to curb any classroom misbehaviors so that learning can take place. The Behavioral Theory is based on the idea that people behave according to their environments. Skinner stressed the importance of antecedents and consequences in changing behavior. Behavior, as you know, is what a person does in any given situation. Skinner believes in a relationship called ABC. Let’s use the example of a student who throws a paper airplane in class. The antecedent would be the choice the student makes in the behavior. The behavior, obviously, is the throwing of the airplane. And the consequence would be what happens after the airplane is thrown. You can also think of the Behavioral Approach to Learning as a form of student conditioning to bring about a desired set of behaviors.
  • Simply speaking, behavior is curbed or changed by the environment. What happens as a consequence of a behavior can dictate how a person will react in future behaviors. There are two types of consequences that can be used here. Reinforcement (which encourages or strengthens behaviors) and punishment (which suppresses or weakens behaviors). Let’s take a look at each.
  • Positive Reinforcement is evaluating the students behaviors and deciding what it is the student strives to achieve by his or her actions. If the student receives something he wants, the behavior is reinforced and strengthens. It is important here to note that if the behavior is increasing, then the student is being reinforced in some way. The key is to figure out what the reinforcer is before you can change the behavior.
  • Negative reinforcement is used when the teacher takes something the student does not want to do away to reinforce a wanted behavior. For example, exempting students from a final exam if they have an A in a course could cause them to work harder to get the desired grade just so they don’t have to take the exam. So, by taking away something the child doesn’t want to do, the behavior is strengthened.
  • Punishment, on the other hand, diminishes unwanted behaviors. Direct punishment makes a student do something they do not want to do, thereby reducing the unwanted behavior.
  • Another form of punishment is removal punishment. Here, the teacher takes away something that the student does want, like recess or participation in a fun school activity, causing the bad behaviors to decrease.
  • The behavioral approach to teaching can be a highly effective way for teachers to curb unwanted behaviors in the classroom. It makes use of observable traits demonstrated by the student to establish a behavioral modification plan to create wanted behaviors.
  • The problem with the Behavioral Approach is that what works for one student may not work for all. The teacher also must know what it is that the student is trying to achieve by his or her behaviors before applying the various strategies. For example, if the child’s motivation is to receive attention from his or her peers, disciplining in front of peers will only strengthen the behavior instead of stopping it.
  • Although the behavioral approach can be used on anyone, it is especially useful in small children and students with special needs. Start by identifying the situation that you would like to change. Identify the possible reinforces for their current behavior. Target that behavior with the appropriate reinforcement or punishment to change the behavior into something that promotes classroom instruction.
  • One good way to do this is by playing the Good Behavior Game. This is great for using in the elementary classroom. Divide your class into groups. Students in each group will receive points (you can call them points or demerits) toward a class tally. The team at the end of the marking period wins the game. However, if all teams have fewer than the predetermined amount, everyone wins! This reminded me of the Harry Potter point system where students received points and lost points based on behaviors. However, in Hogwarts, teams won based on who had the highest points. So maybe you would want to model the Hogwarts Good Behavior Game.
  • This is where individual learning styles come into play. Some students learn better by simply listening, some by seeing, and others by using their hands to manipulate objects. The purpose here is to take information and get it to become a part of a students’ long-term memory. But how do we do that?
  • In thinking of how students learn, we must look at how they retain knowledge. There are two types of knowledge. General Knowledge and Domain-Specific Knowledge. General Knowledge applies to a variety of situations. These are things like the basics of how to use a computer or knowing how to read. Domain-specific knowledge, however, relates to a specific task or subject area. For example, knowing how to use Microsoft Word to type an essay or research paper, or even learning specific lines from Shakespeare’s Romio and Juliet.
  • But how does knowledge grow? How do we take something we learn in the classroom and make it stick? This begins in our brain’s working memory. Working memory will only last for about 20 seconds. This is where we temporarily store information until our brains decide if it is important enough to keep long term.

    By practicing what we learn, we are able to move the information from our working memory into our long-term memory. One way is through rehearsal. One type of rehearsal is called Maintenance Rehearsal. This is basically when we repeat things over and over until we memorize it. Another way is through Elaborate Rehearsal where we try to associate information we are trying to learn with something we already know.
  • Our goal is to take that working memory and transfer it to our long term memory. Long term memory is our storage bank of various knowledge. This is where we store information that we want to keep. There are various ways to get working knowledge to become long term knowledge. Through various memorization and application strategies, students can transfer the information to long term memory to be able to access it later.
    Think of it as a giant computer that holds information ready to be used when needed. However, just because the information is stored, we have to be able to access it. Remember that information that is used frequently, is easier accessed. Therefore, frequent review of topics, helps students to quickly be able to get to the information that they have stored in their long term memories.
    Be careful! If students make incorrect connections, those wrong misconceptions will be stored and remembered.
  • This Cognitive Approach to Learning is best to use when you want your students to understand and recall information at a later time.
  • The Cognitive Approach allows students to remember vast amounts of information. It helps them to be able to focus on what is most important and use prior knowledge to learn new material. They mentally organize the information into meaningful chunks to use later. It allows for review and repetition which later leads to memorization. However, understand that it isn’t just about memorization. Students are also able to focus on the meaning of the context, which is also important.
  • Although these strategies are great tools for increasing student memorization, there is a down side. If a student misunderstands the information to begin with, he or she will likely have extreme difficulty in relearning the information correctly. Once it sticks, it is hard to change thinking.
  • This Constructivist Approach is the idea that learning is done both internally and externally. These views derive from the ideas of researchers like Piaget and Vygotsky. It focuses not only on memorization or expanding on already known information, but on students taking an active role in learning through group exploration.
  • Jean Piaget asked the question, “Are we forming children who are only capable of learning what is already known? Or should we try to develop creative and innovative minds, capable of discovery from the preschool age on, throughout life?”
  • Piaget challenged the Cognitive believers by stating that “Knowledge is not a copy of reality. To know an object, to know an event, is not simply to look at it and make a mental copy or image of it. To know an object is to act on it. To know is to modify, to transform the object, and to understand the process in this transformation, and as a consequence to understand the way the object is constructed.”
  • This Constructivist approach has three main characteristics. It begins with the teacher providing a contingency support by teaching new information and adjusting it until understanding occurs. Then the teacher, through a process called “fading” can gradually withdraw support as the student’s understanding increases. Eventually, the teacher can transfer responsibility to the student to assume more and more responsibility for his or her own learning.
  • As the belief of this approach is that students learn to teach themselves, it is especially useful in creating real world learning opportunities.
  • There are many ways you can incorporate this type of learning into your classroom. One is called the Jigsaw method. Begin by separating students into various learning groups. Each group learns material that they later present to the class.

    Another method is called “scripted cooperation.” In this method, students work in pairs to complete an assignment then take turns sharing the information they learned with their partner. One partner will summarize the information learned then the other partner will listen, take notes, and, finally, fill in any incorrect or missing information.

    The key to both strategies is that students learn and teach information in a group environment. Listening, speaking, analyzing, and presenting are all incorporated.
  • The constructivist approach is especially useful for working with ELL students. It encourages them to speak and explain themselves.
  • This approach can be a problem for both students with special needs and gifted students. Students with special needs require more time for planning and preparation. They have difficulty quickly understanding new concepts and especially with teaching that material to others.
    If all students are on the same level, this approach is useful, but if the class involves mixed abilities, it can hinder the learning process for gifted students because it forces them to slow their learning and this method can become quite repetitive for them. Because of this, gifted students tend to take over the assignment and become the teacher by completing the work on their own instead of sharing responsibility and learning cooperatively.
  • In review, the behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist approaches are all beneficial to the classroom. There is no one package deal to teaching. A good teacher will incorporate various methods in order to reach all types of learners. Students need to feel comfortable in the classroom to explore learning through both memorization strategies and group exploration. Meeting ALL of the needs of students through various strategies should be the objective of all classroom instructors.

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