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Algae bsc 1
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Algae

  1. 1. SUBMITTED BY JISNA .T BSc. BOTANY Govt.college chittur
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in few words and respect to all those who helped me in the completion of this project. It is my humble pleasure to acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude to my teachers for valuable support , constant help and guidance at each and every stage
  3. 3. GENERAL FEATURES - ALGAE TOPIC
  4. 4. CONTENT Definition of algae Structure of algae Algal flagella Algal cell structure Habitat Organization of thallus Pigmentation Nutrition Food Reserve
  5. 5. ALGAE
  6. 6. ALGAE - STRUCTURE THALLUS – Undifferentiated plant body BLADE – leaf like flattened portion PNEUMATOCYST – gas filled chambers STIPE – seaweeds having support for holding blades HOLD FAST – Root like structure
  7. 7. BLADDERS HOLDFASTS
  8. 8. ALGAL FLAGELLA They are the fine, protoplasmic , whip like threads in motile algae – flagella Isokont – equal in length Heterokont – unequal in length 2 kinds : whiplash – smooth surface [ acronematic ] tinsel – feathery appearance [ pantonematic ] Blepharoplast – a single granule at the base of each flagellum it has typical 9 + 2 pattern of arrangement of microtubules
  9. 9. ALGAL CELL 3 Kinds : 1.prokaryotic : blue green algae 2.eukaryotic : other groups 3.mesokaroytic : Dinophyceae
  10. 10. habitat
  11. 11. A] hydrophytes 1. Planktophytes – floating & drifting algae Euplanktophytes – non attached e.g., diatoms Tachyplanktophytes – initially attached & later free e.g., zygnema 2. Benthophytes – fixed or attached bottom dwelling algae Periphytes - attached to submerged aquatic plants e.g., nostoc Lithophytes – attached to rocks & stones e.g., polysiphonia
  12. 12. 3. Epactiphytes – fresh water algae growing along the banks of ponds & lakes e.g., oedogonium 4. Thermophytes – inhabiting hot springs e.g., blue green algae 5. Halophytes – inhabiting saline waters e.g., pediastrum 6. Epiphytes – attached to living plants e.g., coleochaeta 7. Epizoophytes – attached to living aquatic animals , such as turtles e.g., cladophora
  13. 13. LITHOPHYTES HALOPHYTES
  14. 14. THERMOPHYTES EPIZOOPHYTES
  15. 15. 1. Saphophytes – soil surface e.g., botrydium 2. Cryptophytes – sub surface soil e.g., nostoc 3. Lithophytes - moist rocks , wet walls e.g., blue green algae 4. Psammophytes – sand , along sanndy shores B] EDAPHOPHYTES
  16. 16. The algae adapted for aerial mode of life . they grow on the leaves & bark of trees , on the bodies of animals 1. Epiphyllophytes – remains attached to leaves of trees e.g., phyllosiphon 2. Epiphloeophytes – grows on tree bark together with may mosses & liverworts e.g., haplosiphon 3. Epizoophytes - algae found on the bodies of land animals C] AEROPHYTES
  17. 17. AEROPHYTES
  18. 18. Algae found in snow & ice Responsible for red snow , green snow , violet snow etc.. D] CRYOPHYTES
  19. 19. Algae found within the body of aquatic animals e.g., zoochlorella in hydra viridis F] PARASITES E] ENDOZOOPHYTES Some algae exist as plant parasites e.g., Caphaleuros viresces [ parasite of tea ]
  20. 20. Algae existing in symbiotic association with other plants forming lichens e.g., chlorella with nitrogen fixing bacterium azotobactor G] SYMBIONTS Oophila amblystomatis - salmander
  21. 21. CHLAMYDOMONAS – MOTILE CHLORELLA - NONMOTILE UNICELLULAR
  22. 22. PEDIASTRUM - coenobium VOLVOX COLONY MULTICELLULAR
  23. 23. DINOBRYON – DENDROID FORM AMORPHOUS
  24. 24. CHARA - HETEROTRICHOUS ULVA - PARENCHYMATOUS
  25. 25. VAUCHERIA - SIPHONOUS
  26. 26. PSEUDOPARENCHYMATOUS - BATRACHOSPERMUM
  27. 27. SIMPLE BRANCHED UNBRANCHED PSEUDO BRANCHED
  28. 28. PIGMENTATION 3 major categories based on the chemical & physical properties 1. chlorophyll 2. carotenoids 3. phycobilins
  29. 29. 1. CHLOROPHYLL Fat soluble green pigment They absorbs blue region & reflects green light Responsible for green colour of algae 7 different types
  30. 30. STROMATOLITES Cyanobacteria can form rock - like structures in warm tidal areas
  31. 31. 2. CAROTENOIDS fat soluble yellow pigments accessory photosynthetic pigments there are 3 main groups : 1. carotenes 2. xanthophyll 3. carotenoid acids
  32. 32. CAROTENES absorbs blue - green light & transmit yellow – red light non oxygenated examples : ß carotene , lycopene & flavicine XANTHOPHYLL also called carotelos oxygenated hydrocarbon examples : lutein , zeaxanthin Carotenoid acids formed of a chain of carbon atoms
  33. 33. 3. PHYCOBILINS water soluble always bonded with protein called phycobiliproteins blue & red in colour strongly fluorescent emits orange or red light after fluorescence 3 main kinds : 1. phycoerythrins 2. phycocyanins 3. allophycocyanins
  34. 34. PLASTIDS Pigments are found in membrane bound organelles called plastids except blue green algae – plastids are absent pigments are found at peripheral cytoplasm [ chromoplasm ] plastids are of two types : leucoplast - colourless chromoplast - coloured
  35. 35. PLASTID FORMS IN ALGAE Cup Shaped - Chlorella , Chlamydomonas Spiral - Spirogyra Girdle - Ulothrix Stellate - Zygnema Discoid - Chara Reticulate - Oedogonium
  36. 36. ALGAL NUTRITION Photoautotrophs - using only inorganic medium for synthesizing organic foods Photoauxotrophs - using some organic substance like thiamine , biotin etc., Heterotrophs - do not synthesize organic food from inorganic substances but solely from organic constituents .
  37. 37. RESERVE FOOD Chlorophyceae : starch & oils Xanthophyceae : chrysolaminarin & oils Bacillariophyceae : volutine & oils Phaeophyceae : laminarin , mannitol & oils Rhodophyceae : floridean starch , fats Cyanophyceae : cyanophcean starch , cyanophycin
  38. 38. REFERENCES www.easybiologyclass.com S.Chand & company ltd publications – botany for degree students algae – B.R.Vashishta , Dr. A.K.Sinha , -1-13 K.K.Bhaskaran , A.R.Ajith Kumar Ramesh . Phycology , bryology , pteridology , published by Manjusha publications

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