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Chapter 4 : Basic cooking principle & food science

Chapter 4 : Basic cooking principle & food science

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Chapter 4 : Basic cooking principle & food science

  1. 1. Basic Cooking Principle and Chapter 4 1 Principle and Food Science อาจารยปวิธ ตันสกุล สาขาวิชาอุตสาหกรรมทองเที่ยว สํานักวิชาการจัดการ มหาวิทยาลัยวลัยลักษณ โทร. 2225 email: tpavit@gmail.com
  2. 2. Outline – Basic Cooking Principle 1. Heat and Food Effect of Heat on Foods Heat Transfer Heat Management 2. Cooking Methods Moist-Heat Methods By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 2 Moist-Heat Methods Dry-Heat Methods Combine Methods 3. Building Flavor Building Flavor Profile Seasoning and flavoring ingredients Using Herbs and Spices
  3. 3. Heat and Food 1 3 Heat and Food
  4. 4. Heat and Food • To cook food means to heat it in order to make certain changes in it. Skillful cooks know exactly what changes they want to make and what they have to do to get them right. • To learn these cooking skills, it is important By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • To learn these cooking skills, it is important for you to know why foods behave as they do when heated. For this, you have to study the theory. 4
  5. 5. What is Heat?What is Heat? 5
  6. 6. What is Heat? • Heat is a form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules. When a substance absorbs heat, its molecules move faster. • In liquids and gases, the molecules move more quickly from place to place and bounce off each other more frequently. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry place to place and bounce off each other more frequently. • In solids, the molecules stay mostly in place, but they vibrate with more energy. • Temperature can be defined as a measure of this molecular activity. The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are moving. 6
  7. 7. What is Heat? • When fast-moving molecules in hot substances come in contact with slower molecules in cold substances, the fast molecules bump into the slower ones and transfer some of their energy, making the slower molecules By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry their energy, making the slower molecules move faster, or heat up. • Thus, as heat is transferred the hot substance loses energy and the colder substance gains energy. 7
  8. 8. What is Heat? • The moving molecules in a liquid such as water sometimes move to the surface with enough energy to break through and escape to become a gas. This is called evaporation. • When the molecules in the liquid move faster, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • When the molecules in the liquid move faster, more of them can escape in a shorter time. This is why hot water evaporates more quickly than cold water. 8
  9. 9. What is Heat? • When we add enough heat to foods, the molecules may move so fast the structure of the food changes. • For example, sucrose (regular sugar) may break apart and form new molecules that happen to By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry apart and form new molecules that happen to have a brown color and the taste of caramel. Or protein molecules may break apart and reform with a different structure. Creating these molecular changes is called cooking. 9
  10. 10. Effects of Heat on foods 10 on foods
  11. 11. Effects of Heat on foods • Effects of Heat on foods – Food are composed of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, and water, plus small amount of other compound such as vitamins, pigments, and flavor element. – It is important to understand how these By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 11 – It is important to understand how these components react when heated or mixed with other foods. – In other words, when you know why foods behave as they do, you can understand how to get them to behave as you want them to.
  12. 12. Effects of Heat on Foods 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fruit and Vegetable Fiber 3. Proteins 4. Fats By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 12 4. Fats 5. Mineral, Vitamins, Pigment, and Flavor Components 6. Water
  13. 13. 1. Carbohydrates • Starches and Sugar are carbohydrates, They found in fruits, vegetables, grain, bean, meat and fish. • For the cook, the two most important changes in carbohydrates caused by heat are caramelization and gelatinization. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry caramelization and gelatinization. 13
  14. 14. 1. Carbohydrates • Caramelization is the browning of sugars. The browning of saut้ed vegetables and the golden color of bread crust are forms of caramelization. • Gelatinization occurs when By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Gelatinization occurs when starches absorb water and swell. This is a major principle in the thickening of sauces and in the production of breads and pastries. 14
  15. 15. 2. Fruit and Vegetable Fiber 1. Fiber is the name for a group of complex substances that give structure and firmness to plants. Fiber cannot be digested. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 15
  16. 16. 2. Fruit and Vegetable Fiber 2. The softening of fruits and vegetables in cooking is, in part, the breaking down of fiber. 3. Sugar makes fiber firmer. Fruit cooked with sugar keeps its shape better than fruit cooked without sugar. 4. Baking soda (and other alkalis) makes fiber softer. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 4. Baking soda (and other alkalis) makes fiber softer. Vegetables should not be cooked with baking soda because they become mushy and lose vitamins. 16
  17. 17. 3. Proteins • Proteins consist of long chains of components called amino acids. • These chains normally form tight coils. • As proteins are heated, the coils By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • As proteins are heated, the coils gradually unwind. • At this point, the protein is said to be denatured. 17
  18. 18. 3. Proteins • For the cook, the important fact about denaturing is that, when the protein coils unwind, they become By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry unwind, they become attracted to each other and form bonds. This bonding is called coagulation. 18
  19. 19. 3. Proteins • The coagulated proteins form a solid network of bonds and become firm. As the temperature increases, the proteins shrink, become firmer, and lose more moisture. • Exposure of proteins to excessive heat toughens them and makes them dry. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry and makes them dry. • Most proteins complete coagulation or cooked at 71O– 85OC 19
  20. 20. 3. Proteins • Many protein foods, such as meats, contain small quantities of carbohydrate. • When proteins are heated to about 154OC, the amino acids in the protein chains react with the carbohydrate molecules and undergo a complex chemical reaction. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry chemical reaction. • The result is that they turn brown and develop richer flavors. This reaction is called the Maillard reaction. • It is what happens when meat browns 20
  21. 21. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 21
  22. 22. 3. Proteins • Connective tissues are special proteins present in meats. • Meats with a great deal of connective tissue are tough, but some connective tissues are dissolved when cooked By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry dissolved when cooked slowly with moisture. Cooking tough meats properly, therefore, makes them more tender. 22
  23. 23. 3. Proteins • Acids, such as lemon juice, vinegar, and tomato products, have two effects on proteins: • They speed coagulation. • They help dissolve some connective tissues. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 23
  24. 24. 4. Fats • Fats are present in meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk products, nuts, whole grains, and, to a lesser extent, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Fats are also important as cooking mediums, as for frying • 24
  25. 25. 4. Fats • Fats can be either solid or liquid at room temperature. • Liquid fats are called oils. When solid fats By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry oils. When solid fats are heated, they melt, or change from solid to liquid. The melting point of solid fats varies. 25
  26. 26. 4. Fats • When fats are heated, they begin to break down. When hot enough, they deteriorate rapidly and begin to smoke. The temperature at which this happens is called the smoke point, and it varies by type of fat. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry point, and it varies by type of fat. • A stable fat—one with a high smoke point—is an important consideration in deep-fat frying. 26
  27. 27. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 27
  28. 28. 5. Minerals, Vitamins, Pigment and Flavour • Minerals and vitamins are important to the nutritional quality of the food. • Pigments and flavor components are important to a food’s appearance and taste and may determine whether the food is appetizing By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry determine whether the food is appetizing enough to eat. • So it is important to preserve all these elements. 28
  29. 29. 5. Minerals, Vitamins, Pigment and Flavour • Some of these components are soluble in water, and others are soluble in fats. All of these components may be leached out, or dissolved away, from foods during cooking. • Vitamins and pigments may also be destroyed By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Vitamins and pigments may also be destroyed by heat, by long cooking, and by other elements present during cooking. 29
  30. 30. 5. Minerals, Vitamins, Pigment and Flavour • It is important, then, to select cooking methods that preserve, as much as possible, a By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry as possible, a food’s nutrients, taste, and appearance. 30
  31. 31. 6. Water • Water exists in three states: 1. solid (ice), 2. liquid, and 3. gas (water vapor or steam). • At sea level, pure liquid water becomes solid, or By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • At sea level, pure liquid water becomes solid, or freezes, at 0OC and turns to steam at 100OC • When water molecules turn to steam and energetically escape into the atmosphere, water is said to be boiling. (boiling point at 100OC) • 31
  32. 32. 6. Water • Water can also turn from liquid to gas at lower temperatures. When water turns to gas at any By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry gas at any temperature, the process is called evaporation 32
  33. 33. 6. Water • Evaporation occurs more slowly the lower the temperature is. • Evaporation is responsible for the drying of foods. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry for the drying of foods. • The drying of food surfaces as they are cooked enables them to be browned. 33
  34. 34. Heat TransferHeat Transfer 34
  35. 35. Heat Transfer • In order for food to be cooked, heat must be transferred from a heat source (such as a gas flame or an electric element) to and through the food. • Understanding the ways in which heat is By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Understanding the ways in which heat is transferred and the speed at which it is transferred helps the cook control the cooking process. 35
  36. 36. Heat Transfer • Heat is transferred in three ways: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 3. Radiation • It is important to remember that, during a cooking process, more than one of these methods of transfer may be happening at the same time 36
  37. 37. CONDUCTION By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 37
  38. 38. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 38
  39. 39. 1. Conduction 1.1 When heat moves directly from one item to something touching it—for example, from the top of the range to a soup pot placed on it, from the pot to the broth inside, and from the broth to the solid food items in it. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 39 the broth to the solid food items in it.
  40. 40. 1. Conduction 1.2 When heat moves from one part of something to an adjacent part of the same item—for example, from the exterior of a roast to the interior, or from a saute pan to its handle. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 40
  41. 41. 1. Conduction • Different materials conduct heat at different speeds. • Heat moves rapidly through copper and aluminum, more slowly in stainless steel, more slowly yet in glass and porcelain. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 41 slowly yet in glass and porcelain. • Air is a poor conductor of heat.
  42. 42. CONVECTION By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 42
  43. 43. 2. Convection • Convection occurs when heat is spread by the movement of air, steam, or liquid (including hot fat). There are two kinds of By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 43 There are two kinds of convection: 1. Natural 2. Mechanical
  44. 44. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 44
  45. 45. 2.1 Natural • Hot liquids and gases rise, while cooler ones sink. Thus, in any oven, kettle of liquid, or deep-fat fryer a constant, natural circulation distributes heat. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 45
  46. 46. 2.2 Mechanical • In convection ovens and convection steamers, fans speed the circulation of heat. Thus, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry Thus, heat is transferred more quickly to the food, and the food cooks faster. 46
  47. 47. 2.2 Mechanical • Stirring is a form of mechanical convection. Thick liquids cannot circulate as quickly as thin ones, so the rate By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry thin ones, so the rate of natural convection is slower. 47
  48. 48. 2. Convection • Convection is the process that carries the heat from the heat source to the food. • Once the carrier of the heat (air or liquid) comes in contact with the food, the heat is transferred from the carrier to the food by By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry transferred from the carrier to the food by conduction. 48
  49. 49. RADIATION By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 49
  50. 50. 3. Radiation • Radiation occurs when energy is transferred by waves from a source to the food. • The waves themselves are not actually heat energy but are changed into heat energy when they strike By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry into heat energy when they strike the food being cooked. • Two kinds of radiation are used in the kitchen: 1. Infrared 2. Microwave 50
  51. 51. 3.1 Infrared • Broiling is the most familiar example of infrared cooking. In a broiler, an electric element or a ceramic element heated by a gas flame becomes so hot it gives off infrared radiation, which cooks the food. High-intensity By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry radiation, which cooks the food. High-intensity infrared ovens are designed to heat food rapidly 51
  52. 52. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 52
  53. 53. 3.2 Microwave • In microwave cooking, the radiation generated by the oven penetrates partway into the food, where it agitates the By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry where it agitates the molecules of water. The friction this agitation causes creates heat, which cooks the food. 53
  54. 54. 3.2 Microwave • Because microwave radiation affects only water molecules, a completely waterless material will not heat in a microwave oven. Plates become hot only when heat is conducted to them by hot foods. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry conducted to them by hot foods. • Because most microwaves penetrate no more than about 2 inches (50 mm) into foods, heat is transferred to the center of large pieces of food by conduction, just as in roasting. 54
  55. 55. Heat ManagementHeat Management 55
  56. 56. Heat Management • Final temperature we cook food • Rare meats & Fish = 49OC • Crisp Exterior = 200OC • Managing the heat to cook By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Managing the heat to cook foods to the desired degree is an important part of cooking. 56
  57. 57. Doneness & Cooking Times • We say a food is “DONE” when two thing have happened 1. The interior temperature has risen to the desired degree 2.The desired changes have taken place in By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 2.The desired changes have taken place in the food • Standards of doneness are different for every type of food and for every cooking method 57
  58. 58. Doneness & Cooking Times • The time it takes to achieve doneness is affected by three factors: 1. Cooking Temperature 2. The Speed of heat transfer 3. Size, Temperature, and By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 58 3. Size, Temperature, and individual characteristic of the food.
  59. 59. Controlling Heat • To control cooking, we must control how heat is transferred. • The kitchen contains dozens of kinds of heat sources as well as a great array of pots, pans, and other cooking tools, Controlling cooking By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry and other cooking tools, Controlling cooking with so many options is a skill a cook gains with experience, by performing cooking tasks over and over 59
  60. 60. How to Boil Water • Covering the POT • To bring water to a boil on a cooktop, we apply heat to the bottom of a pot containing the water. • The heat is transferred to the water, raising its temperature. Some of this heat energy quickly By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry temperature. Some of this heat energy quickly escapes from the top of the pot. • If the pot is covered, much of the heat is trapped inside, and the water comes to a boil much more quickly. 60
  61. 61. How to Boil Water • Although covering pots is a more efficient use of energy, sometimes you must keep them uncovered: • When evaporation is desired. In many cooking operations, one of the goals is to evaporate moisture to concentrate flavors or change textures. Keep the pot uncovered to speed evaporation. • When the contents must be visually monitored. In some cases, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • When the contents must be visually monitored. In some cases, you must keep an eye on the food as it simmers or boils, if only to make sure it continues to simmer at the proper rate, not too fast or too slow. • When green vegetables are cooked. Plant acids that destroy green pigments must be allowed to escape 61
  62. 62. Boiling Oil By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 62
  63. 63. Controlling the Heat • When water is boiling, any additional heat is used to turn water to steam, which then carries the heat away. • No matter how high you turn the heat, the water can never rise above 100C. • In other words, turning up the heat under a pot that is already boiling is a waste of energy and does not By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry already boiling is a waste of energy and does not decrease cooking time. • Furthermore, the increased agitation of rapidly boiling water does more damage to delicate foods. Remember, a rapid boil is no hotter than a slow boil. 63
  64. 64. Cooking to the centre • Heat is transferred from the outside of food to the inside by conduction. Conduction takes time, so cooking takes time. 1. Brown the exterior with high heat, then cook to doneness at By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 1. Brown the exterior with high heat, then cook to doneness at lower heat. 2. Cook to doneness at low heat, then brown the exterior with a quick blast of high heat. 64
  65. 65. Cooking Methods 2 Cooking Methods 65
  66. 66. Cooking Methods 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods are those in which the heat is conducted to the food product by water or water-based liquids such as stock and sauces, or by steam. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods are those in which the heat is conducted without By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 66 are those in which the heat is conducted without moisture—that is, by hot air, hot metal, radiation, or hot fat. We usually divide dry-heat methods into two categories: without fat and with fat. 2.3 Combination Methods Moist-Heat Methods & Dry-Heat Methods
  67. 67. Cooking Methods • Many other factors must be considered when choosing cooking methods for meats, fish, and vegetables, such as the flavor and appearance imparted by browning, the flavor imparted by fats, and the firmness or delicacy By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry imparted by fats, and the firmness or delicacy of the product. 67
  68. 68. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1. Poach, Simmer, Boil, Branch Poaching, simmering, and boiling all involve cooking a food in water or a seasoned or By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 68 food in water or a seasoned or flavored liquid. The temperature of the liquid determines the method.
  69. 69. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.1 Boil • To boil means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and greatly agitated. Water boils 100C at sea level. • No matter how high the burner is turned, the By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • No matter how high the burner is turned, the temperature of the liquid will go no higher. • Boiling is generally reserved for vegetables and starches. The high temperature toughens the proteins of meats, fish, and eggs, and the rapid bubbling breaks up delicate foods. 69
  70. 70. BOIL By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 70
  71. 71. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.2 Simmer To simmer means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling gently at a temperature of about By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 71 bubbling gently at a temperature of about 85-96OC
  72. 72. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.3 Poach To poach means to cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not actually bubbling at 71-82OC By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 72 bubbling at 71-82 C Poaching is used to cook delicate foods such as fish and eggs out of the shell
  73. 73. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 1.4 Blanch • To blanch means to cook an item partially and briefly, usually in water but sometimes by other methods 1. Place the item in cold water, bring to a boil, and simmer briefly. Cool the item by plunging it into cold water. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 73 briefly. Cool the item by plunging it into cold water. Purpose: to dissolve out blood, salt, or impurities from meats and bones. 2. Place the item in rapidly boiling water and return the water to the boil. Remove the item and cool in cold water. Purpose: to set the color and destroy harmful enzymes in vegetables, or to loosen the skins of tomatoes, peaches, and similar items for easier peeling.
  74. 74. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 74
  75. 75. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods 2. Steam • To steam means to cook foods by exposing them directly to steam. • The term steaming also By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 75 • The term steaming also refers to cooking an item tightly wrapped or in a covered pan so it cooks in the steam formed by its own moisture.
  76. 76. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods • This method is used in cooking items en papillote, meaning “wrapped in parchment paper” (or foil). By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 76
  77. 77. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods • “Baked” potatoes wrapped in foil are actually steamed. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 77
  78. 78. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods • Steam at normal pressure is 100C, the same as boiling water. However, it carries much more heat than boiling water and cooks foods very rapidly. • Cooking times must be carefully controlled to By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Cooking times must be carefully controlled to avoid overcooking 78
  79. 79. 2.1 Moist-Heat Methods • A pressure steamer is a steam cooker that holds in steam under pressure. The temperature of the By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry temperature of the steam then goes higher than 100C 79
  80. 80. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 1. Roast and Bake • To roast and to bake both mean to cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 80 them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. • Cooking on a spit in front of an open fire may also be considered roasting
  81. 81. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 1. Roast and Bake (Cont.) • The term roasting usually applies to meats and poultry. • The term baking usually applies breads, pastries, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 81 • The term baking usually applies breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.
  82. 82. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods • A roast may be browned by another cooking method, such as pan-frying or broiling, before being placed in the oven. • This technique is most useful for small By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 82 • This technique is most useful for small poultry and small cuts of meat, which may not brown sufficiently in the oven due to their short roasting times.
  83. 83. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods • To barbecue means to cook with dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or by the hot coals of this wood. • In other words, barbecuing is By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 83 • In other words, barbecuing is a roasting or grilling technique requiring a wood fire.
  84. 84. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 2. Broil • To broil means to cook with radiant heat from above • Broiling is a rapid, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 84 • Broiling is a rapid, high-heat cooking method used mainly for tender meats, poultry, fish, and a few vegetable items.
  85. 85. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods 3. Grill, Griddle and Pan Broil dry-heat cooking methods that use heat from below Grilling is done on an open grid over a heat source, which may be charcoal, an electric element, or a gas-heated element. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 85 element, or a gas-heated element. Griddling is done on a solid cooking surface called a griddle, with or without small amounts of fat to prevent sticking. Pan-Broil s like griddling except it is done in a saut้ pan or skillet instead of on a griddle surface.
  86. 86. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 86
  87. 87. 2.2 Dry-Heat Methods Using FAT 4. Saute The French word saute means “to jump,” referring to the action of small pieces of food tossed in a saut้ pan 5. Pan-Fry To pan-fry means to cook in a moderate amount of fat in a By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 87 To pan-fry means to cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over moderate heat 6. Deep-Fry To deep-fry means to cook a food submerged in hot fat. 175-190 OC
  88. 88. 2.3 Combination Methods 1. Braise • To braise means to cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after preliminary browning. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 88 browning. • In almost all cases, the liquid is served with the product as a sauce. • usually not completely covered by the cooking liquid
  89. 89. 2.3 Combination Methods 2. Stew The term braising is used for large cuts of meat, and stewing is used for smaller items. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 89 stewing is used for smaller items. Stews are usually cooked in just enough liquid to cover them completely
  90. 90. Braises VS Stews By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 90
  91. 91. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 91
  92. 92. Summery of Cooking Terms 1. Bake 2. Barbecue 3. Blanch 4. Boil 5. Braise 6. Broil 7. Deep-fry 13. Pan broil 14. Pan fry 15. Parcook 16. Poach 17. Reduce 18. Roast 19. Saut้ By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 92 6. Broil 7. Deep-fry 8. Deglaze 9. Fry 10. Glaze 11. Griddle 12. Grill 18. Roast 19. Saut้ 20. Sear 21. Smoke 22. Steam 23. Stir-fry 24. sweat
  93. 93. Building Flavor 3 93 Building Flavor
  94. 94. 3.1 Building Flavor Profiles • Food offer complex experiences for the senses. When composing a new dish. • A cook must first of all understand that more than just taste should be considered. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 94 considered. • The senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch all come into play. • Consider how we perceive these characteristics of a dish:
  95. 95. Building Flavor Profiles • Appearance (color, color contrast, shape, shine, arrangement) • Aroma • Taste By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 95 • Taste • Mouth feel (texture, moistness or dryness, softness or crispness and temperature)
  96. 96. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 96
  97. 97. Building Flavor Profiles • The flavors in a dish can be thought of as primary flavors and supporting, or secondary, flavors. • The primary flavors are the flavors of the main ingredients. For example, the primary flavors in Irish lamb stew are lamb, onions, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry lamb stew are lamb, onions, leeks, and potatoes. These are the flavors that predominate • Other flavors, which we can call supporting flavors, support and enhance the primary flavors of the main ingredients. 97
  98. 98. General Concepts in Flavor Building • Every ingredient should have a purpose • Ingredients can work together by harmonizing or by contrasting • When two ingredients contrast, be sure they balance By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 98 balance • Consider not only the component of the single recipe but also other items that will be served with it on the plate
  99. 99. CLASSIC FLAVORING COMBINATIONS By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 99
  100. 100. 3.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Ingredients • Seasoning Enhance the natural flavor of food • Flavoring By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 100 • Flavoring adding new flavor to food and change the original flavor
  101. 101. Seasoning 1. The most important time for seasoning liquid foods is at the end of the cooking process. 2. Salt and other seasonings are also added at the beginning of cooking, particularly for larger pieces of food, when seasonings added at the end would not be absorbed or blended in but just sit on the surface. 3. Adding some of the seasoning during the cooking process aids in By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 3. Adding some of the seasoning during the cooking process aids in evaluating the flavor along the way. 4. Do not add much seasoning if it will be concentrated during cooking, as when a liquid is reduced. 101
  102. 102. Flavoring • Flavoring ingredients can be added at the beginning, middle, or end, depending on the cooking time, the cooking process, and the flavoring ingredient. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 102
  103. 103. Flavoring 1. Only a few flavorings can be added successfully at the end of cooking. These include fresh (not dried) herbs, sherry or flamed brandy, and condiments like prepared mustard and Worcestershire sauce. 2. Most flavorings need heat to release their flavors and time for the flavors to blend. Whole spices take longest. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry time for the flavors to blend. Whole spices take longest. Ground spices release flavors more quickly and thus don’t require as long a cooking time. 3. Too much cooking results in loss of flavor. Most flavors, whether in spices or in main ingredients, are volatile, which means they evaporate when heated. That is why you can smell food cooking. 103
  104. 104. Common Seasoning & Flavoring ingredients 1. Salt 2. Pepper (black, white, green) 3. Lemon juice 4. Fresh herbs 5. Onion, garlic, shallot, carrot, celery By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 104 5. Onion, garlic, shallot, carrot, celery 6. Whine, brandy 7. Mustard 8. Grated lemon, grated orange 9. MSG
  105. 105. 3.3 Using Herb & Spices *** pls see the Kitchen Staple By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 105
  106. 106. Food Science BasicsFood Science Basics 106
  107. 107. Food Science Basics • Understanding how food reacts under certain conditions is essential becoming a professional chef. • From creating flavorful dish to developing an innovative shortcut, chef face challenges everyday • The Six basic principle of food science are as By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • The Six basic principle of food science are as follows: • Caramelization •Denaturation • Maillard Reaction • Coagulation • Gelatinization • Emulsification 107
  108. 108. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • The two form of carbohydrates : SUGAR & STARCH • When exposed to heat, sugar will first melt into a thick syrup. Caramelization / Maillard Reaction / Gelatinization By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry first melt into a thick syrup. • As the temperature continues to rise, the sugar syrup changes color, from clear to light yellow to brown • This Browning process is called CARAMELIZATION => Caramel 108
  109. 109. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • Granulated white sugar • Melts at 160๐C • Caramelize at 170๐C By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 109
  110. 110. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • In food that are not primarily sugar or starch, a different reaction, known as the MAILLARD REACTION • The Maillard Reaction, is responsible for BROWNING. Temperature > 149๐C By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • The Maillard Reaction, is responsible for BROWNING. • Involves SUGAR + AMINO ACIDS • When heated, react the chemical, Resulting in a brown color and intense flavor and aroma 110 It is this react that give coffee, chocolate, baked goods, roasted meat much of their rich flavor and color Temperature > 149๐C
  111. 111. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • Food cooked with Moist heat => NOT BROWN (Boiling, Steaming, Poaching, Stewing) By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry Poaching, Stewing) • Food cooked with Dry-heat => WILL BROWN (Sautéing, Grilling, roasting) 111
  112. 112. Maillard reaction • The Maillard reaction (pronounced may-YAR) is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry and a reducing sugar, usually requiring heat. 112
  113. 113. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • Starch, a complex carbohydrate, has powerful thickening properties. • When starch is combined with water and heated, individual starch granules absorb the liquid and By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry granules absorb the liquid and swell. • This process, known as GELATINIZATION, it what causes the liquid to thicken 113
  114. 114. 1. Effect of Heat on Starches and Sugars • Root-based Starches (potato and arrowroot) – Thicken at lower temperatures but – Break down more quickly • Cereal-based Starches (Corn and Wheat) – Thicken at Higher temperature but By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry – Thicken at Higher temperature but – Break don more slowly 114
  115. 115. 2. Denaturing Proteins • Nature proteins are shaped like coils or spring • When natural protein are exposed to heat, salt, or acid, they DENATURE – the coin UNWIND By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry UNWIND • When food is cooked, some of its proteins become denatured. • This is why boiled eggs become hard and cooked meat becomes firm 115
  116. 116. 2. Denaturing Proteins • Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure • by application of some external stress or compound, such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), or heat. • If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. 116
  117. 117. 2. Denaturing Proteins • When protein denature, they tend to bond together, or COAGULATE, and from solid clumps (to change from a fluid into a thickened mass) • Egg white, which changes from By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • Egg white, which changes from transparent fluid to an solid • As protein coagulate, they lose some of their CAPACITY TO HOLD WATER 117
  118. 118. 2. Denaturing Proteins • That why protein-rich food give off moisture as they cook, even they are steamed or poached • Some heat-induced denaturation is REVERSIBLE through cooling By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry is REVERSIBLE through cooling => Juice and Become Moisture • Denature proteins are easier to digest than natural proteins 118
  119. 119. 3. Function of Cooking Fats • Fat provides an appealing visual element when a food appear to be moist, creamy, fluffy, or shiny. By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry 119
  120. 120. 3. Function of Cooking Fats • During Baking Process • Fat perform a multitude of chemical functions, such as tenderizing, leavening, aiding in moisture retention By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry aiding in moisture retention • During Cooking Process • Fat transfer heat to food and prevent them from sticking 120
  121. 121. 3. Function of Cooking Fats • One important aspect of fat is ability to be heated to relatively high temperatures without boiling otherwise breaking down. • If heated to high temperature, fat will begin to breakdown, known as SMOKING POINT By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry to breakdown, known as SMOKING POINT • Vegetable Oils begin to smoke at 132๐C • Animal Fats begin to smoke at 191๐C 121
  122. 122. 4. Function of Water in Cooking • Water is the primary substance in most food. • Fruits and Vegetables contain up to 95 percent water, Raw meat is about By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry water, Raw meat is about 75 percent water 122
  123. 123. 4. Function of Water in Cooking • Water Freezes at 0๐C and Boiling at 100๐C lead to EVAPORATION, which make REDUCTION • When salt and sugar is dissolved in water, the By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry • When salt and sugar is dissolved in water, the freezing point is LOWERED and the Boiling point is RAISED 123
  124. 124. 4. Function of Water in Cooking • Pure water, which is neutral has a pH of SEVEN • The pH of a solution affects the flavor, By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry affects the flavor, color, texture, and nutrition quality of foods 124
  125. 125. 5. Forming Emulsions • An emulsion occurs when two substances that do not normally mix are forced into a mixture • Under normal conditions, FAT and water DO NOT MIX, but these two By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry water DO NOT MIX, but these two are MOST common ingredients in culinary emulsions 125
  126. 126. 5. Forming Emulsions • An emulsified vinaigrette is an example of an oil-in-vinegar emulsion. • Temporary emulsions form quickly and require only the By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry quickly and require only the mechanical action of whipping, shaking, or stirring 126
  127. 127. 5. Forming Emulsions • To make an emulsion stable enough to keep the oil in suspension, additional ingredients, known as EMULSIFIERS, are necessary to attract and hold together both By Aj. Pavit Tansakul WMS : Tourism Industry attract and hold together both oil and liquid • Commonly used emulsifiers are Egg Yolks, Mustard, Natural starches in Garlic, Corn starch, Arrowroot are used 127
  128. 128. Q&A 128 Q&A

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