Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
HYPOTHESIS
JIMNAIRA U. ABANTO
RESEARCH
PROBLEMS
Hypotheses
Conceptual
Framework
Assumptions
Review of
Related
Literature
Research
Design
Data
Collection...
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
It briefly summarizes studies related to
your research.
It includes the purpose, procedures...
IMPORTANCE
Determine the similarities and
differences of the findings between the
past and present studies
To gain insig...
THREE PARTS OF REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE
1. Related legal bases
2. Related literature
3. Related studies
TIPS IN WRITING THE REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE
1. It must document accepted facts,
concepts and processes upon which the...
4. Include the following as a general
background information of your research
paper.
A. LIVING THINGS/ORGANISMS
1. Give th...
3. Provide detailed information in areas
that are directly applicable to the study.
4. If you are using more than one
orga...
B. BEHAVIOR
1.Briefly describe the
• Type of behavior
• Primary factors influencing the behavior
• Value of the behavior
•...
4. Based on the given information, predict
how you think the organism will act in your
experiment.
C. PROCESS/PROCEDURES
1...
D. MATTER
1.Briefly describe the substance’s chemical
composition and/or common name,
formula, physical properties, chemic...
FORMAT or STYLE OF CITING
RELATED STUDIES
-for published works, mention the relevant
information, then enclose in parenthe...
SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR ORGANIZING
YOUR REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
a. Create categories for your literature
review, groupin...
SEATWORK:
Identify the sources below if RELATED LEGAL BASIS(LB)
RELATED LITERATURE(RL) or RELATED STUDIES (RS)
1. Partial ...
HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS
• Proposed solution
• Educated prediction
• Meant to be tested
GUIDELINES IN HYPOTHESIS
FORMULATION
-Adapted from Salvatore Tocci’s book, How to Do a
Science Project.
THE HYPOTHESIS SH...
 A HYPOTHESIS SHOULD BE
BASED ON THE PAST
EXPERIENCES OR OBSERVATIONS
OR ON INFORMATION GATHERED
FROM YOUR RESEARCH.
--sh...
 A HYPOTHESIS MUST BE
TESTABLE.
--can be proven right or wrong,
depending on the outcome of the
experiment.
A HYPOTHESIS...
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
WHEN AN EXPERIMENT
FAILS, THE HYPOTHESIS
SHOULD NOT BE
CHANGED TO CONFORM
TO THE RESULTS OF THE
EXPERIMEN...
TYPES OF HYPOTHESES
1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
alternative hypothesis
stated in a declarative form.
derived from the litera...
TYPES OF HYPOTHESES
1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS/ALTERNATIVE
HYPOTHESIS
Problem: Is there a significant mean difference
on the g...
2. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS
• Null hypothesis
• Negative statement
• Refers to populations and represents the
vehicle by whi...
2. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS/ NULL
Problem: Is there a significant difference on the
yield of peanuts planted in pot using ni...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
--is a general statement which forms the frame
of reference for your inquiry or investigation.
--usua...
2 TYPES OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
1. Relationship of the key concepts
2. Relationship of the key variables
IMPORTANCE
1. It ...
KEY VARIABLES
Independent
Variables
Intervening
Variables
Dependent
Variable
Example:
What is the effect of Aloe vera extract on the rate
of growth and regeneration of Planaria?
Aloe
vera
Regeneratio...
KEY CONCEPTS
KEY CONCEPTS
Leaves of
Kalanchoe pinnata (L.)
Phytochemical
Screening
Gas
Chromatography
Mass Spectra
Microbial Process
Pe...
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Review of Literature, Hypothesis and Conceptual framework

6.989 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

After presenting your research problem, the next part of your research paper consists of Review of related literature, hypothesis and Conceptual framework.

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung
  • Nice !! Download 100 % Free Ebooks, PPts, Study Notes, Novels, etc @ https://www.ThesisScientist.com
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

Review of Literature, Hypothesis and Conceptual framework

  1. 1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK HYPOTHESIS JIMNAIRA U. ABANTO
  2. 2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS Hypotheses Conceptual Framework Assumptions Review of Related Literature Research Design Data Collection Data Processing and Statistical Treatment Analysis and Interpretation Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  3. 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  4. 4. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE It briefly summarizes studies related to your research. It includes the purpose, procedures, major findings and recommendations for further study of various researches conducted in the past.
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE Determine the similarities and differences of the findings between the past and present studies To gain insight into the aspects of the problem that are critical and controversial To help you organize the concepts and principles fundamental to your research
  6. 6. THREE PARTS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1. Related legal bases 2. Related literature 3. Related studies
  7. 7. TIPS IN WRITING THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1. It must document accepted facts, concepts and processes upon which the research is based. 2. Reference information should be correctly recorded. 3. Describe similarities and differences among research studies.
  8. 8. 4. Include the following as a general background information of your research paper. A. LIVING THINGS/ORGANISMS 1. Give the common name, scientific name, and classification of the organism. 2. Briefly describe the organism’s • Habitat • Anatomy • Physiology • Life cycle • Behaviors or responses to the environment
  9. 9. 3. Provide detailed information in areas that are directly applicable to the study. 4. If you are using more than one organism, provide information on each. 5. Based on the given information, predict how you think the organism will act in your experiment.
  10. 10. B. BEHAVIOR 1.Briefly describe the • Type of behavior • Primary factors influencing the behavior • Value of the behavior • Methods for describing the behavior 2. Identify critical factors. 3. If you have more than one type of behavior, describe similarities and differences.
  11. 11. 4. Based on the given information, predict how you think the organism will act in your experiment. C. PROCESS/PROCEDURES 1.Describe the purpose of the process, the major steps, where it occurs, and how it relates to the experiment. 2. If more than one process is involved, provide information on each process. 3.Based on the given information, predict how you think the organism will act in your experiment.
  12. 12. D. MATTER 1.Briefly describe the substance’s chemical composition and/or common name, formula, physical properties, chemical properties, method of production and uses. 2. Provide detailed information on characteristics that are directly applicable to the study.
  13. 13. FORMAT or STYLE OF CITING RELATED STUDIES -for published works, mention the relevant information, then enclose in parenthesis the author and year of the publication. A. Single Author B. Two Authors C. Multiple authors
  14. 14. SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR ORGANIZING YOUR REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE a. Create categories for your literature review, grouping together similar studies. b. Begin with the most recent studies and then work backward. c. Whenever possible, include on extensive review of relevant local research.
  15. 15. SEATWORK: Identify the sources below if RELATED LEGAL BASIS(LB) RELATED LITERATURE(RL) or RELATED STUDIES (RS) 1. Partial Characterization of the Antifungal Properties of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kataka- taka) 2. Statistics with Computer 3. Journal of Nursing Administration 4. D.O. Order No. 1, s.2005 5. NIPSC Memorandum No. 5, s.2005
  16. 16. HYPOTHESIS
  17. 17. HYPOTHESIS • Proposed solution • Educated prediction • Meant to be tested
  18. 18. GUIDELINES IN HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION -Adapted from Salvatore Tocci’s book, How to Do a Science Project. THE HYPOTHESIS SHOULD BE CLEAR AND BRIEF. -should clearly and concisely state the expected relationship between two variables and define the variable in operational, measurable terms.
  19. 19.  A HYPOTHESIS SHOULD BE BASED ON THE PAST EXPERIENCES OR OBSERVATIONS OR ON INFORMATION GATHERED FROM YOUR RESEARCH. --should take into account the results of the experiments or observations mentioned in these articles.
  20. 20.  A HYPOTHESIS MUST BE TESTABLE. --can be proven right or wrong, depending on the outcome of the experiment. A HYPOTHESIS SHOULD STATE HOW, AT THE VERY LEAST, TWO FACTORS RELATE.
  21. 21. ALWAYS REMEMBER: WHEN AN EXPERIMENT FAILS, THE HYPOTHESIS SHOULD NOT BE CHANGED TO CONFORM TO THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT.
  22. 22. TYPES OF HYPOTHESES 1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS alternative hypothesis stated in a declarative form. derived from the literature review and should suggest the outcome of the experiment. a. Insect a develops resistance to Pesticide X. b. If the concentration of Substance A is increased, then plant growth will be reduced.
  23. 23. TYPES OF HYPOTHESES 1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS/ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS Problem: Is there a significant mean difference on the general acceptability of luncheon meat from bone meal of milkfish and goatfish? Hypothesis: There is a significant mean difference on the general acceptability of luncheon meat from bone meal of milkfish and goatfish.
  24. 24. 2. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS • Null hypothesis • Negative statement • Refers to populations and represents the vehicle by which findings are generalized from the sample to the population. a. When a sample of Insect A is regularly exposed to Pesticide X for one week, 100% of the sample will die; None will survive. b. The mean heights of plants exposed to 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% Substance A are not significantly different.
  25. 25. 2. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS/ NULL Problem: Is there a significant difference on the yield of peanuts planted in pot using night soil and chicken dung as fertilizers? Hypothesis: there is no significant difference on the yield of peanuts planted in pots using night soil and chicken dung as fertilizers.
  26. 26. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  27. 27. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK --is a general statement which forms the frame of reference for your inquiry or investigation. --usually written in the form of a diagram. -- it provides the basis for conducting your research. --is a tentative scheme for the research project based on the review of literature.
  28. 28. 2 TYPES OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1. Relationship of the key concepts 2. Relationship of the key variables IMPORTANCE 1. It helps you focus your research. 2. It gives you the proper perspective on the problem. 3. It provides you with a solid anchor to guide you in making your hypotheses and, after experimenting, in explaining your findings.
  29. 29. KEY VARIABLES Independent Variables Intervening Variables Dependent Variable
  30. 30. Example: What is the effect of Aloe vera extract on the rate of growth and regeneration of Planaria? Aloe vera Regeneration of Planaria Growth of Planaria
  31. 31. KEY CONCEPTS
  32. 32. KEY CONCEPTS Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (L.) Phytochemical Screening Gas Chromatography Mass Spectra Microbial Process Percolation

×