Culture is that complex whole which
includes knowledge, belief, art, law,
morals, customs and other capabilities
and habits acquired by man as a
member of society.
- An eminent scholar Edward B. Taylor,
18th century English anthropologist
The configuration of learned behaviour,
and the result of behaviour, whose
component elements are shared and
transmitted by the members of a
particular society. - Linton
A collective term for patterns of
essential and normative assertions taken
from literature, language or drama or
sounds in music, or symbols in sculpture
and art, or movement in dance and
ballet. - Kasper
Man’s effort to live in harmony with his
Culture is the product of human
Ideal and Real Culture
Ideal culture consists of officially
approved behaviour patterns while real
culture consist of what people actually
do in their day to day practices without
due consideration to their official status.
A sub-culture is a group smaller than a
society, it is related to the larger culture
in the sense that it accepts many of its
norms but the sub-culture is also
distinguishable because it has some
norms of its own.
It is impossible to understand behaviour
patterns of other groups if we analyze
them only in terms of our motives and
values. A trait which may be disruptive
in one society may be vital to the
stability of another.
It is the context between one culture
and another to change the existing
A cultural diffusion where about two
societies sustain contact with one
another was one culture is subordinate
Farayola sees socialization as the
business of adjusting people to the way
of life of the community, usually by way
of initiation into its customs, beliefs,
rituals conventions, expectation and
demands combined with instructions
and the setting of examples.
Bogardu has viewed socialization as the
process whereby persons learn to
behave dependably together on behalf
of human welfare and by so doing
experience social self-control, social
responsibility and balanced personality.
Socialization can be described as the
process of adaptation by the individuals
to the conventional patterns of
behaviour. It thus occurs on account of
the individual’s interaction with others
and the expression of the culture which
operates through them.
This characterized by preoccupation with
food. Its main thought is survival.
Although it possesses the potentials for
thinking and reasoning (the intellect) it
still has no “self”.
1. The vegetative level
The family is one of the many small face-
to-face groups that are called primary
groups saddled with the responsibility of
giving the offspring a qualitative and
decent pattern of living.
The foundation of socialization because
that is the first contact of the child
It socializes the child, gives him the
opportunity to manifest his qualities,
potentialities, capabilities, instincts,
drives and motives and helps to develop
his personality. The teacher’s personality
and character provide a mode which he
strives to copy, thereby consciously
molding his personality.
The Peer Group
The peer group is the child’s own friends
and equals with similar drives, motives
and interests. It is a world in which the
child has equal and at times superior
status to others.
Religion is therefore a whole way of life
and not just something that believer can
take up or put down as the fancy takes
them. People who share the same
religious beliefs will also hold the same
attitudes and opinions, and will behave
in the same way. Thus, religious
institutions help in the socialization
process of its members.
The mass media as an agent of
socialization have their own technical
characteristics. There are two major
types namely “Print and Electronic”.
The different media largely because of
technical characteristics are used in
different ways by children and hence
different types of messages are passed
through mass media. Children need to
be guided in the usage of their leisure
hours in the patronage and utilization of
mass media to discourage cultivation
and learning of negative ideas.