1. Afolabi S. Sunday and Joshua O. Adeleke (2010), find out that instructional
resources and materials are the crucial determinants of methods used in mathematics
teaching. Therefore, should be provided through the following ways: (i) the government,
(ii) improvisation by school teachers and students, (iii) request from lovers of
mathematics and (iv) philanthropists, (v) school P.T.A (vi) setting up a department in
NMC to take up the commitment of providing standard instructional materials for the
whole nation. Training and retaining of mathematics teachers on the use of instructional
materials (vii) teacher education programmers should have at least a course whereby
students are taught the construction and improvisation of instructional materials for all
courses and their uses. Teachers should be made to be aware of the importance
instructional materials. (http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_43_3_12.pdf)
Dr. Bob Kizlik (2010) stated that effective study skills must be practiced in order
for you to improve. It is not enough to simplify “think about” studying; you have to
actually do it, and in the process use information from what you do to get better. All that
follows depends on this single concept. There is a saying that goes like this “Practice
doesn’t make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect.” If you want to be an achiever, take
this saying to heart.
Mark Crilly (2000) as cited by Bagongon and Edpalina (2009) stated that
successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A
diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He
said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to
meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a new
acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he does study, if he
plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop
routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a
comfortable and quite niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10
minutes breaks every 45 minutes or so.”
2. The study of Curioso as cited by Villamor (2008), investigated the correlation of
academic performance of Freshmen College Students of University of Baguio. The study
found out that the students’ factors, teachers’ factors and environment factors were highly
associated with the academic performance of the students.
The study of Villamor (2008), found out that there is a significant functional
relationship between gender, interest toward mathematics, teaching competencies,
teaching strategies and techniques and library setting that there is no significant
functional relationship between classroom setting and the students’ performance in
Bustos and Espiritu, as cited by Calderon and Checa (2007), explained that a
teacher is charged with the way he manage learning inside the classroom. The basis of his
classroom management is the theory of the knowledge about the learner and their
involvement in the learning process. This theory should be his basis in the decision
making like analyzing and understanding the important roles of teachers in the classroom,
and these are: teachers serve as the classroom manage, facilitator of the students’
achievement and evaluation of students learning. This role of the teacher must be
observed in every corner of the classroom. There are times that teacher also serve as the
second parents of their students because the behavior and attitude that they display in and
out the room are seen by the students.
MacAfee and Leong, as cited by Checa (2007), wrote that there are many factors
that are responsible for the achievement of the students. These are include the public,
parent, funding groups, governing boards, hole schools, and most of all the teachers.
Teachers are expected to explain what they are doing and the results. If the school
environment is conducive for students learning, then the maximum learning can be
Pressly, as cited by Bagayana (2006), describes how students’ interests and
motivation can be fostered through the teaching strategy used. He explains that when
3. students have a repertoire of strategies with which to work, they are empowered with the
“the will and the skill” to successfully problem-solve.
Valenzuela, as cited by Bagayana (2006), studied the correlates of achievement in
Mathematics. One of the construct she looked at was the interest in Mathematics. She
found out that the students have high level of interest in Mathematics. The research’s
results conclude that the students like Mathematics. Majority of the students find the
subject interesting and useful. No significant relationship was found between the interest
of the students in Mathematics and achievement in the subject.
Salandanan (2005), the teacher is an integral part of an instructional activity. Her
skills employing a variety of teaching methodologies in paramount if every classroom
encounter is to result in creating beneficial interaction of positive response.
Tolentino (2002), as cited by Almario (2004), emphasized the importance and
effectiveness of instructional materials in the teaching process. In view of the findings
and conclusion drawn, she recommends the following: 1) the proposed instructional
materials will serve as an effective vehicle in the teaching and learning, 2) the researcher
proposes the adoption of the instructional materials will further enhance the learning
skills in terms of concepts application of the different concept and principles in the study
of the subjects.
Fraenkel, as cited by Gordula (2004), stated that teaching strategies represent
combination of certain specific procedures or operations, grouped and order in a definite
sequences, that teachers can use in the classroom to implement both cognitive and
affective objectives. If the teacher uses the best practices in teaching mathematics, then
he can create a positive interaction between them.
Almario (2004), teachers who understand the situation inside the classroom
should be equipped with the necessary skills, strategies and materials and should be
4. skilled in motivation students to exert knowledge to meet the needs of the students and
ensure the academic success.
Aquino (2003) pointed out that study skills can be taught effectively only after
identifying students’ areas of weakness and levels of achievement by means of
appropriate tests. Those whose level of achievement is appropriate to their grade level
can be provided with development (or enrichment) exercises, which will enable them to
become more proficient in the skills they have already acquired or which will help them
learn new skills.
The study of Digals, as cited by Sarmiento (2002), sought to assess the
instructional competencies of master teachers, associated with their performance and
selected personal variables. He found out that master teacher respondents possess very
satisfactorily in knowledge of the subject matter and lesson planning , proficiency in
language, effective use of teaching strategies, instructional aids and materials, evaluation
techniques, classroom management and discipline, and age, educational attainment,
length of service and performance rating of master teachers are determining factors of the
level of their instructional competencies. Older master teachers and those with higher
educational attainment, longer years of service and higher performance rating tend to be
more instructionally competent.
Gorhan and Christophel (1990), as cited by Sarmiento (2002), stated that humor
can be an indispensable tool in promoting a positive relationship with the students.
Grows and Cebulla (2000), state that teaching mathematics with focus on number
sense encourages students to become a problem-solver in a wide variety of situation to
view mathematics as a discipline is important.
Gonzales (2000), teaching is a responsibility and every teacher has no choices but
to face them. Teachers must start working, thinking why the quality of education is
declining continuously, and do our part as a mentors.
5. Bustos and Espiritu, as cited by Tulio (2000), any teacher who is charge with the
management of classroom learning hold particular things of teaching based on his
knowledge about the learners and learning process. Such theory of teaching becomes the
basic of his decision on how to go about his various significant roles in the classroom,
namely as classroom manager, as facilitator of students’ learning and as evaluator of
Rohwes W.Jr.et al. as cited by Sainz (2000) further discussed the teachers need to
find ways of determining whether or not her instruction have been successful. The
procedure and method of determining such success can take the form of test of various
kinds to determine whether the students have reached the objectives they have set for