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STANDARD SAFETY MEASURES
CHRISTIAN JENET DANIEL
FINAL YEAR M.SC. NURSING
• In the mid-80s with the emergence of HIV/AIDS and the overwhelming
prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections in healthcare workers, guidelines
were established in a joint effort between OSHA (Occupational Safety and
Health Administration) and the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention) to protect more people from exposure to blood borne
infections. The guidelines were quickly adopted and became known as
“Universal Precautions (UP).”
• Finally, in 1996, the CDC issued a new set of guidelines and called them
“Standard Precautions.” They were the best of both worlds and involved a two
Standard Precautions apply to all clients and patients attending
Transmission-Based Precautions which apply only to hospitalized
• Standard safety measures are a set of infection control practices used to prevent
transmission of diseases that can be acquired by contact with blood, body
fluids, non-intact skin (including rashes), and mucous membranes. These
measures are to be used when providing care to all individuals, whether or not
they appear infectious or symptomatic.
• Hand Hygiene
• Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• Needle stick and Sharps Injury Prevention
• Cleaning and Disinfection
• Respiratory Hygiene (Cough Etiquette)
• Waste Disposal
• Safe Injection Practices
• Standard Safety measures are the
minimum infection prevention
practices that should be used in
the care of all patients all of the
time. These practices are designed
to both protect the healthcare
worker and to prevent the
healthcare worker from spreading
infections among patients.
1. PEOPLE AND HAND
• It is the people in hospitals rather than the
physical environment which constitutes the
reservoir of infection. Nurses should follow hand
washing techniques properly and they should
also guide other staffs, students to follow the
procedure of hand washing which includes social
handwashing, followed by procedural hand wash.
All the steps of hand washing should be followed
properly. Following the habit of procedural hand
wash after touching each child will help to
prevent cross infection. Always use liquid soap
instead of solid soap for hand washing
2. ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES
• Strict adherence to aseptic
techniques in various invasive
procedures. Insertion and
removal of catheters, surgical
tubing’s, drainage tubes and
packs need strict no-touch
techniques even while they are
done outside of operation
theaters in nursing units.
3. SEGREGATION OF
• There must be a system for
keeping the contaminated pieces
of linen, sputum cups, bedpans,
urinals, and similar items
separately to minimize chances
of getting mixed up with clean
4. ISOLATION POLICY
• Availability of adequate number of
trained nurses is crucial for prevention of
nosocomial infection. Isolation facilities
for patients with communicable diseases
and those vulnerable to infection. Such
facilities must be made available in ICU,
nurseries, burn unit, transplant unit, etc.
Strict control on wearing of mask, gown
and gloves must be exercised while
attending to such patients. All articles
taken for patient use must be treated
5. MASKING AND GOWNING AND
• Gloves should be worn especially while
dealing with HIV infected patients.
• As for any surgical procedure lumbar
puncture Gown and Glove should be
worn by the person who conducts the
• Gowns should be washed and
6. DISINFECTION PRACTICES
• Different kinds of disinfectants vary in their reaction
to different kinds of micro- organisms. Phenolic
compounds are active against gram-negative
organisms. Quaternary ammonium compounds
against staphylococci, streptococci, and lodophores
• hypochloride’s have a broad spectrum of action.
Selection of appropriate disinfectant for different
purpose is important. The following should be
• Appropriate choice
• Appropriate concentration
• Appropriate contact time
7. STERILIZATION PRACTICES
• An efficient CSSD ensures supply of properly sterilized articles to all users in the
hospital. Each sterilization must be monitored through the use of heat- sensitive
• All steam and ethylene oxide sterilizers should be checked at least once each week
with a suitable live spore preparation by the laboratory.
• Instruments which come in contact with mucous membranes but are disinfected
rather than sterilized before use, such as endoscopes, and anesthesia equipment
may be bacteriologically sampled on a spot check basis to ensure adequacy of
8. PREVENTION OF INJURIES.
• After using the disposable needles, never recap
them to potential risk of injury they should be
disposed of uncapped.
• Injection files and cotton swabs should be used
for breaking ampoules.
• Scissors and blades should be handled with
• Needles should never be left on the bed, table,
chair, nurse ‘s station etc.
• Heavy duty gloves should be used while
handling and washing sharp instruments and
9. OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT
• In outpatient department
separate arrangements for
receiving and examining
patients suspected of having
should be made.
10. DIETARY SERVICE
• Storage of food articles and
appropriate temperatures in
refrigerators and deep freezers
must be checked. Control of
rodents and insects is a must
to prevent contamination of
stored food and supplies Fruits
and vegetables eaten raw must
be thoroughly washed before
11. HANDLING THE
• The specimens should be
collected in screw capped
plastic disposable container
without soiling laboratory
• Never pipette blood or other
body fluid with your mouth.
12. HANDLING THE BLOOD
• The spill should be covered with
cotton, newspaper or other absorbent
• Pour 1% of Hydro chlorate solution or
bleach solution over the spill
• Wipe the spill soaked area after 20
• Discard the soiled materials in a
polythene lined waste bag (red bag)
• The soiled floor should be cleaned with
• Dry dusting and sweeping should be avoided; it is preferable to vacuum
cleaner to suck the dust from the floor, walls and equipment’s.
• Wet mopping of floors with soap and water containing 3% phenol should
• carried out at least thrice daily
• The waxing of surfaces and use of oil in water for mopping may limit
dissemination of microorganisms.
• The walls should be wiped or sprayed with 2% bacillocide once a week
• The sinks should be washed with 3% phenol or 5% Lysol at least once a
14. AIR HYGIENE IN OPERATION
• Clogging of air filters of the AC system renders the ventilation in
operation theaters and such other areas infective. Air filters
should be frequently cleaned. Periodical smoke
• studies should be carried out for air movement in operation
theaters and checking that the
• AC system is achieving the desirable number of air changes per
15. TERMINATION DISINFECTION
• Termination disinfection of
isolation rooms must be carried
out thoroughly on the principle as
operating rooms before
permitting the room for reuse. At
such times, the staff must use the
same precautions (cap, mask,
gown, gloves) used for nursing in
such isolation rooms.
16. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF
• Developing in all hospital workers a high sense of
awareness, and training and retraining in the
precautionary measures, prevention and control.
17. PREVENTION OF
• Cover all the cuts and abrasions with water proof dressings.
• Use gloves when handling instruments or equipment.
• Do not recap needles after use
• Never manipulate any sharp that involves directing the point of the needle towards any
part of the body.
• Disposal sharps immediately.
• Refer to the needles stick injury guidelines.
• Health care workers with skin condition must seek the advice of occupational health
• Advice junior staffs and students to inform to seniors to be reported for any
• sign of occupational exposure.
18. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT
• Don not re use single patient’s equipment to other patients.
• Patient care equipment should be decontaminated as per the
• Wear protective clothing ‘s when handling the contaminated
• Do not use single use equipment again
• Patient related equipment such as pumps; Drip stands etc.
must be kept clean.
19. WASTE DISPOSAL
• Nurses should have thorough information and knowledge regarding
• Biomedical and general waste management.
• There should be provision for foot operated bins adjacent to each baby
unit for disposal of used materials and soiled linens
• Plastic bags should be kept as hampers in the dust bins and they should
be sealed before their removal.
• The dust bin should be mopped with 3% of phenol every day.
• To have supervision over segregation of waste in appropriate color bags
according to CDC recommendations
• Knowledge and practice regarding transportation of waste should be
GUIDELINES BY WORLD
FOR PREVENTION OF
KNOWLEDGE ON INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES AMONG HEALTH CARE
WORKERS IN HEMODIALYSIS UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL.
SOURCE: MEDICO-LEGAL UPDATE . JAN-JUN2018, VOL. 18 ISSUE 1, P220-222.
AUTHOR(S): PRATHIBHA, JACKLINE; LOBO, DAISY JOSPHINE; NAYAK, SHALINI
G.; VANDANA K. E.
• Methods: A quantitative approach with a descriptive design was adopted.
The demographic proforma, structured knowledge of practice
questionnaire on infection control measures in dialysis unit were used to
collect the data in January 2017. A total of 50 healthcare workers were
enrolled in the study based on enumerative sampling in the study. Results:
The results showed that majority healthcare workers 39 (78%) had good
knowledge of practice on infection control measures in dialysis.
EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAM ON KNOWLEDGE
REGARDING THE INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES IN LABOUR ROOM
AMONG THE STAFF NURSES WORKING IN MATERNITY UNIT IN
SELECTED HOSPITAL OF PANCHMAHAL DISTRICT
SIJO KOSHY , RINKU PATEL
• Materials and methods: An evaluative research approach with pre-experimental
design was used. The sampling technique used was non - probability convenient
sampling. Data was collected from selected Hospitals at Panchmahal District. Data
was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used
were frequency, mean, range and standard deviation. The data was also presented
graphically. Results: The mean difference between the post test and pretest
knowledge scores of staff nurses regarding the infection control measures in labor
room was found to be highly significant (t49=1.69, p<0.05). So hypothesis H1 was
accepted and hypothesis H2 was only associated with age. planned teaching
programme on knowledge is effective.