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Standard safety measures

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Standard safety measures

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Standard safety measures

  1. 1. STANDARD SAFETY MEASURES PREPARED BY, CHRISTIAN JENET DANIEL FINAL YEAR M.SC. NURSING
  2. 2. BACKGROUND • In the mid-80s with the emergence of HIV/AIDS and the overwhelming prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections in healthcare workers, guidelines were established in a joint effort between OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to protect more people from exposure to blood borne infections. The guidelines were quickly adopted and became known as “Universal Precautions (UP).”
  3. 3. • Finally, in 1996, the CDC issued a new set of guidelines and called them “Standard Precautions.” They were the best of both worlds and involved a two tier approach. Standard Precautions apply to all clients and patients attending healthcare facilities. Transmission-Based Precautions which apply only to hospitalized patients.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Standard safety measures are a set of infection control practices used to prevent transmission of diseases that can be acquired by contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin (including rashes), and mucous membranes. These measures are to be used when providing care to all individuals, whether or not they appear infectious or symptomatic. • Hand Hygiene • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Needle stick and Sharps Injury Prevention • Cleaning and Disinfection • Respiratory Hygiene (Cough Etiquette) • Waste Disposal • Safe Injection Practices
  5. 5. DEFINITION • Standard Safety measures are the minimum infection prevention practices that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time. These practices are designed to both protect the healthcare worker and to prevent the healthcare worker from spreading infections among patients.
  6. 6. 1. PEOPLE AND HAND HYGIENE • It is the people in hospitals rather than the physical environment which constitutes the reservoir of infection. Nurses should follow hand washing techniques properly and they should also guide other staffs, students to follow the procedure of hand washing which includes social handwashing, followed by procedural hand wash. All the steps of hand washing should be followed properly. Following the habit of procedural hand wash after touching each child will help to prevent cross infection. Always use liquid soap instead of solid soap for hand washing
  7. 7. 2. ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES • Strict adherence to aseptic techniques in various invasive procedures. Insertion and removal of catheters, surgical tubing’s, drainage tubes and packs need strict no-touch techniques even while they are done outside of operation theaters in nursing units.
  8. 8. 3. SEGREGATION OF CONTAMINATED INSTRUMENTS • There must be a system for keeping the contaminated pieces of linen, sputum cups, bedpans, urinals, and similar items separately to minimize chances of getting mixed up with clean items.
  9. 9. 4. ISOLATION POLICY • Availability of adequate number of trained nurses is crucial for prevention of nosocomial infection. Isolation facilities for patients with communicable diseases and those vulnerable to infection. Such facilities must be made available in ICU, nurseries, burn unit, transplant unit, etc. Strict control on wearing of mask, gown and gloves must be exercised while attending to such patients. All articles taken for patient use must be treated appropriately
  10. 10. 5. MASKING AND GOWNING AND GLOWING • Gloves should be worn especially while dealing with HIV infected patients. • As for any surgical procedure lumbar puncture Gown and Glove should be worn by the person who conducts the procedure. • Gowns should be washed and Autoclaved daily.
  11. 11. 6. DISINFECTION PRACTICES • Different kinds of disinfectants vary in their reaction to different kinds of micro- organisms. Phenolic compounds are active against gram-negative organisms. Quaternary ammonium compounds against staphylococci, streptococci, and lodophores and • hypochloride’s have a broad spectrum of action. Selection of appropriate disinfectant for different purpose is important. The following should be checked. • Appropriate choice • Appropriate concentration • Appropriate contact time
  12. 12. 7. STERILIZATION PRACTICES • An efficient CSSD ensures supply of properly sterilized articles to all users in the hospital. Each sterilization must be monitored through the use of heat- sensitive tapes. • All steam and ethylene oxide sterilizers should be checked at least once each week with a suitable live spore preparation by the laboratory. • Instruments which come in contact with mucous membranes but are disinfected rather than sterilized before use, such as endoscopes, and anesthesia equipment may be bacteriologically sampled on a spot check basis to ensure adequacy of disinfection.
  13. 13. 8. PREVENTION OF INJURIES. • After using the disposable needles, never recap them to potential risk of injury they should be disposed of uncapped. • Injection files and cotton swabs should be used for breaking ampoules. • Scissors and blades should be handled with extreme care. • Needles should never be left on the bed, table, chair, nurse ‘s station etc. • Heavy duty gloves should be used while handling and washing sharp instruments and glass ware.
  14. 14. 9. OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT • In outpatient department separate arrangements for receiving and examining patients suspected of having significant acute communicable condition should be made.
  15. 15. 10. DIETARY SERVICE • Storage of food articles and appropriate temperatures in refrigerators and deep freezers must be checked. Control of rodents and insects is a must to prevent contamination of stored food and supplies Fruits and vegetables eaten raw must be thoroughly washed before consumption.
  16. 16. 11. HANDLING THE LABORATORY SPECIMENS • The specimens should be collected in screw capped plastic disposable container without soiling laboratory forms. • Never pipette blood or other body fluid with your mouth.
  17. 17. 12. HANDLING THE BLOOD SPILLS • The spill should be covered with cotton, newspaper or other absorbent material. • Pour 1% of Hydro chlorate solution or bleach solution over the spill • Wipe the spill soaked area after 20 minutes. • Discard the soiled materials in a polythene lined waste bag (red bag) • The soiled floor should be cleaned with the detergents.
  18. 18. 13. HOUSEKEEPING ROUTINES • Dry dusting and sweeping should be avoided; it is preferable to vacuum cleaner to suck the dust from the floor, walls and equipment’s. • Wet mopping of floors with soap and water containing 3% phenol should be • carried out at least thrice daily • The waxing of surfaces and use of oil in water for mopping may limit dissemination of microorganisms. • The walls should be wiped or sprayed with 2% bacillocide once a week • The sinks should be washed with 3% phenol or 5% Lysol at least once a day.
  19. 19. 14. AIR HYGIENE IN OPERATION THEATERS • Clogging of air filters of the AC system renders the ventilation in operation theaters and such other areas infective. Air filters should be frequently cleaned. Periodical smoke • studies should be carried out for air movement in operation theaters and checking that the • AC system is achieving the desirable number of air changes per hour.
  20. 20. 15. TERMINATION DISINFECTION • Termination disinfection of isolation rooms must be carried out thoroughly on the principle as operating rooms before permitting the room for reuse. At such times, the staff must use the same precautions (cap, mask, gown, gloves) used for nursing in such isolation rooms.
  21. 21. 16. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF AWARENESS • Developing in all hospital workers a high sense of awareness, and training and retraining in the precautionary measures, prevention and control.
  22. 22. 17. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE • Cover all the cuts and abrasions with water proof dressings. • Use gloves when handling instruments or equipment. • Do not recap needles after use • Never manipulate any sharp that involves directing the point of the needle towards any part of the body. • Disposal sharps immediately. • Refer to the needles stick injury guidelines. • Health care workers with skin condition must seek the advice of occupational health nurse. • Advice junior staffs and students to inform to seniors to be reported for any • sign of occupational exposure.
  23. 23. 18. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT CARE EQUIPMENT • Don not re use single patient’s equipment to other patients. • Patient care equipment should be decontaminated as per the decontamination policy. • Wear protective clothing ‘s when handling the contaminated articles. • Do not use single use equipment again • Patient related equipment such as pumps; Drip stands etc. must be kept clean.
  24. 24. 19. WASTE DISPOSAL • Nurses should have thorough information and knowledge regarding • Biomedical and general waste management. • There should be provision for foot operated bins adjacent to each baby unit for disposal of used materials and soiled linens • Plastic bags should be kept as hampers in the dust bins and they should be sealed before their removal. • The dust bin should be mopped with 3% of phenol every day. • To have supervision over segregation of waste in appropriate color bags according to CDC recommendations • Knowledge and practice regarding transportation of waste should be essential.
  25. 25. EXAMPLE: POLICY GUIDELINES BY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR PREVENTION OF INFECTION
  26. 26. KNOWLEDGE ON INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN HEMODIALYSIS UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL. SOURCE: MEDICO-LEGAL UPDATE . JAN-JUN2018, VOL. 18 ISSUE 1, P220-222. 3P. AUTHOR(S): PRATHIBHA, JACKLINE; LOBO, DAISY JOSPHINE; NAYAK, SHALINI G.; VANDANA K. E. • Methods: A quantitative approach with a descriptive design was adopted. The demographic proforma, structured knowledge of practice questionnaire on infection control measures in dialysis unit were used to collect the data in January 2017. A total of 50 healthcare workers were enrolled in the study based on enumerative sampling in the study. Results: The results showed that majority healthcare workers 39 (78%) had good knowledge of practice on infection control measures in dialysis.
  27. 27. EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAM ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THE INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES IN LABOUR ROOM AMONG THE STAFF NURSES WORKING IN MATERNITY UNIT IN SELECTED HOSPITAL OF PANCHMAHAL DISTRICT SIJO KOSHY , RINKU PATEL • Materials and methods: An evaluative research approach with pre-experimental design was used. The sampling technique used was non - probability convenient sampling. Data was collected from selected Hospitals at Panchmahal District. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were frequency, mean, range and standard deviation. The data was also presented graphically. Results: The mean difference between the post test and pretest knowledge scores of staff nurses regarding the infection control measures in labor room was found to be highly significant (t49=1.69, p<0.05). So hypothesis H1 was accepted and hypothesis H2 was only associated with age. planned teaching programme on knowledge is effective.
  28. 28. SUMMARY

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