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teaching and learning aids

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teaching and learning aids

  1. 1. AIDS AND APPLICATIONS FOR EASIER LEARNING AND TEACHING WELLINGTON J. NII DARKO
  2. 2. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • LEARNING AND TEACHING • AIDS USED INTEACHING AND LEARNING • TYPES OF AIDS • APPLICATIONS FOR EASIER LEARNING AND TEACHING • IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AND LEARNING AIDS • CONCLUSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • learning and teaching sometimes challenging • several approaches to make teaching and learning easier and effective • aids inclusive in these approaches • effective application of these aids to make teaching and learning easier
  4. 4. LEARNING • process • acquisition of knowledge, attitudes or skill • through study, instruction or skill
  5. 5. TEACHING • process • undertaking ethical tasks • induce learning
  6. 6. TEACHING AND LEARNING AIDS • concrete materials- real life tools used in outof-school settings, • artificial material developed for educational purposes • and games • materials used by the student or the teacher to help in the processes of learning and teaching. • examples include maps, prints, models, films, tape recorders etc
  7. 7. TYPES OF AIDS • VISUAL • AUDIO • AUDIO-VISUAL
  8. 8. VISUAL AIDS • utilises the sense of vision • “seeing is believing”- adds visual aspect to presentation • examples: actual objects, models, overhead projectors,whiteboards, pictures, flashcards etc.
  9. 9. AUDIO AIDS • uses sense of hearing • suited for teaching and learning languages and recorded historical events • examples: tape recorders, compact discs (cd’s), radio etc
  10. 10. AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS • involves both senses of vision and hearing • examples: television, film strips, film projectors
  11. 11. APPLICATIONS • Chalkboard/ Whiteboard • Flipcharts • Overhead Projector/Transparencies • PowerPoint • Data Projectors/Smart Board • Audiotapes/CDs • Videotapes/DVDs • Others
  12. 12. WHITE/ BLACKBOARD • Get to the lecture hall early to make sure that the board has been cleaned. • Bring your own chalk/markers and eraser. • If you have problems with keeping your writing level, draw horizontal lines in advance using a pencil and metre stick.
  13. 13. WHITE/ BLACKBOARD • Draw complex diagrams, charts, etc. in advance and cover with a piece of newsprint until needed. • Stress the important points • Summarize and reinforce key points
  14. 14. FLIPCHARTS • When to USE: • if electricity is unavailable, • to enable students to illustrate group reports • to provide a written record of points made by students
  15. 15. FLIPCHARTS • Check the room and equipment beforehand. • Get your own pad of newsprint. • Write out important pages in advance. • Don’t put too much on a page. • Carry a collection of felt-tip pens and check that they haven’t dried out.
  16. 16. FLIPCHARTS • Complicated or time consuming illustrations should be done ahead of time • Do not walk with back to audience • Writing should be legible • Involve students • If illustrations pre-drawn, staple 2 pages together, so cannot show through • Write notes to self in pencil at edge – audience cannot see
  17. 17. OVERHEAD PROJECTORS • Prepare complicated transparencies ahead of time, by hand, computer, printing, printer or photocopier • Arrange in order – use something to keep in order – number them • Cover unwanted portions until ready for audience to see • Leave on long enough for audience to read, take notes, etc. • Highlight/point-out key concepts • Involve students
  18. 18. OVERHEAD PROJECTORS • Focus Projector! • Make sure font size is large enough to be readable • Use non-permanent pens for spontaneous additions • Highlight permanent parts with different colors • Create on computer, etc. • Use clip art or other graphics
  19. 19. OVERHEAD PROJECTORS • Run through copy machine to put on transparency –make sure using right machine and blank transparencies • Set machine at right length away from screen • Do not use a full typewritten page –only bullets or outline type • Draw as you go for best effect • Turn off if not using –fan, light, etc. distracting
  20. 20. POWERPOINT • Make certain that projector is focused • Leave word slides on longer than action slides • Use to reinforce and highlight • Know how to change bulbs, troubleshoot, etc.
  21. 21. POWERPOINT • Use colored background –darker for computer–generated slides –lights can be brighter in room • Keep slides simple –should only take a moment to figure out what slide is about • Use graphics and images when appropriate • No more than seven to ten words to a line and seven lines to a slide
  22. 22. POWERPOINT • Use short sentences and bullet lists –not complete sentences • Use full screen • Use colored background –darker for computer–generated slides –lights can be brighter in room • Keep slides simple –should only take a moment to figure out what slide is about
  23. 23. POWERPOINT • Use graphics and images when appropriate • No more than seven to ten words to a line and seven lines to a slide • Use short sentences and bullet lists –not complete sentences • Make sure the screen and the image are large enough for all to see
  24. 24. POWERPOINT • Have back up notes in case the slide projector or computer quit • One idea per slide • Charts and graphs are great • No more than 3 colors per slide
  25. 25. AUDIO TAPES • When to USE: • Particularly suited for language learning, media studies, English literature, etc • Valuable when referring to recorded historical events (e.g. Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream” speech) • Background music can also be played before class starts and during group activities
  26. 26. AUDIO TAPES • Check the room and equipment beforehand. • Can it be heard from the back of the room? • Find the right spot on the tape/CD and queue it up in advance
  27. 27. AUDIO TAPES • Don’t play more than a few minutes of audio at one time • Break up longer clips into segments, interspersed with discussion or other activities
  28. 28. VIDEO TAPES • When to USE: • Adds a dimension not available through audio alone -helps students to visualise • Essential when illustrating things that are impractical to do in real life • Particularly suited for language learning, media studies, engineering, etc • Valuable when referring to recorded historical events
  29. 29. VIDEO TAPES • Check equipment beforehand. • Can images be seen from the back of the room? • Queue up the tape in advance. • Break viewing into short segments, interspersed with discussion or activities.
  30. 30. OTHERS • real objects • internet and e-mail • electronic devices- computers, smart phones, tablet devices • the teacher as an aid
  31. 31. IMPORTANCE • Motivation • Clarification • Discouragement of Cramming • Increase the Vocabulary • Saves Time and Money • Classroom Live and active • Avoids Dullness • Direct Experience
  32. 32. CONCLUSION • powerful tools • overcomes word-only communication • meaningful representations of abstract ideas • complements descriptions • gives more accurate impression of a subject matter • select to suit subject under discussion
  33. 33. thank you!
  34. 34. REFERENCES • Lambert, N. M., & McCombs, B. L. (1998). How students learn. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association • Gerlach, V. S. and Ely, D. P. (1971). Teaching and media: a systematic approach. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. • How to Make and Use Visual Aids. Voluntary Service Overseas, London, UK, 1997. • Coppen H. (1969). Aids to teaching and learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. • Brown, J. W., Lewis, R. B. and Harcleroad, F. F. (1977). AV instruction: technology, media, and methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  35. 35. REFERENCES • McKay, H. & Tom, A. (1999). Teaching Adult Second Language Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Bulgren, J.A., Deshler, D.D., Schumaker, J.B., & Lenz, B.K. (in press). The use and effectiveness of analogical instruction in diverse secondary content classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology. • Lestage A. The use of audio-visual aids in education. Extract from U NESCO Chronicle, November 1959 • Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 389–401. • Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  36. 36. REFERENCES • http://bsaifulbahri.hubpages.com/hub/Teaching-aids-inteaching-and-learning-process • http://madefrombali.hubpages.com/hub/Teaching-Aids • http://vellur.hubpages.com/hub/Materials-and-Aids-forTeaching • http://dianelockridge.hubpages.com/hub/How-to-UseVisual-Aids-Effectively-in-the-Classroom • http://www.preservearticles.com/2011121918580/howmany-types-of-teaching-aids-are-used-in-modern-age-ofteaching.html • Dale E 1957. Audio-visual Methods in Teaching. 4th Edition, New York: Macmillan.

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