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Ruslan Synytsky
Elastic JVM
for Java EE Applications
Running in Containers
Agenda
● Java Memory Usage Problems
● JDK Improvements for Elastic Java Memory Scaling
● Elasticity and Jakarta EE
● Garba...
Java Memory Consumption Problems
The most widely acknowledged issue with Java EE is large memory requirements (40%), then
...
Unreleased Heap Memory
Over-Allocation and Underutilization
Reasons to Seek JVM Elasticity
Cron jobs for data
processing
Getting resources from
common pool
Elastic cloud hosting with...
OOM Error and OOM Killer
● OutOfMemoryError exception is usually thrown when there is insufficient
space to allocate an obje...
Understanding of the OutOfMemoryError Exception
● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space
● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError...
OOM Killer
Understanding of the OutOfMemoryError Exception
OutOfMemoryError Exception
OOM Killer
Too Many Points to Consider?
Runtime Environments
● Application Containers
● System Containers
● Virtual Machines
Pay-Per-Use Billing Model
Using automatic vertical scaling, cloud providers can offer economically
advantageous pricing bas...
Heap Vertical Scaling
Unreleased Heap Memory
Calling Full GC Periodically (Before OpenJDK12)
https://github.com/jelastic-jps/java-memory-agent
Compacting GC cycles are...
G1 and Full GC
java -XX:+UseG1GC -Xmx2g -Xms32m -jar app.jar 0
Memory grew from 32 MB to 1 GB in 25 seconds
https://github...
Timely Reduce Unused Committed Memory (JEP 346)
Make the G1 garbage collector automatically give back Java heap memory to
...
Improved Elasticity
Automatically Released Heap
Community Recognition
Special Appreciation
to Rodrigo Bruno
Senior/Postdoc Researcher at the Systems
Group in ETH Zurich.
...
Running GC
Tests in Jelastic
Load Testing Logic
https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/ma
ster/src/com/jelastic/verticalscaling/Lo...
Auto Testing Package
https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/master/manifest.yml
G1 Collector (-XX:+UseG1GC)
The Garbage-First (G1) is a server-style Garbage Collector for multiprocessor
machines with a ...
G1
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:G1PeriodicGCInterval=1k
G1 and G1PeriodicGCSystemLoadThreshold
https://github.com/lxc/lxcfs/
Using LXCFS to Improve Container Resource Visibility
...
Shenandoah GC (-XX:+UseShenandoahGC)
Shenandoah GC is a concurrent garbage collector for the JVM. GC tries to
perform most...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops 
-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseShenandoahGC -XX:ShenandoahGCHeuristics=co...
G1 vs Shenandoah - CPU Usage
G1
Shenandoah
ZGC (-XX:+UseZGC)
ZGC is low latency scalable garbage collector. Designed for use with
applications that require a large h...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions 
-XX:+UseZGC -XX:ZUncommitDelay=1 -XX:ZCollectionInterval=30
ZGC @ Oracle ...
C4 GC
● 2010, Gil Tene, Azul Systems
The C4 (Continuously Concurrent Compacting Collector) is an updated
generational form...
-Xmx500m -Xms32m -XX:+UseZST
C4 @ Zing
pmem.conf -> cgroups enabled
ConcMarkSweep GC (-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC)
ConcMarkSweep GC collector is designed for applications that prefer shorter
gar...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC
+ periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run
ConcMarkSweep
Serial GC (-XX:+UseSerialGC)
Serial GC performs garbage collection in a single thread and has the lowest
consumption of me...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseSerialGC
+ periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run
Serial
OpenJ9
OpenJ9 uses the Generational Concurrent (-Xgcpolicy:gencon) policy by
default, which is best suited to transactiona...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops 
-XX:+IdleTuningCompactOnIdle -XX:+IdleTuningGcOnIdle -XX:IdleTuningMinIdleWaitTime=...
Epsilon GC (-XX:+UseEpsilonGC)
Epsilon GC is a passive GC that handles memory allocation and doesn’t clear it
when objects...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops 
-XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseEpsilonGC
Epsilon
Parallel GC (-XX:+UseParallelGC)
Parallel GC is a “stop-the-world” multithreaded Garbage Collector similar to the
serial c...
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseParallelGC
+ periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run
Parallel
Main Points of Vertical Scaling
A - initial usage
B - maximum usage
C - growth speed
D - duration before release
E - relea...
Running GC
Tests in Kubernetes
Auto Testing Package for Kubernetes
https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/master/manifest-k8s.yaml
Load Testing Logic
java [OPTIONS] -jar app.jar <sleep> <mode>
where
sleep - 100
mode - 2
https://github.com/jelastic/java-...
G1 in Kubernetes
Shenandoah in Kubernetes
ZGC @ Oracle OpenJDK in Kubernetes
Joint Comparison - Several Load Cycles
RAM CPU
Running GC
Tests with Payara
Memory Usage in Layers
The source code should not
have memory leaks and should
timely release unused objects
Load Testing Logic
● simple .war artifact deployed with Payara 5.192
● JSP that sets 1MB attribute in session
● 1m session...
Shenandoah
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseShenandoahGC -XX:ShenandoahGCHeuristics=compact
for i in {1..1000...
G1 @ Dragonwell
-Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -Xms3g
-XX:+G1ElasticHeap -XX:+ElasticHeapPeriodicUncommit
-XX:Elast...
Resizing Xmx
On the Fly
Heap Resizing
Restart for Xmx Resize
-XX:SoftMaxHeapSize @ ZGC
SoftMaxHeapSize is set for the GC to
strive not to grow heap size beyond the
specified size unles...
JEP draft: Dynamic Max Memory Limit
Xmx can be set higher than the container max memory limit
(Cmx). And both Smx and Cmx ...
-Xsoftmx @ OpenJ9
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSYKE2_8.0.0/openj9/xsoftmx/index.html
Runtime adjustable...
C4 is fully elastic and can return all empty pages to the OS after each GC cycle.
However, C4 sticks to the Xmx it was giv...
Keep Only Best Java Memories
Learn More
Get In Touch
@siruslan
rs@jelastic.com
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Elastic JVM for Scalable Java EE Applications Running in Containers #JakartaTechTalks

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Being configured smartly, Java can be scalable and cost-effective for all ranges of projects — from cloud-native startups to legacy enterprise applications. During this session, we will share our experiences in tuning RAM usage in a Java process to make it more elastic and gain the benefits of faster scaling and lower total cost of ownership (TCO). With microservices, cloud hosting, and vertical scaling in mind, we'll compare the top Java garbage collectors to see how efficiently they handle memory resources. The provided results of testing G1, Parallel, ConcMarkSweep, Serial, Shenandoah, ZGC and OpenJ9 garbage collectors while scaling Java EE applications vertically will help you to make the right choice for own projects.

More details about Garbage Collector types https://jelastic.com/blog/garbage-collection/

Free registration at Jelastic https://jelastic.com/

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Elastic JVM for Scalable Java EE Applications Running in Containers #JakartaTechTalks

  1. 1. Ruslan Synytsky Elastic JVM for Java EE Applications Running in Containers
  2. 2. Agenda ● Java Memory Usage Problems ● JDK Improvements for Elastic Java Memory Scaling ● Elasticity and Jakarta EE ● Garbage Collection Testing Results
  3. 3. Java Memory Consumption Problems The most widely acknowledged issue with Java EE is large memory requirements (40%), then slow startup times (40%), followed by missing technologies and specifications (20%) Jakarta EE Developer Survey 2018
  4. 4. Unreleased Heap Memory Over-Allocation and Underutilization
  5. 5. Reasons to Seek JVM Elasticity Cron jobs for data processing Getting resources from common pool Elastic cloud hosting with pay-per-use ELASTICITY NO ELASTICITY Automated scaling of resources on the fly without JVM restart and downtimes JVM restart required with every change of resources amount leads to downtimes or OOMError
  6. 6. OOM Error and OOM Killer ● OutOfMemoryError exception is usually thrown when there is insufficient space to allocate an object in the Java heap or insufficient native memory to support the loading of a Java class ● oom_kill is a job that helps to sacrifice one or more processes in order to free up memory for the system
  7. 7. Understanding of the OutOfMemoryError Exception ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: GC Overhead limit exceeded ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Metaspace ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: request size bytes for reason. Out of swap space? ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Compressed class space ● java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: reason stack_trace_with_native_method https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/troubleshoot/memleaks002.html
  8. 8. OOM Killer
  9. 9. Understanding of the OutOfMemoryError Exception
  10. 10. OutOfMemoryError Exception
  11. 11. OOM Killer
  12. 12. Too Many Points to Consider?
  13. 13. Runtime Environments ● Application Containers ● System Containers ● Virtual Machines
  14. 14. Pay-Per-Use Billing Model Using automatic vertical scaling, cloud providers can offer economically advantageous pricing based on the real resource consumption Forbes - Deceptive Cloud Efficiency: Do You Really Pay As You Use?
  15. 15. Heap Vertical Scaling Unreleased Heap Memory
  16. 16. Calling Full GC Periodically (Before OpenJDK12) https://github.com/jelastic-jps/java-memory-agent Compacting GC cycles are not triggered automatically and must be executed explicitly Workaround: inject an agent which monitors the memory usage and calls System.gc() periodically: -javaagent:jelastic-gc-agent.jar=period=300,debug=true
  17. 17. G1 and Full GC java -XX:+UseG1GC -Xmx2g -Xms32m -jar app.jar 0 Memory grew from 32 MB to 1 GB in 25 seconds https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test
  18. 18. Timely Reduce Unused Committed Memory (JEP 346) Make the G1 garbage collector automatically give back Java heap memory to the operating system when idle ● G1PeriodicGCInterval ● G1PeriodicGCSystemLoadThreshold ● G1PeriodicGCInvokesConcurrent JEP 346: Promptly Return Unused Committed Memory from G1 java -Xms32M -Xmx2g -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:G1PeriodicGCSystemLoadThreshold=0.6 -XX:G1PeriodicGCInterval=900k -jar app.jar
  19. 19. Improved Elasticity Automatically Released Heap
  20. 20. Community Recognition Special Appreciation to Rodrigo Bruno Senior/Postdoc Researcher at the Systems Group in ETH Zurich. PhD in Técnico (University of Lisbon)
  21. 21. Running GC Tests in Jelastic
  22. 22. Load Testing Logic https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/ma ster/src/com/jelastic/verticalscaling/Load.java#L50 java [OPTIONS] -jar app.jar <sleep> <mode> where sleep - 10 mode - 1
  23. 23. Auto Testing Package https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/master/manifest.yml
  24. 24. G1 Collector (-XX:+UseG1GC) The Garbage-First (G1) is a server-style Garbage Collector for multiprocessor machines with a large amount of memory. The heap is partitioned into fixed-sized regions and G1 tracks the live data in those regions. When Garbage Collection is required, it collects from the regions with less live data first. ● 2004, Sun Microsystems JEP 346: Promptly Return Unused Committed Memory from G1
  25. 25. G1 -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:G1PeriodicGCInterval=1k
  26. 26. G1 and G1PeriodicGCSystemLoadThreshold https://github.com/lxc/lxcfs/ Using LXCFS to Improve Container Resource Visibility Threshold for the current system load as returned by the hosts getloadavg() call to determine whether a periodic garbage collection should be triggered: ● a current system load higher than the tigger value prevents periodic garbage collections ● zero value indicates that this threshold check is disabled If running in Docker container then use
  27. 27. Shenandoah GC (-XX:+UseShenandoahGC) Shenandoah GC is a concurrent garbage collector for the JVM. GC tries to perform most of the activities in parallel without interrupting application performance. Such parallelism makes “stop-the-world” (STW) pauses extremely short. Another inherent advantage is an efficient work with small and large heaps with no impact on STW pauses’ length. ● 2014, Christine H. Flood, Red Hat https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/shenandoah/Main#Main-Heuristics
  28. 28. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseShenandoahGC -XX:ShenandoahGCHeuristics=compact Shenandoah
  29. 29. G1 vs Shenandoah - CPU Usage G1 Shenandoah
  30. 30. ZGC (-XX:+UseZGC) ZGC is low latency scalable garbage collector. Designed for use with applications that require a large heap and low latency. It uses a bunch of one generation and performs most (but not all) garbage collection in parallel with uninterrupted application work. This greatly limits the impact of garbage collection on your application response time. ● 2018, Per Liden, Oracle JEP 351: ZGC: Uncommit Unused Memory - available from JDK 13 Release
  31. 31. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseZGC -XX:ZUncommitDelay=1 -XX:ZCollectionInterval=30 ZGC @ Oracle OpenJDK
  32. 32. C4 GC ● 2010, Gil Tene, Azul Systems The C4 (Continuously Concurrent Compacting Collector) is an updated generational form of the Azul Pauseless GC Algorithm and is the default collector of Zing®. C4 differentiates itself from other generational garbage collectors by supporting simultaneous – generational concurrency: the different generations are collected using concurrent (non-stop-the-world) mechanisms that can be simultaneously and independently active. Unlike other algorithms, it is not ‘mostly’ concurrent, but fully concurrent, so it never falls back to a stop-the-world compaction.
  33. 33. -Xmx500m -Xms32m -XX:+UseZST C4 @ Zing pmem.conf -> cgroups enabled
  34. 34. ConcMarkSweep GC (-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC) ConcMarkSweep GC collector is designed for applications that prefer shorter garbage collection pauses and which can afford to share processor resources with the garbage collector while the application is running. It makes sense to use such a collector when applications requirements for time garbage collection pauses are low. ● 2004, Sun Microsystems
  35. 35. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC + periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run ConcMarkSweep
  36. 36. Serial GC (-XX:+UseSerialGC) Serial GC performs garbage collection in a single thread and has the lowest consumption of memory among all GC types but, at the same time, it makes long pauses that can lead to application performance degradation. ● 2004, Sun Microsystems
  37. 37. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseSerialGC + periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run Serial
  38. 38. OpenJ9 OpenJ9 uses the Generational Concurrent (-Xgcpolicy:gencon) policy by default, which is best suited to transactional applications that have many short lived objects. Alternative policies are available, including those that cater for applications with large Java heaps (-Xgcpolicy:balanced), applications that are sensitive to response-time (-Xgcpolicy:metronome), or applications that require high application throughput (-Xgcpolicy:optthruput). ● 2017, Eclipse Foundation
  39. 39. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+IdleTuningCompactOnIdle -XX:+IdleTuningGcOnIdle -XX:IdleTuningMinIdleWaitTime=1 -Xjit:waitTimeToEnterDeepIdleMode=1000 Bash command to check the real usage while true do pid=$(pgrep -f java | tail -n1) used=$(ps -orss --no-headers --pid $pid) echo "scale=2 ; $used / 1024/1024" | bc sleep 1 done Inconsistent behaviour with -XX:+IdleTuningGcOnIdle, mem not released back to OS on Idle OpenJ9
  40. 40. Epsilon GC (-XX:+UseEpsilonGC) Epsilon GC is a passive GC that handles memory allocation and doesn’t clear it when objects are no longer used. When your application exhausts the Java heap, the JVM goes down. So, EpsilonGC prolongs an application life until the memory will run out and dumps the memory, that can be useful for application memory usage debugging, as well as measuring and managing application performance. ● 2014, Aleksey Shipilev, Red Hat
  41. 41. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions -XX:+UseEpsilonGC Epsilon
  42. 42. Parallel GC (-XX:+UseParallelGC) Parallel GC is a “stop-the-world” multithreaded Garbage Collector similar to the serial collector. The primary difference is that multiple threads are used to speed up garbage collection. By default, both minor and major collections are executed in parallel to further reduce garbage collection costs. ● 2000, Sun Microsystems
  43. 43. -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseParallelGC + periodical jcmd <pid> GC.run Parallel
  44. 44. Main Points of Vertical Scaling A - initial usage B - maximum usage C - growth speed D - duration before release E - release speed F - minimum usage after release Different GCs provide different results and fine tuning options
  45. 45. Running GC Tests in Kubernetes
  46. 46. Auto Testing Package for Kubernetes https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/master/manifest-k8s.yaml
  47. 47. Load Testing Logic java [OPTIONS] -jar app.jar <sleep> <mode> where sleep - 100 mode - 2 https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/blob/master/ src/com/jelastic/verticalscaling/Load.java#L64
  48. 48. G1 in Kubernetes
  49. 49. Shenandoah in Kubernetes
  50. 50. ZGC @ Oracle OpenJDK in Kubernetes
  51. 51. Joint Comparison - Several Load Cycles RAM CPU
  52. 52. Running GC Tests with Payara
  53. 53. Memory Usage in Layers The source code should not have memory leaks and should timely release unused objects
  54. 54. Load Testing Logic ● simple .war artifact deployed with Payara 5.192 ● JSP that sets 1MB attribute in session ● 1m session timeout ● https://github.com/jelastic/java-vertical-scaling-test/tree/payara/webapp Load test GETs Payara webapp endpoint n times (n differs depending on Java version and GC in use): for i in {1..n}; do curl -s localhost:8080 > /dev/null; done
  55. 55. Shenandoah -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -XX:+UseShenandoahGC -XX:ShenandoahGCHeuristics=compact for i in {1..1000}; do curl -s localhost:8080 > /dev/null; done
  56. 56. G1 @ Dragonwell -Xmx3g -Xms32m -XX:+UseCompressedOops -Xms3g -XX:+G1ElasticHeap -XX:+ElasticHeapPeriodicUncommit -XX:ElasticHeapPeriodicYGCIntervalMillis=10000 -XX:ElasticHeapYGCIntervalMinMillis=1000 -XX:ElasticHeapInitialMarkIntervalMinMillis=1000 -XX:ElasticHeapPeriodicInitialMarkIntervalMillis=300000 -XX:ElasticHeapPeriodicUncommitStartupDelay=1 -XX:ElasticHeapPeriodicMinYoungCommitPercent=10 for i in {1..6000}; do curl -s localhost:8080 > /dev/null; done
  57. 57. Resizing Xmx On the Fly
  58. 58. Heap Resizing Restart for Xmx Resize
  59. 59. -XX:SoftMaxHeapSize @ ZGC SoftMaxHeapSize is set for the GC to strive not to grow heap size beyond the specified size unless it is highly needed: ● to keep the heap footprint down, while maintaining the capability to deal with a temporary increase in heap space requirement ● with lots of margin, to increase confidence that you will not run into an allocation stall because of an unforeseen increase in allocation rate
  60. 60. JEP draft: Dynamic Max Memory Limit Xmx can be set higher than the container max memory limit (Cmx). And both Smx and Cmx can be adjusted on the fly without the need to restart JVM or container. At the moment the heap size can go beyond SoftMaxHeapSize (Smx) and there is no guarantee on how much the heap will grow other than up to Xmx. The problem arises when Smx < Cmx < Used Heap < Xmx: the JVM will be killed by the OS OOM Killer as it exceeds the amount of memory given to the container. We suggest to provide an option for making SoftMaxHeapSize as the hard limit, so when overshoot happens JVM will throw OOM Error which is not as bad OOM Kill. Dynamic Max Memory Limit @ G1
  61. 61. -Xsoftmx @ OpenJ9 https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSYKE2_8.0.0/openj9/xsoftmx/index.html Runtime adjustable heap size (-Xsoftmx) allows to adjust heap size dynamically and take advantage of hot-add of memory. You can set this option on the command line, then modify it at run time by using the com.ibm.lang.management.MemoryMXBean.setMaxHeapSize(). This option can be useful in virtualized or cloud environments, for example, where the available memory might change dynamically to meet business needs. By default, -Xsoftmx is set to the same value as -Xmx.
  62. 62. C4 is fully elastic and can return all empty pages to the OS after each GC cycle. However, C4 sticks to the Xmx it was given, and avoid doing heavy elastic memory dance, since relinquishing memory mappings and reestablishing them on Linux kernels is bandwidth-limited in practice by the rate of page mapping invalidation the kernel can handle. C4 goes above Xmx rather than go between Xms and Xmx. JavaMemMax option controls the true maximum. In the future it will allow both scenarios where above-Xmx is allowed and where above-Xmx is prohibited. Two modes: ● Contingency (default mode) - goes above Xmx if it absolutely has to and will work hard to collect and stay below Xmx. ● Insurance (best effort elasticity) - borrows available memory and goes above Xmx in order to delay GC whenever possible. JavaMemMax @ С4 + ZST (Zing System Tools)
  63. 63. Keep Only Best Java Memories Learn More Get In Touch @siruslan rs@jelastic.com

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