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Ancient Greece Learning Points The Greek views of government, law, and reason The development of the Greek political ideas
Ancient Greece The Greeks were an ancient farming and fishing culture whose development gave rise to modern day politics, literature, warfare, and art. Founders of Western civilization Classical Era – 500 BC
Ancient Greece Geography forced Greeks to form city- states – small “nations” the size of a city. Desire for more land led Greeks to emigrate to other lands. This spread Greek civilization to the known world.
Ancient Greece Which culture is considered the founders of Western civilization?
Ancient Greece Life in a city-state: Honored Greek Gods (Zeus, Hermes, Poseidon) Ruled by kings, later democracy Built bronze weapons Held slaves, mainly captured in war
Ancient Greece When iron-making is discovered, warfare changes too. The Phalanx is the Greeks prime weapon. Rows of men, armed with spears trying to push the other side off the field All citizens required to train in the Phalanx
Ancient Greece Sparta: The Warrior State Practiced fighting from the time of children. Ignored farming in order to train, so their diet was bland. Only males over 30 who had proved themselves in battle could be citizens
Ancient Greece What was the main weapon used by the Greeks?
Ancient Greece Athens: The Political State First democracy Outlawed slavery, gave more people citizenship “Tyrants” took advantage of the new democracy, favoring only the merchants and poor (because of numbers) Created a legislature
Ancient Greece The ultimate enemy of all Greeks was the Persian Empire Athens stopped an invasion at Marathon, 490 BC 480 BC - The Persians returned and burned Athens, but a combined force of Spartans and Athenians sunk the Persian Navy
Ancient Greece 479 BC – The Persians return by land and are defeated at Thermopylae 300 Spartans stood against 300,000 Persians. Athens’ navy again defeated the Persian navy. Now, Greece was safe from Persians
Ancient Greece What were the two most important city-states?
Ancient Greece Athens came out on top – money is power Led by Pericles All citizens directly participated in government Established juries Pericles said citizens in a democracy have rights, but also responsibility
Ancient Greece Athens spent lots of money on temples and works of art. Some Greeks turned away from the gods and began to think that the universe was regulated by natural laws. These “philosophers” believed in the reason of the human mind to understand human existence.
Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War 431 BC – 404 BC With Persia gone, the two Greek giants squared off – Athens and Sparta. Sparta won and Athens’ power was diminished.
Ancient Greece A group of philosophers, called “Sophists” said that goodness and truth were just opinions not something that needed to be followed. They trained politicians to use their ideas to become powerful. But one man disagreed…
Ancient Greece Socrates: “Use self-examination to determine what can a person do that will work for the greatest good.” Rejected the Sophists and said that their teachings were destructive Socrates arrested and refused to escape. Executed by poison.
Ancient Greece Plato: Socrates’ brightest student. Hated democracy for what it did to his teacher. Said the government should control everyones life. Said all were born equal, but by their actions showed their true level. Workers, soldiers, thinkers
Ancient Greece Plato’s brightest student was Aristotle Argued for a constitutional government ruled by the middle class. Rulers should be subject to their own laws. Aristotle’s most famous student was a young boy named Alexander.
Ancient Greece Who was Socrates’ best student?