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Chapitre Ii Solide, Liquide, Gaz 19 oct 09

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19 oct 09

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Chapitre Ii Solide, Liquide, Gaz 19 oct 09

  1. 1. CHAPITRE II: SOLIDES, LIQUIDES ET GAZ<br />Tous les objets qui nous entourent sont des solides, liquides ou gaz.<br />Comment les différencier?<br />
  2. 2. I LES SOLIDES<br />Les solides ont une forme propre.<br />Ils peuvent être saisis avec les doigts.<br />Un solide peut être:<br />dur et résistant: le métal<br />dur et cassant : le verre<br />mou: le beurre, le pain<br /> pulvérisé: le sucre<br />
  3. 3. II LES LIQUIDES<br />Les liquides coulent et ne peuvent pas être saisis entre les doigts.<br />Un liquide prend la forme du réservoir qui le contient: il n’a pas de forme propre.<br />Lorsqu’on transvase un liquide, son volume ne change pas.<br />La surface libre d’un liquide au repos (immobile) est plane et horizontale.<br />
  4. 4. Partie exercice<br />Ex 7 p.31<br />1) un solide dur et cassant: le verre<br />2) Un solide mou et facilement déformable: le beurre, la confiture, le pain<br />3)Un solide pulvérisé: le sucre, le sel, le sable.<br />
  5. 5. Ex8 p.31<br />1) Solides: bois, aluminium, verre, beurre, pâte a pain<br />Liquides: jus de fruits, huile<br />2) Les solides mous: beurre, pâte à pain<br />
  6. 6. Ex 11 p.31<br />
  7. 7. Partie leçonIII LES GAZ<br />Le vent est de l’air en mouvement: c’est un gaz.<br />2. Si on plonge un verre vide dans de l’eau, l’eau ne rentre pas tout de suite dans le verre:. D’abord, des bulles d’air vont s’échapper du verre.<br />Le verre n’était donc pas vide, il contenait de l’air, c’est-à-dire du gaz.<br />Pesons un ballon vide.Gonflons ensuite ce ballon avec une pompe.<br /> Lorsqu’on le pèse à nouveau, son poids a augmenté.<br />L’air et donc les gaz ont une masse.<br />
  8. 8. A retenir<br />L’air qui nous entoure est un gaz.<br />Un gaz s’échappe d’un récipient ouvert et occupe tout le volume qu’il peut occuper.<br />- Ex 14 et 15 p.32 à faire à la maison<br />
  9. 9. Partie exerciceExercice 14 p. 32<br />1) Des petites bulles vont monter du comprimé, traverser l’entonnoir et le flacon.<br />Puis une zone d’air va se créer dans la partie supérieure du flacon.<br />2) Il y a une poche d’air dans le flacon au-dessus du liquide.<br />3) effervescent: Qui est en effervescence.<br />Effervescence: Bouillonnement d’un liquide produit par un dégagement de bulles gazeuses lorsqu’on y introduit une substance effervescente. <br />
  10. 10. Ex 15 p.32<br />1) Ces bulles contiennent de l’air qui était dans la chambre à air.<br />2) En gonflant la chambre à air, on introduit de l’air , donc du gaz.<br />Lorsque l’on met la chambre dans l’eau, l’air qui est plus léger que l’eau va vouloir remonter à la surface.<br />Cela va faire des petites bulles qui vont permettre de localiser le trou.<br />
  11. 11. Partie leçonIV Structure de la matière<br />La matière est formée de particules très petites, invisibles à l’œil nu.<br />Dans un solide, ces particules sont très proches les unes des autres, presque immobiles.L’état solide est compact et ordonné<br />Dans un liquide, les particules sont proches et agitées.L’état liquide est compact et désordonné.<br />Dans un gaz, les particules sont très éloignées les unes des autres et désordonnées.L’état gazeux est dispersé et très désordonné.<br />----- Ex n° 16 p.32 à faire à la maison.<br />
  12. 12. Partie exercice<br />Ex 16 p. 32 A faire à la maison<br />La représentation de Virginie ne convient pas car normalement l’état d’un gaz est dispersé et très désordonné: ce qui ne correspond pas à ce qu’elle a représenté.<br />
  13. 13. Partie leçonMéthode: Comment mesurer un volume avec une éprouvette<br />Pour mesurer le volume d’un liquide contenu dans une éprouvette, il faut placer l’œil sur l’horizontal, bien en face du bas du ménisque ( le creux formé par le liquide).<br />Exemple: livre P. 29: le volume mesuré est:<br />
  14. 14. Partie exercice<br />Ex 12 p.32:Réponse c) et d)<br />Ex 13 p.32: éprouvette: environ 236 mL.Bécher: environ 187,5mL<br />
  15. 15. Partie leçonV Volume et masse<br />A savoir: 1 litre d’eau à une masse de 1 kg<br />Tableau des unités de volume:<br />Exercices 21 et 23 p. 33 ( partie exercice)<br />
  16. 16. Partie leçon<br />Tableau des unités de masse:<br />Partie exercice: 18, 19 (remplacer: 7910 g par 1317 g, 20 p. 32/33.<br />(Résumé de tous les exercices à faire: Tous sauf le 24 et 25 p. 31 à 33.)<br />
  17. 17. Partie exercice<br />Ex 18 p.321390 – 610 = 780 <br /> Donc le liquide dont le volume était de 1 L a une masse de 780 g.<br />Or normalement, 1 L d’eau pèse 1 kg.<br />Donc le liquide n’est pas de l’eau.<br />
  18. 18. Ex 19 p.331) 1 L d’eau = 1 kg Donc 1,25 L = 1,25 kg6 x 1,25 = 7,5Donc la masse d’eau contenue dans les 6 bouteilles est 7,5 kg.<br />2) 6 x 1317 = 7902<br /> Or 7902 g = 7,902 kg.<br />7,902 – 7,5 = 0,402 kg<br />Donc la masse de matières plastiques constituant les 6 bouteilles est égale à 0,402 kg soit environ: 400 g.<br />
  19. 19. Ex 21 p.33<br />58 – 52= 6mL<br />Donc, les 4 billes représentent un volume de 6 mL<br />6÷4 = 1,5<br />Donc une bille a un volume de 1,5 mL.<br />Or, d’après le tableau des unités de volume, 1 mL = 1 cm3<br />Donc, une bille a un volume de 1,5 cm3.<br />56 mL<br />52 mL<br />
  20. 20. Ex 23 p.33<br />1) Vérification: On soustrait les index relevés sur le compteur:<br />3081 – 2791 = 290<br />Donc, le relevé est bien juste.<br />2) La consommation annuelle est de 290 m3<br />Or, 290 m3 = 290 × 1000 L = 290 000L<br />Donc, pour une journée: 290 000 ÷ 365 = 794,5<br />Donc la consommation journalière moyenne est de 794,5 m3.<br />Remarque: Ce chiffre semble énorme, mais il n’est pas pour des particuliers! Il concerne le service d’eau et d’assainisesment d’une commune.<br />

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