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Introduction to Personal Digital Inquiry in Grades K-8

Julie Coiro, from the University of Rhode Island, Workshop for New York City Teachers November 2019

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Introduction to Personal Digital Inquiry in Grades K-8

  1. 1. PracticalStrategies for Fostering Comprehension and Engagement Through Digital Inquiry Julie Coiro, Ph.D. School of Education University of Rhode Island jcoiro@uri.edu uri.academia.edu/JulieCoiro/Papers Companion Website: bit.ly/PDInquiry Inquiry Symbaloo: bit.ly/SymbalooK-8
  2. 2. Acknowledgements Beth Dobler Emporia State University (and School Library Media Specialist) Emporia, KS Karen Pelekis Grade 1 Teacher Scarsdale, NY Companion Website: bit.ly/PDInquiry
  3. 3. Where are we headed? • Part 1: Coming to Terms with Important Terms • What are similarities and differences between offline and online reading comprehension and digital inquiry? • Why and how can we cultivate personal inquiry in our classrooms/schools to promote comprehension and engagement? • Part 2: Intentional Choices for Teaching and Technology Use • How can we design opportunities and choose technologies that can deepen learning in meaningful ways as part of the inquiry process? • What role does the teacher/administrator play in the inquiry process? • Part 3: Instructional Techniques to Support Comprehension In The Context of Inquiry • How can we teach students (K-8) to generate their own questions, apply critical thinking skills, and creatively share their learning as part of personal [digital] inquiry? • My background and inclusion in the “we” above…
  4. 4. Who’s in the Room? • Grade level • Subject Area • Position • What are you wondering about today’s topic? • GO TO: PollEv.com/juliecoiro781
  5. 5. Part 1 Coming to Terms with Important Terms What are similarities and differences between offline and online reading comprehension and digital inquiry?
  6. 6. Coming to terms withimportant terms… Generatinga commonlanguage What does each mean to you? How are they similar and how different? • Reading Comprehension Strategies • Online Reading Comprehension Strategies • Online Inquiry • Digital Literacy • Personal Digital Inquiry A. First… think to yourself. B. Second.. turn and talk. C. Third... list, group, label.
  7. 7. List-Group-Label – Why? • It helps students organize their understanding of specific vocabulary and important concepts needed to understand the text/task • It builds on students’ own prior knowledge about a topic. • It actively engages students in learning new vocabulary and content by activating critical thinking skills (builds a shared understanding) • It teaches categorizing and labeling skills. • http://readingrockets.org/strategies/list_group_label
  8. 8. A vocabulary sidebar about “Strategies” to avoid confusion and establish clarity • Thinking Strategies: • “Mental Processes” (mental process used while reading or thinking – sometimes individually and sometimes with others) • Teaching Strategies: • “Instructional Techniques” (ways of teaching designed to promote ways of thinking and interacting with others) • Lifelong Learning Strategies • “Real-World Practices” (things we do in the real world to help us learn and interact with others) • Decoding (reading the words) vs. Comprehension (constructing meaning while reading, listening, viewing, and talking) vs. Learning (Building and sharing knowledge)
  9. 9. • Locate information using search engines, databases, or websites • Make inferences • Make connections • Monitor • Visualize • Reflect • Summarize • Synthesize ideas • Synthesize information across different media • Take Action • Use fix-up strategies (Regulate) • Wonder ACTIVITY 1: Work with a partner to sort this list of strategies (mental processes and real-life practices) into one of the three boxes in your handout. [Ignore the “online inquiry” box for now]. • Ask questions • Analyze • Create • Collaborate • Communicate new ideas using digital tools • Determine important ideas • Discover • Discuss • Generate search terms • Evaluate the accuracy of sources • Evaluate the relevance of sources • Evaluate level of author expertise
  10. 10. Initial Insights from List-Group-Label? What does each mean to you? How are they similar and how different? • Offline Reading Comprehension Processes • Online Reading Comprehension Processes • Personal Digital Inquiry Practices
  11. 11. Offline Reading Comprehension Processes
  12. 12. Online Reading Comprehension Processes (plus those used in “offline” spaces) Monitoring and regulating one’s activities (Metacognition and Self-regulation) Asking questions Locating information Evaluating information Synthesizing information Communicating information Generate search terms Locate information using search engines, databases, or on multilevel websites Is it relevant? Is it accurate? Is author an expert? Synthesize information across different media Communicate new ideas using digital tools
  13. 13. OnlineInquiry: Applying online reading strategiesto solve a problem using the Internet(and other sources) Monitoring and regulating one’s activities Asking questions Locating information Evaluating information Synthesizing information Communicating information A problem-based scenario engages students in real- life practices that directly connect to events and ideas in their world
  14. 14. OnlineInquiry: Applying online reading strategiesto solve a problem using the Internet(and other sources) Authentic Task (Problem-Based Scenario)
  15. 15. Informational Overview Page to Build Background Knowledge
  16. 16. Include Multimodal Sources to vary texts, increase interest, and decrease readability
  17. 17. Encouragepartner work to help co-construct an understanding of challengingtexts,concepts, and online reading practices
  18. 18. GOOGLE CUSTOM SEARCH
  19. 19. Then, what is Digital Literacy? Reading Digital Texts Information Access, Compilation, Analysis & Evaluation Composing Digital Texts Information Synthesis, Production, & Creation If Literacy = Reading & Writing
  20. 20. List-Group-Label – How did you do?
  21. 21. What is Personal Digital Inquiry (PDI)? Why is inquiry important? How can we cultivate PDI in our classrooms & schools to promote comprehension and engagement?
  22. 22. PERSONAL emphasizes the significance of the personal relationship between teachers and students, and the roles that students have in the learning process. DIGITAL reflects the important role that digital texts and tools have come to play in both learning and teaching with inquiry. INQUIRY lies at the core of PDI, because learners grow and change with relevant and authentic opportunities to identify problems and generate solutions What is Personal Digital Inquiry (PDI)?
  23. 23. Personal vs. Personalized: What’sthedifferencewhenitcomestomovingtowardstudent directedlearning? • “Personalized” is about a top-down designed or tailored approach to learning; customized for the student, but still controlled by the teacher (serve up learning based on a formula of what a child needs) • “Personal” is something human where the learner initiates and controls part or all of the learning process; often emerges from engagement with others about one’s personal wonderings and building relationships in the process. It often doesn’t include technology! True personal learning: It’s all about building relationships & curiosity!
  24. 24. Learning is social and part of a mutually constructive process that involves face-to- face talking, listening, and consensus building. Creative learners make personal connections and take action to raise awareness and/or foster change. “I belong and I can make a difference” What might inquirylook and feel like in a digital age? (Four sets of core values/practices) Generating questions and lived experiences with real issues is personally fulfilling; Inquiry can happen on several levels. True inquiry involves critical analysis, reflection & self-monitoring, which leads to more questions.
  25. 25. PDI Questioning Tool - See Appendix F. page 229
  26. 26. Garden Inquiry (Grade 1)
  27. 27. Library Inquiry (Grade 6)
  28. 28. Padlet for Sharing and Organizing Digital Resources and Creations
  29. 29. What’s the value of personal inquiry for learning and engagement? It sits at the core of everything!
  30. 30. The Challenge:Connecting Learnersin Ways That Matter “We need to move beyond an industrial model of universal school toward new era focused on lifelong learning and individual choice – or we will lose our learners emotionally & physically.” ~ Allan Collins & Richard Halverson (2009)
  31. 31. Gallup Poll (2012) - 500,000 US students, Gr. 5-12 Center for Education Policy (2012) TheChallenge:ConnectingLearnersinWaysThatMatter
  32. 32. Gallup Poll (2015) – 929,000 US students, Gr. 5-12 Percentage who strongly agreed with the statement: “The adults at my school care about me, “ declined from 67% (Grade 5) to 23% (Grade 11)… Many students don’t feel individually known or cared for at school. THIS is the PERSONAL we need to focus on!
  33. 33. The Challenge:Connecting Learnersin Ways That Matter Sense of Belonging – Do I fit in? Am I relevant? Do people care about me? OECD PISA 2015 Students’ Well Being (April 2017)
  34. 34. Daniel Pink: A Whole New Mind (2005); Drive (2009) Engagement & Belonging
  35. 35. • FLOW (“in the zone”) Csikszentmihalyi (1996) optimal psychological state [roots of happiness] high level of challenge with immersed focus  Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan 2002; 2012; 2017) – Three innate needs for optimal function and growth Engagement and Belonging
  36. 36. • 1 high school, 581 classes, 1,132 students • “Connective instruction [when teachers help students make personal connections to a class] predicts engagement more than seven times as strongly as academic rigor or lively teaching.” Why is the “personal”piece so important?
  37. 37. • Inquiry helps establish a meaningful purpose for reading. • Inquiry and “research” (information gathering, analyzing, and sharing) cultivates active use of higher level reading comprehension strategies. • Inquiry and research promotes active engagement and intrinsic motivation for reading (which links to pride, purpose, relevance, and sense of belonging). • Inquiry encourages opportunities for self-directed learning and personal agency. OptimisticFindings:Inquiry-BasedApproachesto ReadingComprehensionwith K-8Learners See handout: Coiro (2018). Building Young Readers’ Comprehension and Engagement Through Inquiry and Research.
  38. 38. • Explicitly weaving supports for online reading skills into inquiry-based instruction… • Fosters 4th and 5th grade children’s ability to generate high quality inquiry questions, effectively search for and determine credibility of online sources, and synthesize ideas across texts (Kingsley & Tancock, 2013) • Supports 1st graders as they transition to reading on the Internet (Salyer, 2015) • Transforms learning for students from low-income homes (Dwyer, 2013) or those learning English as a second language (Castek, 2008) • Especially when teachers partner with library media specialists (Chu, Tse, & Chow, 2011; Kulthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007). OptimisticFindings:Inquiry-BasedApproachestoReading ComprehensionwithK-8Learners See handout: Coiro (2018). Building Young Readers’ Comprehension and Engagement Through Inquiry and Research
  39. 39. Before Part 2: Intentional Choices for Teaching and Technology Use Think, Pair, Share: Time to process & reflect…
  40. 40. So now…what new insights do you have? What does each mean to you? How are they similar and how different? How might these ideas inform your teaching about reading, learning, thinking, and creating? • Offline Reading Comprehension Processes • Online Reading Comprehension Processes • Online Inquiry • Digital Literacy • Personal Digital Inquiry
  41. 41. Part 2 Intentional Choices for Teaching and Technology Use How can we design opportunities and choose technologies that can deepen learning in meaningful ways as part of the inquiry process? What role does the teacher (and school administrators) play in cultivating inquiry and student agency?
  42. 42. Sohowcanweusetechnology(andgoodteaching)todesign personal,engaging,student-guidedspacesforlearning? I also design a week-long Summer Institute experience at URI to model and engage educators in the same practices we hope they will apply to their own projects & teaching (Hobbs & Coiro, 2016) See more at digiuri.com
  43. 43. Choosing technology: What’s the coolest new tool you’ve seen? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3.
  44. 44. Choosing technology: What’s the coolest new tool you’ve seen? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3.Turn and talk some more…
  45. 45. Are we asking the right questionsto inspire self-directedlearners? Hey, that’s cool! 1. How could I use that?2. Hmmm…how might this connect with what I teach? 3. But how? Which parts and why? For whom? In which contexts? How will your learners actively engage with this tool? To what end? What will your learners know, understand, and be able to do before/during/after using this tool? How does this connect with the real world?
  46. 46. Afterexploringdigitaltexts & tools, whatifwe refocusandflipthe sequenceof our planning questionsfor teachingwith technology? 1 2 3 What will my students know, understand, and be able to do? How will my students be actively engaged and to what end? Which digital tool(s) would work best and in what ways? 1. Set learning and action outcomes 2. Create authentic opportunities for students to be actively engaged 3. Then…make purposeful choices about technology (or no technology) 1. Hey that tool is cool! 2. How could I use that? 3. (maybe) How might this connect with what I teach? RATHER THAN…
  47. 47. A critical piece is classroom culture… A classroom culture that values curiosity and honors student voices while encouraging choice, collaboration, problem solving, risk taking, and reflection. Buildingacultureofinquiryiskey! (BEFOREtechnologycanplay aneffectiverole inteachingandlearning)
  48. 48. What do we mean by culture? Adapted from Ritchhart, 2015 (Eight forces to master to transform schools) Precise Environment Routines Interactions
  49. 49. Imagine one of these learning environments… • What does it look like or sound like? • How does it make you feel? • What is valued and how do you know? • What are students doing and how do they interact with peers and adults? • What do students and visitors remember most when they step out of this space into the real world? ACTIVITY 2: Self-assessment (in your handout) Teachers: Reflect on your efforts to build a classroom culture that values inquiry as a way to promote deep learning and engagement. Administrators: Reflect on your efforts to build a school culture that values inquiry.
  50. 50. PDI Self-Reflection Tool (for Teachers) bit.ly/PDIReflect This is your own inquiry into inquiry …. • Closely analyze the details of these eight forces and how they interact in your learning environment • Reflect on your own values and actions – Acknowledge your accomplishments – Identity points of challenge What did you notice? What are you proud of… What’s not likely to be noticed… What might you focus on next and why…
  51. 51. 1. Set learning outcomes 2. Create authentic opportunities for students to be actively engaged 3. Then…make purposeful choices about technology (or no technology) trust and respect
  52. 52. Precise Environment Routines Interactions Intentional Choices for Teaching and Technology Use How can we design opportunities and choose technologies that can deepen learning in meaningful ways as part of the inquiry process? What role does the teacher play in the inquiry process? With an appreciation of a solid foundation…
  53. 53. VariedLevels of [Digital]Inquiry • Modeled inquiry: Students observe models of how the leader asks questions and makes decisions. • Structured Inquiry: Students make choices which are dependent upon guidelines and structure given by the leader (may vary). • Guided Inquiry: Students make choices during inquiry that lead to deeper understanding guided by some structure given by the leader. • Open Inquiry: Students make all of the decisions. There is little to no guidance. Alberta Inquiry Model of Inquiry Based Learning (2004)
  54. 54. Purposeful and Flexible Decision Making About When and How To Empower Learners to Engage in PDI
  55. 55. DesigningOpportunitiesforPersonalDigital InquirywiththePDIPlanningGuide Learning Outcomes Student-Centered Inquiry Practices (modeled > prompted > guided > open) Knowledge Outcomes: (subject- specific or multidisciplinary) Action Outcomes: (join partners, start conversations, raise awareness, take action, change minds) Standards: Digital Competencies: Wonder & Discover: Collaborate & Discuss: Create & Take Action: Analyze & Reflect: [Digital] Experiences to Deepen Learning & Increase Engagement Acquire Knowledge Build Knowledge Express Knowledge Reflect On Knowledge Act On Knowledge 1 2> 3 >
  56. 56. Access Knowledge Build Knowledge Express Knowledge Reflect On Knowledge Act On Knowledge Learners passively receive [digital] information given or modeled by others Learners [use technology to] connect new information to prior knowledge Learners [use technology to] share their new knowledge with others Learners [use technology to] reflect on and evaluate their inquiry processes and products Learners [use technology to] translate their knowledge into action for real-world purpose Lower Order Thinking Higher Order Thinking Purposeful Technology Use How can technology support or enhance learning? …to enrich Knowledge Building (more teacher guided) …to enrich Knowledge Creation (more learner guided)
  57. 57. Digital Resources= Digital Texts and Tools • Multiple texts & multiple media • High quality information with text-to-speech option so reading level does not impede learning • Models of curiosity and creativity Students are exposed to/explore digital resources (Gr. K-4) Students use specific resources for specific purposes (Grades 2-5) Students choose among resources most appropriate for their purpose (Gr. 5-8) http://bit.ly/PDInquiry Select Printables from menu
  58. 58. APlatformforYourStudentstoEasilyAccessDigitalTextsand Tools -Youcanuse,adaptand/orcreateyourownSymbaloo! http://bit.ly/SymbalooK-8
  59. 59. Part3: InstructionalTechniquesto SupportComprehensionInThe ContextofInquiry Howcanweteachstudents(K-8)howto: a)generatetheirownquestions, b)applycriticalthinkingskills,and c)creativelysharetheirlearningaspartof personal[digital]inquiry?
  60. 60. Mystery Photos K-8 Using visuals, intentional teaching, and extended learning experiences to inspire and promote wondering, evidence based reasoning, critical thinking, collaboration, and creation 1 2 3
  61. 61. What is this a picture of? What makes you think so?
  62. 62. Solve the Puzzle – Watch A Video – Havethetextreadaloud(OPTION+Spacebar) Listen & Ask More Questions
  63. 63. Wonder & Discover leads to Analyze & Reflect,which fosters the opportunity to Collaborate& Discuss and Create& TakeAction (In Grades1-2)
  64. 64. Mystery Photos topromotewondering Junior Master Gardener Nanoworld Image Gallery Jigzone Mystery Foods
  65. 65. ModelsofWonderingQuestions,DigitalTexts,and Inquiry-BasedReadingandLearningExperiences
  66. 66. What decisions informed your design of your Wonder Project? Wonder&DiscoverleadstoAnalyze&Reflect,whichfostersthe opportunitytoCollaborate&Discussand Create&TakeAction(InGrades4-5)
  67. 67. More Screencasts from Amber White’s Grade 4-5 Students • Using Digital Think-Alouds to Build Comprehension of Online Informational Texts (The Reading Teacher, 2016) • Screencast Recordings of Strategic Reading • Reciprocal Teaching - Predicting, Questioning, Highlighting and Annotating for Clarification
  68. 68. Question Finding in Middle School Types Characteristics Question Samples Puzzlement (awareness type) Perception of oddity recognition of ambiguity, question-sensing, intuitive, metacognitive Why is the event a surprise? How does the idea conflict with…? How is the event different from what you expected? Puzzlement (explanation type) Explanatory, strategic planning, goal oriented, convergent thinking How can you explain? What steps can you take to resolve being puzzled? What rationale can be given for? Wonderment Generative, imaginative, speculative, exploratory, divergent thinking What are some other ways? What if…? Can you imagine ....? A. Vincent Ciardiello (2007). Puzzle Them First: Motivating Adolescent Readers with Question Finding. International Reading Association.
  69. 69. QuestionFinding • Inspect the document (cartoon) closely for a puzzling situation. • Look for a mismatch between any elements in the document. Check for incongruity between the message given in the cartoon and the caption title. • Notice if there is a mismatch between your expectations of what you think the meaning of the cartoon is and the author’s interpretation of it. • Think of questions that you would ask yourself or someone else to try to resolve the discrepancy (convergent). • Consider alternate ways of looking at this situation. Try to go deeper into the problematic situation by finding below- the- surface questions (divergent). • Think of questions that stem from your original open-ended questions (divergent). Ciardiello (2007)
  70. 70. Question Examples Convergent Questions • Why is someone holding a tray with weapons from the TV? • Why is this document called Steady Diet? • Why are these children watching a bomb with guns on a plate coming out of the TV? • Why is the rope handing down from the TV? Divergent questions • How can we change this diet to a peaceful one? • Can you imagine TV without violence? • Where were the kids’ parents at the time the kids were watching television? • What would be a good steady diet? Ciardiello (2007)
  71. 71. So… howcan this questioningactivity serveas a springboardfor further inquiry(reading, talking, analyzing, learning, problem solving,and creating?) Ciardiello (2007)
  72. 72. Digitallessonsfor teachers(andchildren)
  73. 73. Digital texts for students to engage with Kidshealth.org Kids, Teens, Parents & Teachers Digital scaffolds or choices: • Audio • Font Size • Language • Print
  74. 74. Wonder&DiscoverleadstoAnalyze&Reflect,whichfosters theopportunitytoCollaborate&Discussand Create&TakeAction(InMiddleSchool)
  75. 75. Journeynorth.org You can apply the same ideas to real-world inquiry experiences for younger children
  76. 76. SeemanymoreideasinChapter8: IntentionalPracticestoFoster PersonalDigitalInquiry TeachingStudentsHowto… Wonder&Discover(p.145-153) Collaborate&Discuss(p.153-159) Create&TakeAction(p.160-169) Analyze&Reflect(p.170-180) Ch.9:Threewholeunits Kindergarten:Animals&Habitats (notechnology) Gr.4:Tornadoes Gr.1:OpenInquiry/Measurement
  77. 77. Reflections? Ideas? Goodstartingplacesinyourcurriculum? Mystery Photos and Reading, Viewing, & Creating
  78. 78. Wrapping Up • Part 1: Coming to Terms with Important Terms • What are similarities and differences between offline and online reading comprehension and digital inquiry? • Why and how can we cultivate personal inquiry in our classrooms/schools to promote comprehension and engagement? • Part 2: Intentional Choices for Teaching and Technology Use • How can we design opportunities and choose technologies that can deepen learning in meaningful ways as part of the inquiry process? • What role does the teacher/administrator play in the inquiry process? • Part 3: Instructional Techniques to Support Comprehension In The Context of Inquiry • How can we teach students (K-8) to generate their own questions, apply critical thinking skills, and creatively share their learning as part of personal [digital] inquiry?
  79. 79. 3 new insights 2new digital texts or tools 1colleague to share with Take home with you..
  80. 80. Possibilities: Using Inquiry and Technology to Enhance Wondering, Discussion, Creation & Reflection in Kindergarten
  81. 81. VariedPurposesfor UsingTechnology to Support DigitalInquiry Access Knowledge Build Knowledge Express Knowledge Reflect On Knowledge Act On Knowledge Teachers shows online resources & videos to build background; teachers and students take photos in garden to use in writing Students use Pebble Go for research to build knowledge & vocab; Research about how to stop insects from eating garden plants; students use online resources and decide what info. to include in posters Student pairs create poster on selected plant topic using creativity software (Pixie) Collaborative pairs evaluate content on digital posters (accuracy, detail, layout, clarity) and make changes as needed Students share digital posters with buddy classes (K and Gr. 5) to teach others and answers questions about plant topics Lower Order Thinking Higher Order Thinking Gr. 1 Garden Inquiry Project CONSUME INFORMATION (teacher-directed) CREATE / PRODUCE INFORMATION (student-directed)
  82. 82. VariedPurposesfor Using Technology to Support DigitalInquiry Gr. 4-5 Human Body Inquiry Project
  83. 83. VariedPurposesfor Using Technology to Support DigitalInquiry Gr. 6 Library Inquiry Project

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