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  1. 1. Gomburza or GOMBURZA refers to three Filipino Catholic priests (Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora), who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Luneta in Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. The name is a portmanteau of the priests' surnames. Their execution had a profound effect on many late 19th-century Filipinos; José Rizal, later to become the country's national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory.
  2. 2. José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda,[7] widely known as José Rizal (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero.[8]He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere[9] and El filibusterismo,[10] and a number of poems and essays.[11][12]
  3. 3. Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán, better known by his pen name Plaridel, was a Filipino writer, lawyer, journalist, and freemason. Wikipedia Born: 30 August 1850, Bulakan Died: 4 July 1896, Barcelona, Spain Nickname: Plaridel Cause of death: Tuberculosis Books: Marcelo H. Del Pilar, His Religious Conversions, Letters of Marcelo H. Del Pilar: A collection of letters of Marcelo H. del Pilar Children: María Consolación H. del Pilar, María H. del Pilar,
  4. 4. GRACIANO LÓPEZ JAENA Graciano López Jaena was a Filipino journalist, orator, revolutionary, and national hero who is well known for his newspaper, La Solidaridad. Wikipedia Born: 18 December 1856, Jaro, Iloilo City Died: 20 January 1896, Barcelona, Spain Cause of death: Tuberculosis Education: University of Valencia Buried: Fossar de la Pedrera, Barcelona, Spain Parents: Placido López, Maria Jacoba Jaena
  5. 5. ANTONIO NOVICIO LUNA Antonio Novicio Luna, an Ilocano born in Manila, was a Filipino general who fought in the Philippine–American War. Wikipedia Born: 29 October 1866, Manila Assassinated: 5 June 1899, Cabanatuan Cause of death: Assassination Siblings: Juan Luna, Joaquin Luna, Jose Novicio Luna, MORE Battles and wars: Philippine–American War, MORE Nicknames: Heneral Artikulo Uno, Taga-Ilog, The Fiery General
  6. 6. MARIANO PONCE Mariano Ponce, was a Filipino physician, writer, and active member of the Propaganda Movement. In Spain, he was among the founders of La Solidaridad and Asociacion Hispano- Filipino. Wikipedia Born: 23 March 1863, Baliuag, Bulacan Died: 23 May 1918, Sai Ying Pun Community Complex, Hong Kong Education: Complutense University of Madrid Known for: Philippine Revolution Other name: Naning, Kalipulako, Tikbalang Political party: Nacionalista Party
  7. 7. JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN Jose Ma. Panganiban y Enverga was a Filipino propagandist, linguist, and essayist. He is one of the main writers and contributors for La Solidaridad, writing under the pen names "Jomapa" and "J.M.P." Wikipedia Born: 1 February 1863, Jose Panganiban Died: 19 August 1890, Barcelona, Spain Monuments: Jose Panganiban, Daet, and Naga, Camarines Sur Education: Colegio de San Juan de Letran Other name: Jomapa, J.M.P. Organizations: La solidaridad, Freemasonry
  8. 8. AGUEDA KAHABAGAN Agueda Kahabagan y Iniquinto is referred to in the few sources that mention her as "Henerala Agueda". Not so much is known about her but from snatches of information available, she was presumably a native of Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Wikipedia Born: Laguna Years of service: 1896–1901 Rank: Brigadier general Service/branch: Philippine Revolutionary Army Battles and wars: Philippine Revolution, Philippine–American War Other names: "Henerala Agueda", "Tagalog Joan of Arc"
  9. 9. GREGORIA MONTOYA Y PATRICIO, Gregoria Montoya y Patricio, also known as “Henerala Gregoria” is dubbed the "Joan of Arc of Cavite" for leading a thirty-men unit against Spanish troops in Dalahican Beach, Cavite. Montoya was born on 28 November 1863 in Batong Dalig, Barrio Tabon, Kawit, Cavite, to Atanario Montoya and Jacoba Patricio, a farming couple. Katipunera Montoya was said to be a very strong woman. There are claims that she could lift one end of a heavy wooden beam while several men had to help one another raise the other end. When the revolution broke out in 1896, Montoya signed up with the Magdalo faction of the Katipunan. She headed the faction in the battle of Imus, where 13 arms were captured from the enemy. Aguinaldo ordered her to lead a team of Katipuneros to destroy a wooden bridge across the Mabolo River, which separated Binakayan from Bacoor in order to delay the advance of General Blanco's troop, who were determined to quell the Cavite uprising. On 10 November 1896, she led a force of 30 Magdalo men in Noveleta, close to the beach of Dalahican. She is said to have stood on top of a battery, one hand holding up the Katipunan flag aloft and another hand clasping a bolo. In the ensuing battle, she was hit right in her midsection by a cannonball fired from a Spanish navy boat off Dalahican beach but survived. Her second husband died in the same battle.
  10. 10. TERESA MAGBANUA, Teresa Magbanua, dubbed as the "Visayan Joan of Arc" was a Filipino schoolteacher and military leader. Wikipedia Born: 13 October 1868, Pototan Died: August 1947, Pagadian Rank: Brigadier general (disputed) Service/branch: Philippine Revolutionary Army Years of service: 1896-1900 Other names: Nanay Isa, Nay Isa, Visayan "Joan of Arc"
  11. 11. JOSEFA LLANES ESCODA, Josefa Llanes Escoda, also known as the "Florence Nightingale of the Philippines", is a war heroine, great civic leader, and social worker. Wikipedia Born: 20 September 1898, Dingras Died: 6 January 1945, Manila Spouse: Antonio Escoda Parent(s): Mercedes Madamba and Gabriel Llanes Resting place: Caloocan Education: University of the Philippines
  12. 12. GREGORIA ÁLVAREZ DE JESÚS Gregoria Álvarez de Jesús, also known as Aling Oriang, was the founder and vice-president of the women's chapter of the Katipunan of the Philippines. She was also the custodian of the documents and sealof the Katipunan. Born: 9 May 1875, Caloocan Died: 15 March 1943, Manila Children: Andres de Jesús Bonifacio (died in infancy); Juan Nakpil Place of burial: Manila North Cemetery, Manila Spouse: Julio Nakpil (m. 1898–1943), Andrés Bonifacio(m. 1893–1897) Political party: Katipunan
  13. 13. MARINA DIZON KALIHIM Marina was the daughter of José Dizon, one of the Thirteen Martyrs of Bagumbayan, and Roberta Bartolomé, who died when Marina was only eight years old. After her mother's death, her aunt, Josefa Dizon, mother of Emilio Jacinto, took care of her. Born: 18 July 1875, Tondo Died: 25 October 1950, Caloocan Known for: Philippine Revolution Parents: José Dizon, Roberta Bartolomé
  14. 14. MELCHORA AQUINO DE RAMOS Melchora Aquino de Ramos was a Filipina revolutionary who became known as "Tandang Sora" because of her age. She is also known as the "Grand Woman of the Revolution" and the "Mother of Balintawak" for her contributions. Born: 6 January 1812, Caloocan Died: 2 March 1919, Caloocan Spouse: Fulgencio Ramos Buried: Manila North Cemetery, Manila Children: Juana Ramos, Romualdo Ramos, Saturnina Ramos, Simon Ramos, Juan A. Ramos, Estefania Ramos Parents: Valentina Aquino, Juan Aquino