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Umblical cord

its a connecting stake between mother and baby . it contain s two arteries and one vein ,Wharton,s, jelly

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Umblical cord

  2. 2. • Anatomy • • Origin: It develops from the connecting stalk. • • Length: At term, it measures about 50 cm. • Diameter: 2 cm
  3. 3. • Structure: It consists of mesodermal connective tissue called Wharton's jelly, covered by amnion. • It contains: • * one umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus, • * two umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta, remnants of the yolk sac and
  4. 4. • Allantois. A blind tubular structure present near the fetal end which continuous inside the fetus with the urachus and bladder. • Yolk sac and vitelline duct: Remnant of yolk sac found as a small yellow body near the attachment of the cord to the placenta or on the rare the proximal part of the duct persist as a meckel,s diverticulum.
  5. 5. • Obliterated extra embryonic coelm : In the early period intra embryonic coelom is continuous with extra embryonic coelom with herniation of coils of intestine (mid gut)it persist as exomphalos
  6. 6. • Covering epithelium :it is lined by a single layer of amniotic epithelium but shows stratification like that of the fetal epidermis • Wharton's jelly : It consist of elongated cells in a gelatinous fluid formed by mucoid degeneration of the extra embryonic mesodermal cells .its rich in mucopolysaccrides and have protective function to the umbilical cord
  7. 7. • Insertion: The cord is inserted in the foetal surface of the placenta near the center "eccentric insertion" (70%) or at the center "central insertion" (30%)
  8. 8. Abnormalities of the Umbilical Cord • Abnormal cord insertion • * Marginal insertion: in the placenta (battledore insertion). • * Velamentous insertion: in the membranes and vessels connect the cord to the edge of the placenta. • If these vessels pass at the region of the internal os, the condition is called " vasa praevia". Vasa praevia can occur also when the vessels connecting a succenturiate lobe with the main placenta pass at the region of the internal os.
  9. 9. Abnormal cord length • Short cord which may lead to: • * intrapartum haemorrhage due to premature separation of the placenta, • * delayed descent of the foetus during labour, * inversion of the uterus.
  10. 10. • • Long cord which may lead to: • * cord presentation and cord prolapse, • * coiling of the cord around the neck, • * true knots of the cord.
  11. 11. • Knots of the cord • * True knot: when the foetus passes through a loop of the cord. If pulled tight, foetal asphyxia may result. • * False knot: localised collection of Wharton’s jelly containing a loop of umbilical vessels
  12. 12. • Torsion of the cord • It may occur particularly in the portion near the foetus where the Wharton's jelly is less abundant. • Haematoma • Due to rupture of one of the umbilical vessels. • Single umbilical artery • It may be associated with other foetal congenital anomalies.