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Augmented Reality By Jaseem Bhutto

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Augmented Reality By Jaseem Bhutto

  1. 1. Reality Reinvented Name : Jaseem Ahmed Bhutto Semester : 1st Semester Department : Computer Science Real World + Virtual Layer = Augmented Reality
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  What is Augmented Reality  Difference b/w Virtual & Augmented Reality  History of Augmented Reality  Augmented Reality System  Head mounted display  Tracking & Orientation  Mobile Computing System  Registration  How Augmented Reality Works  Applications of Augmented Reality  Example of Augmented Reality  Limitations of Augmented Reality  Future of Augmented Reality  Advantages of Augmented Reality  Disadvantages of Augmented Reality  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. What is Augmented Reality?  Augmented Reality is a field of computer research which deals with combination of reality with the computer generated data.  Augmented reality is a combination of a real life scene from a person, and a virtual scene from a computer that augments the scene with additional information .  Augmented reality will take something that you look at in real time and give you all the information of the of the building you're viewing or the business in the building and their history/deals/numbers etc.  Augmented reality is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer - generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. E.g : sports scores on TV during a match. Augmented-reality displays will overlay computer-generated graphics onto the real world.
  4. 4.  Virtual reality replaces the real world with the artificial.  the user enters an entirely immersive world and cut off from real world.  Everything around the user is fabricated by the system. This may display inside a blank room, headset, or other device that allows the user to feel present in the virtual environment.  VR might work better for video games and social networking in a virtual environment, such as Second Life, or even PlayStation Home.  Here the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) & input devices block out all the external world from the viewer and present a view that is under the complete control of the computer. Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality  Augmented reality enhances real life with Artificial images and adds graphics, sounds & smell to the natural world, as it exists.  The user can interact with the real world, and at the same time can see, both the real and virtual world.  User is not cut off from the reality.  AR uses device such as a Smartphone or wearable device - Which contains software, sensors, a compass and small digital projectors which display images onto real world objects.  These phones have GPRS which obtains information about a particular geographical location which can be overlaid with tags etc. Images, videos etc can be imposed onto this location.
  5. 5. Augmented vs Virtual Reality
  6. 6. History of Augmented Reality  1962: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates a motorcycle simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell. • 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display suggesting it was a window into a virtual world. • 1975: Myron Krueger creates Video place that allows users to interact with virtual objects for the first time. • 1990 : Literally , Professor Tom Caudell coined the term “augmented reality” . • 1994: Milgrim defines a continuum of real to virtual reality environments. AR is placed as a mixed reality on the continuum spectrum.  In 2002, Steven Feiner became leading pioneer of augmented reality, and author of the first paper on the subject.  2005: Horizon Report: Profile Augmented Reality as New technology trend to watch. The Report predicts that AR technology will emerge more fully within 4-5 years.  2005: Camera system developed that can analyze physical environments in real time and relate positions between objects and environments. This work has become the basis for AR systems to integrate reality with virtual objects.  2014: A multiple new innovations and examples of AR now exist across a multitude of areas.!
  7. 7. Augmented Reality System Characteristics of Augmented Reality: • it combines real and virtual World. • it is interactive in real time • it is registered in 3D. Hardware needed for Augmented Reality • Display • Tracking (e.g. GPS,) • Input Devices (e.g. Camera) • Sensors (e.g. accelerometer) • Processer (e.g. CPU)
  8. 8. HEAD-MOUNTED DISPLAY  Just as Monitors, Head mounted display will enable us to view graphics and text created by Augmented reality systems.  HMD lets the user see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed by optical or video technologies.  A typical HMD has either one or two small displays with lenses and semi- transparent mirrors embedded in a helmet, eye-glasses (also known as data glasses) or visor. The display units are miniaturized and may include CRT, LED or Organic-LED.  There are two basic types of HMDs : 1. Video See Through. 2. Optical See Through.
  9. 9. Video See Through Displays They block out the wearer's surrounding environment, using small video cameras attached to the outside of the goggles to capture images. On the inside of the display, the video image is played in real-time and the graphics are superimposed on the video.  Video from these cameras is combined with the graphic images created by the scene generator, blending the real and virtual. The result is sent to the monitors in front of the user's eyes in the closed-view HMD.  One problem with the use of video cameras is that there is more lag, meaning that there is a delay in image-adjustment when the viewer moves his or her head.  In Video See Through, if Power is Cut off, User is effectively Blind.
  10. 10. Optical See Through Display Optical see-through HMDs work by placing optical combiners in front of the user's eyes. These combiners are partially transmissive, so that the user can look directly through them to see the real world.  The combiners are also partially reflective, so that the user sees virtual images bounced off the combiners from head mounted monitors.  they only let in some of the light from the real world, so that they can reflect some of the light from the monitors into the user's eyes.  When power is removed, the user still has direct view of real world.  Optical see through is not fully realized yet. It is supposed to consist of ordinary looking pair of glasses that will have light source on the side to project images onto the retina.
  11. 11. Tracking & Orientation System  The biggest challenge facing developers of augmented reality is the need to know where the user is located in reference to his or her surroundings.  There's also the additional problem of tracking the movement of users' eyes and heads. AR System needs to know two things 1.Where the user is located  In order to to track user’s location with respect to the surroundings, we have Global Positioning System (GPS) Currently.  In order to to track user’s movements, we have currently accelerometers in AR Systems & Handheld Devices. Like Digital Compass in Iphone & Ipad. 2.Where he is looking
  12. 12. Mobile Computing Power  For augmented reality systems to work, mobile computers are a good option. Mobile computing can be accomplished with help of wearable computers  A wearable computer is a battery powered computer system worn on the user’s body(belt, backpack etc).  It is designed for mobile & predominantly hand free operations often incorporating head mounted display & speech input.
  13. 13.  One of the most basic problems in AR.  Objects in the real and virtual worlds have to be properly aligned with respect to each other.  Some applications demand accurate registration., e.g., virtual surgery where error can be fatal!!  AR requires much more accurate registration than VR. Even tiny offsets in the real and virtual images is usually easy to detect.  Errors are difficult to control. Static errors are not a big-issue, but dynamic errors for devices like the HMD is a major source of problems. Registration
  14. 14. HOW AUGMENTED REALITY ACTUALLY WORKS?  The webcam connected to computer is capturing video in the traditional manner . When user holds the “marker” in front of the webcam it sees the marker, captures the information / pattern encoded in it and sends this information to the computer.  The computer recognises the information and overlays the marker with an image. To the viewer it appears as though the image has materialised by magic.  The computer can track the size and movement of the image. This means if user moves the marker closer to the webcam the image will get bigger. If user tilts the marker to the left, the image will tilt to the left.  This process is similar to sports telecasts seen on television, such as swimming events, where a line is dynamically added across the lanes to indicate the virtual position of the current record holder as a race proceeds.
  16. 16. Augmented Reality in Military In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time.  From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers.  Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.  Augmented-reality system could provide troops with vital information about their surroundings, such as showing where entrances are on the opposite end of a building, somewhat like X-ray vision.  Augmented reality displays could also highlight troop movements, and give soldiers the ability to move to where the enemy can't see them.
  17. 17. A.R in Medical  Medical AR applications will allow for more advanced pre-operative imaging studies, letting doctors and surgeons examine a holographic view of patients’ internal anatomy compiled from CT, MRI, and ultrasound data.  After a surgical procedure has been planned, AR systems can use streaming input data to create virtual superimposed images in real-time.
  18. 18.  Markers can be attached to a particular object that a person is working on, and the augmented-reality system can draw graphics on top of it, the system only has to know where the user is in reference to the object that he or she is looking at. A.R in Maintenance & Repair  One application area that is currently being explored involves mechanical maintenance and repair.  In this scenario a mechanic is assisted by an AR system while examining and repairing a complex engine.  The system may present a variety of information to the mechanic. Annotations may identify the name of parts, describe their function, or present other important information like maintenance or manufacturing records.  AR may lead the mechanic through a specific task by highlighting parts that must be sequentially removed and showing the path of extraction.  The system also provide safety information. Parts that are hot or electrified can be highlighted to constantly remind the mechanic of the danger of touching them.
  19. 19. Screenshot from the movie “Who Framed Roger Rabbit?” blending the real character and background with computer generated cartoon characters. Applications : Entertainment Screenshot from the movie “Iron Man 2” Using the Augmented Reality for navigation & Recognition.
  20. 20.  Augmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real time environment.  Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format. Augmented Reality in Education
  21. 21. Augmented Reality in Games  Because of augmented reality development of video game is like projecting in the real world giving a real experience of gaming.  For example-Total immersion company designs a software that uses augmented reality in base ball cards to display the related video on screen . When user move these cards in field of view of camera ,the 3D figure will perform the concerned actions. Augmented reality can breathe a little life into your sports trading cards.
  22. 22. Augmented Reality In Navigation  AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices.  Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path.
  23. 23. Example of Augmented Reality
  24. 24. Yelp • A user displays the augmented reality app Yelp’s Monocle, which combines the phone’s camera view with tiny tags indicating the names, distances and user ratings of nearby bars, restaurants and more. • It particularly gives review and rating of the business point, where the user points his camera.
  25. 25. WIKITUDE  Wikitude is a mobile augmented reality software which is developed by the Austrian company. It was first published in October 2008 as freeware.  It displays information about the users' surroundings, nearby landmarks, and other points of interest by overlaying information on the real-time camera view of a smart-phone including Image Recognition and 3D Modelling.  Wikitude was the first publicly available application that used a location-based approach to Augmented Reality.
  26. 26. LAYAR .  Layar is a Dutch company based, founded in 2009. it has created a mobile browser that allows user to : • Explore a new city with helpful tips to discover even more.  See videos play on top of advertising in magazines or on posters  Watch as food packaging comes alive with links to helpful recipes.  Instantly buy items straight from your phone just by scanning your favorite magazine or catalog  Share an interesting article that you read immediately with your friends via social media.  Play Games in Real Time Environment
  27. 27. AUGMENTED ID It gives the user an ability to identify someone by looking at them through the camera of the phone.  Facial Recognition + Social Networking = Augmented ID.  Recognizer uses subject’s facial features as a 3-D model, and matches them to others stored in a special database.  A full match will bring up Subject’s profile from networking sites like Twitter, Face book, Skype, Yahoo, You Tube, and other popular sites where Subject is registered, and where strangers are permitted , to
  28. 28. GOOGLE GLASS. Google Glass is a wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display (OHMD).  Developed by Google with the mission of producing a mass-market ubiquitous computer.  Google Glass displays information in a smart phone-like hands-free format, that can interact with the Internet via natural language voice commands.  It has Touch Pad, Camera & Display. They can take photos and record 720p HD Video.  Many developers and companies have built applications for Glass, including news apps, facial recognition, exercise, photo manipulation, translation, and sharing to social networks, such as Face book and Twitter.  Concerns have also been raised on operating motor vehicles while wearing the device. it was reported that driving while wearing Google Glass is likely to be banned in the UK.  Concerns have been raised by various sources regarding the intrusion of privacy, & etiquette &ethics of using device in public & recording people without their permission.
  29. 29. Limitations of Augmented Reality  Tracking and orientation might not be accurate.  Still very young and unrefined  The size of Augmented Reality(AR) systems is yet another problem . It is very large, researchers are working to make it smaller.  People may not want to rely on their cell phones, which have small screens on which to superimpose information. For that reason, wearable devices like Sixth Sense or augmented-reality capable contact lenses and glasses will provide users with more convenient, expansive views of the world around them.  Some of augmented reality’s limitations include rendering digital data into meaningful graphics and scaling it to fit the perspective of the visual field.  Augmented reality is also still simply computer technology, lacking the human touch of a knowledgeable friend or tour guide.
  30. 30. FUTURE OF AUGMENTED REALITY  Replacement of cell phones: eye dialing, insertion of information directly into environment.  Examples might be a virtual wall clock, a to-do list for the day docked by your bed for you to look at first thing in the morning, etc.  Next generation of smart phones will be able to handle augmented reality to a much greater extent due to improved batteries, compasses, graphics chips and processors.  The line between virtual and physical begins to blur as augmented technology grows.  Greater access to information based on AR will mean greater awareness of surrounding.  Desire for increased AR technology in the field of medicine, as well as other fields.  The future of augmented reality is clearly bright, even as it already has found its way into our cell phones and video game systems. Real time data will be streamed to us about everything we see, smell, hear and touch. We will be able to interact with this data in order to make more informed decisions.  And the list goes on as your imagination….
  31. 31. Potential Future of Augmented Reality
  32. 32. Advantages of Augmented Reality  Some advantages to augmented reality include :  Advances in technology,  Reducing the line between the real world and virtual world.  Interactive abilities.  Less dangerous Surgeries & Operations.  Military Trainings which could be less expensive.  Rapid augmentation in tourism.  Making things memorable and eye-catching.  Sensory-oriented digital ads are inexpensive and the personal experience to be had through augmented reality. All these advantages paint augmented reality as the next best thing.
  33. 33. Disadvantages of Augmented Reality  Some big disadvantages of augmented reality that could outweigh the advantages are : • The lack of privacy. • People missing out on important moments. • Production is expensive. • Difficult to maintain Augmented Reality Systems. • Low Performance Level. • Information overload and augmenting without permission. • The use of facial recognition technology, combined with geo-location and augmented data. • Militants can also use this technology likewise Military is using. • Augmented reality is leading to an era of no privacy, where criminals could simply point their phone at victims and learn anything they need to know about them.  All of these disadvantages can turn to serious issues that should not have to be of concern. Society already has a problem with texting and driving and adding the ability to do more than just texting will only cause more of distraction.
  34. 34. Conclusion  To add information and meaning to a real object or place. Unlike virtual reality, augmented reality does not create a simulation of reality, but it augments the reality or mix the Virtual with Real.  Augmented reality will further blur the line between what's real and what's computer-generated by enhancing what we see, hear, feel and smell.  The goal is to make a system that will be so efficient that the user will not be able to tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation.  It has possibilities beyond our imagination and perception. It will have huge applications in almost every field.
  35. 35. References …  http://www.metalliccloud.com/rob/future_thinking/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality  http://www.howstuffworks.com/augmented- reality.htm  http://www.metalliccloud.com/rob/future_thinki ng/  http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/drawbacks- to-augmented-reality-technology  http://phys.org/news186326724.html#jCp  http://www.tat.se/about/