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As a teacher, one has to be a:
– curriculum designer
– curriculum implementer
– curriculum evaluator
1. Subject-centered design model – focuses on the content of the curriculum
- corresponds mostly to the textbook, written
for the specific subject
Reading Grammar Literature Mathematics Science History Geography
Most of the school using this structure aims for excellence in subject
a. Subject design – the oldest
- the most familiar
•Easy to deliver
•Learning is compartmentalized
•Complimentary books are written
•Stresses so much the content that
it forgets the student’s natural
tendencies, interests and
•Support instructional materials
are commercially available
•Teachers are familiar with the
b. Discipline design – focuses on academic disciplines
c. Correlation design – comes from core
- links separate subject design in order to reduce
fragmentation. Subjects are related to one another
but each maintains its identity.
d. Broad field design / interdisciplinary – variation of the subject design
- made to prevent the compartmentalization
subjects and integrate the contents that are
related to each other.
2. Learner-centered Design – preferred by progressive educational psychologists
- this design is more emphasized in elementary levels.
Still secondary and college levels recognize the
importance of the learner in the curriculum.
a. Child-centered design – influenced by John Dewey,
Rouseau, Pestallozi and Froebel
- this curriculum designs anchored on the
need and interests of the child.
- the learner is not considered passive
individual but one who engages with his/her
- Learners learn by doing.
- Learners actively create, construct
meanings and understand
- Learners interact with the teacher and
b. Experience-centered design – similar to child-centered
- believes that the interest and needs of
learners cannot be preplanned. Instead,
experience of the learners become the
starting point of the curriculum.
Features - Learners are made to choose from various
activities that the teacher provides.
- Learners are empowered to shape their
- different learning centers are found
- time is flexible
- children are free to make options
- activities revolve around different emphasis
such as touching, feeling imagining,
constructing relating and others.
c. Humanistic design – influenced by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
- in Theory
Maslow’s humanistic designs, the development of self is
the ultimate objective of learning.
A person who achieves the level of whole person and the can enhance
- It stresses the •Believed that a person integration
self actualization is: thinking, feeling and doing.
self-directed learning by improving
•Accepting of self, others and nature self understanding and basic
- It considers the cognitive, affective and
•Simple, spontaneous and natural
attitudes to guide behavior
•Open to differentpsychomotor domains to be interconnected and
•Possesses empathy and sympathy
must be addressed in the curriculum.
towards the less fortunate
- It stresses the development of positive self
concept and interpersonal skills.
Problem-centered curriculum, or problem
based learning, organizes subject matter
around a problem, real or hypothetical,
that needs to be solved.
Problem-centered curriculum is inherently
engaging and authentic, because the
students have a real purpose to their
inquiry -- solving the problem. ProblemCentered Curriculum
Types of problems to be explored may include:
Life situations involving real problems of practice
Problems that revolve around life at a given school
Problems selected from local issues
Philosophical or moral problems
It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a
means to analyze the basic areas of living. As a starting
point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and
the student’s existing concerns are utilized.
Based on herBert spencer’s curriculum writing, his
emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life,
and in rearing children, maintain the individual’s social and
political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and
feelings. The connection of subject matter to real
situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.
It centers on general
education and the problems
are based on common human
The central focus of the
core design includes common
needs, problems, concerns, of
Faunce and Bossing presented ways on how to
proceed following a core design of a curriculum as
1. The problem is selected either the teachers or a
A group consensus is made to identify the important
problems and interest of a class.
Problem are selected on the basis of develop criteria
The problem is clearly stated and design.
Areas of study are decided, including dividing a class by
individual or group interest
Needed information is needed and discussed.
7. Resources for obtaining information are
listed and discussed.
8. Information is obtained and organized.
9. Information is analyzed and interpreted.
10. Tentative conclusion are stated and tested.
11.A report is presented on the class on an individual
or a group basis.
12.Conclusion are evaluated.
13. new avenues of exploration toward further
problem solving are examined.