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Arthurian, Germanic &
Scandinavian
Legends and Folklore
Asgard – Heaven
Midgard – Earth
Yggdrasil – World Tree
Viking Maps
Celtic
WelshSaxon
Briton
Norse mythology was developed thousands of years
ago and comes from the northern most part of
Europe (Germany), Scandinavi...
The mythology of this region is grim, shadowed by
long, sunless winters. But the darkness is laced with
gleams of grandeur...
In the Old Norse worldview,
the gods were actors on the
stage of life, not all-powerful
directors. Possibly the strongest
...
One of the major differences between Greek
Mythology and Norse Mythology is that in Greek
Mythology there is no apocalypse...
Another major difference between Norse mythology
and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the
after life and what ha...
Ragnarok (Armageddon) The
twilight of the gods and end of
the earth began when Loki
used trickery to kill Balder,
whose de...
The bridge Bifrost will shatter,
cutting Midgard off from
Asgard, and all monsters will
run free. Fenrir will kill Odin,
w...
Norse Sagas contain Norse and
Germanic stories of Creation and
Ragnarök, as well as the Völsunga
Saga (The Norse story of ...
Heroic Sagas concentrated mainly on the Cycle of
the Ring or the Nibelung Cycle, with such heroes as
Sigurd/Siegfried. As ...
The most important Norse myth is
the Volsunga Saga, written around
1300 and set in Hylestad & Setesdal,
Norway. The Norse ...
Sigurd (Siegfried) also acquires the Magical Ring of
Andvari, awakens a sleeping beauty (the Valkyrie*
Brunhilde), and in ...
In both of these texts we see that
women are portrayed on one level as
warriors. Brunhilde is a perfect example
of this, a...
When studying English literature, we find
that works of Old English such as Beowulf are
the foundation for Germanic, Scand...
Many scenes from J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit come
straight from Norse mythology. Writer, J.R.R. Tolkien
was an expert on O...
1. Myth: a traditional story that is rooted in a particular culture,
is basically religious, and usually explains a belief...
4. Alter Ego: a reflection of a hero’s best and worst qualities.
In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus’s enemy, Poseidon God of the...
Asgard
Asgard contains information of Norse
and Teutonic deities, including the
Aesir and Vanir, giants and
monsters. Asga...
Valhalla contains information of Norse and
German characters, particular heroes and
heroines, rulers and dwarfs. Valhalla ...
Valkyries and Valhalla
 Valkyries are female spirit
warriors that ride the battlefields
and find worthy slain warriors
an...
Odin
 Odin is the Father of all Gods and men. He
can travel to any realm within the 9 Nordic
worlds. He is a God of magic...
Thor
 Thor, is known as the
Thunderer and was
considered to be a son of
Odin by some, but among
many tribes Thor actually...
Baldur
 Primarily known for his death and resurrection
 Baldur, Odin's son, is the god of Love and
Light. He is killed b...
Loki Loki, the Trickster,
challenges the
structure and order
of the Gods, but is
necessary in
bringing about
needed chang...
Freyja Freya is considered to be the
goddess of Love and Beauty, but
is also a warrior goddess and one
of great wisdom an...
Freyr
 Freyr is Freya's
twin brother. He is
the horned God of
fertility and
success. He is also
known the Elf King.
The B...
Frigga Frigga, Odin's wife,
was considered to be
the Mother of all
creation; and
protectoress of
children. She spins
gas ...
Tyr
 Tyr is the ancient
god of War and
the Lawgiver of
the gods. Tyr is
excellent in all
manners of
Justice, fair play,
a...
Heimdall
 Heimdall is the handsome gold-toothed
guardian of Bifrost, the rainbow bridge leading
to Asgard, the home of th...
Hel
 Daughter of Loki
 Giantess
 Goddess of death and the
devil who rules over
Helheim, the underworld.
 Half black/ h...
More Children of Loki
 Midgard Serpent and Fenrir the Wolf
Yggdrasill –
This item is is
the World Tree.
It stands over the
nine worlds and
its three roots
reach into three
of the la...
 The cosmology of Norse mythology has
"nine homeworlds", unified by the world
tree Yggdrasill.
 The Man, the Myth, the Archetype
Arthurian
Legend
Legend
a traditional historical tale or collection of related
Tales popularly regarded as true, but usually contain a
mixt...
Literary Focus: Archetypes
 An archetype is a
pattern that appears
in literature across
cultures and is
repeated through ...
Why is Arthur Important?
1. Provided a hero to a
conquered people.
2. Second most
referenced character
in Western Literatu...
Did He Exist?
Historical Arthur
 Celtic/Anglo-Saxon Arthur
 Welsh chieftain
 warrior in the histories of
500-1100
 may...
True History
 Most scholars believe that a King
named Arthur did defeat the
Saxons in the 5th or 6th century.
This is out...
Le Morte d'Arthur is a compilation by Sir
Thomas Malory of traditional tales about the
legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, L...
Cover, The Once and Future King
Arthurian Literary Tradition
 T. H. White
– 20th century
– English
– wrote The Sword in t...
Key Themes/Archetypes
 Love Triangle
– Arthur / Guinevere /
Lancelot
 Traitor/Judas Figure
Mordred
Lancelot
 Fall of th...
Key Themes/Archetypes
 Grail
– Cup that Jesus drank out
of at the Last Supper
– Joseph of Arimithea
brought grail to Engl...
Key Objects
 Excalibur – Arthur’s magical
sword; given to him by the
Lady of the Lake
 The Holy Grail – the cup used
by ...
• The Lady of the Lake – aka Vivienne; Mended
Excalibur and gave it to Arthur; enchanted &
imprisoned Merlin.
• Joseph of ...
Key Characters
 Uther Pendragon –
Arthur’s biological
father
 Igraine – Arthur’s
biological mother
 Sir Ector – Arthur’...
Key Characters
 Morgan le Fay –
Arthur’s half-sister;
magical; adversary
 Sir Kay – son of Sir
Ector; Arthur’s step-
bro...
Humble Beginnings
• Arthur is the son of King Uther
Pendragon, but is orphaned at a
young age, unaware of his royal
herita...
What do we know about Arthur?
- King Arthur brought
peace to Britain.
- King Arthur made his
capital in Camelot.
- King Ar...
• When Arthur assumes power, England is torn apart by war, is fractioned
into city-states, and is on the brink of invasion...
The Knights
1. King Arthur
2. Sir Lancelot
3. Sir Gawain
4. Sir Geraint
5. Sir Gareth
6. Sir Gaheris
7. Sir Bedivere
8. Si...
Morgan de Fey
and Mordred
Arthur unknowingly
had a half sister,
Morgan de Fey. She
believed that she was
rightful ruler. I...
A Country Religiously Divided
• Arthur was a member of the Old
Celtic religion (as evident by
keeping a Royal wizard, Merl...
Crusades & the Holy Grail
• Because the Celtic religion is
based upon tangible items and
nature, Arthur would need
artifac...
The Holy Grail
and The Templars
• The Holy Grail is the only
artifact not recovered
which explains its
continued popularit...
Trouble At Home
• During the search for the Holy
Grail Arthur’s life begins to fall
apart. Some versions of the
story have...
More Key Characters
 Guinevere –
– Arthur’s Queen
– has affair with Lancelot
– childless
– abducted by Mordred
 Lancelot...
The Most Famous Affair
in Literary History
• Mordred sees the possibility to
overthrow his father in Lancelot.
• Mordred d...
Key Places
Camelot – King
Arthur’s kingdom
 Isle of Avalon – island
to which Arthur is
sent to recover from
the last batt...
The Fall of Camelot
• Metaphorically, the country already
had fallen with the betrayal of
Arthur’s only love and his best
...
Romance Motifs
Motif - an idea, object,
place, or statement that
appears frequently throughout
a piece of writing, which h...
All of the Knights of the Round Table are
required to maintain:
1. Faith
2. Honor
3. Courtesy
4. Loyalty
5. Bravery
6. Mod...
 Live to serve King and Country
 Live for freedom, justice
and all that is good
 Protect the week and innocent
 Fight ...
Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
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Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore

  1. 1. Arthurian, Germanic & Scandinavian Legends and Folklore
  2. 2. Asgard – Heaven Midgard – Earth Yggdrasil – World Tree
  3. 3. Viking Maps
  4. 4. Celtic WelshSaxon Briton
  5. 5. Norse mythology was developed thousands of years ago and comes from the northern most part of Europe (Germany), Scandinavia: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Greenland. The Norse people lived from about A.D. 200 to 500 in northern Europe and Scandinavia. After A.D. 700, some of the Norse began migration in search of new lands, settling in parts of the British Isles, Iceland, Greenland and East into Russia. From this period on, the Norse are known as Vikings.
  6. 6. The mythology of this region is grim, shadowed by long, sunless winters. But the darkness is laced with gleams of grandeur and sparks of humor. The myths depict a universe in which gods and giants battle among themselves in a cosmic conflict fated to end in the destruction of the world. (Ragnarok)
  7. 7. In the Old Norse worldview, the gods were actors on the stage of life, not all-powerful directors. Possibly the strongest evidence for the Norse gods not controlling life is the fact that they themselves could die. Norse Myths differ from other mythology, in that their characters and world, even in Asgard (Heaven), are grave and solemn. This may all be due to the fact, even though the gods are immortal, they will be destroyed in the final battle between good and evil.
  8. 8. One of the major differences between Greek Mythology and Norse Mythology is that in Greek Mythology there is no apocalypse (Ragnarok) - no end of the world. The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world - Ragnarok - when great heroes of the past would return from the dead to do battle. During Ragnarok, it was said that the gods were fated to die - many of the "top" gods would die in battle with the greatest enemies and creatures of Norse Mythology. Norse Myth VS. Greek Myth
  9. 9. Another major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the after life and what happens there. In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Ran's hall or the halls of Ran. Valhalla Helheim Ran's Hall
  10. 10. Ragnarok (Armageddon) The twilight of the gods and end of the earth began when Loki used trickery to kill Balder, whose death was a sign that the orderly universe was falling apart. The gods chained Loki to a rock, but eventually he will break loose and lead the giants in a last bitter battle against the gods and the greatest heroes from Valhalla.
  11. 11. The bridge Bifrost will shatter, cutting Midgard off from Asgard, and all monsters will run free. Fenrir will kill Odin, while Thor will perish in the process of slaying the serpent Jormungard. In the end, all worlds will be consumed by fire and flood. One man and one woman will survive, sheltering in the World Tree Yggdrasill, to become the parents of a new human race.
  12. 12. Norse Sagas contain Norse and Germanic stories of Creation and Ragnarök, as well as the Völsunga Saga (The Norse story of Sigurd and Brynhild and the destruction of the Burgundians) and the The Song of the Nibelungs (Similar to the Völsunga Saga but the Germanic Version of Siegfried/ Sigurd the Dragon Slayer) The word "saga", probably mean "What is told". Norse sagas are similar to epics, but usually refer to works compiled during medieval Iceland. Saga is usually a narrative, either in poems or prose, dealing with historical, legendary and mythical subjects, written in Old Norse, during the 13th-14th century.
  13. 13. Heroic Sagas concentrated mainly on the Cycle of the Ring or the Nibelung Cycle, with such heroes as Sigurd/Siegfried. As for the modern usage of the word "saga", the term is much more confusing, and no longer confine to Iceland or Scandinavian countries. These days, sagas can mean any long novel in modern literature, usually written in the narrative form.
  14. 14. The most important Norse myth is the Volsunga Saga, written around 1300 and set in Hylestad & Setesdal, Norway. The Norse version of the German epic the Nibelungenlied, tells the folk legend of Sigurd (Siegfried), a hero who uses a magic sword called Balmung (Gram) to slay the dragon Fafnir. The Vikings prized their swords above all other things, handing them down from generation to generation and giving them names. The value of the blade was not only determined by its quality but also by how many battles that it was used in.
  15. 15. Sigurd (Siegfried) also acquires the Magical Ring of Andvari, awakens a sleeping beauty (the Valkyrie* Brunhilde), and in the end, bravely meets his Destiny. Fafnir’s treasure and the magic ring become a few of the factors that lead to Sigurd's downfall. Both of these stories (the Norse Volsunga Saga and German epic the Nibelungenlied) depict the tales of might achievements of men and women from some of Iceland's and Germany's great families as they wrestle for political power, engage in blood feuds, and carry out raids and battles.
  16. 16. In both of these texts we see that women are portrayed on one level as warriors. Brunhilde is a perfect example of this, as she has miraculous strength and tremendous abilities. We also see the clash between the Pagan and the Christian in both version of the legend. These sagas also share a variety of common elements: victory and vengeance, honor and glory, blood and guts, feuds and battles, swords and sorcery, and warriors and poets. Like the story of Beowulf, another Germanic hero, Sigurd triumphs over the forces of evil and chaos by slaying the monster Fafnir.
  17. 17. When studying English literature, we find that works of Old English such as Beowulf are the foundation for Germanic, Scandinavian and British myths. Beowulf details both historical and legendary events in Denmark and other northern locales. It preserves alternate versions of famous legends, including that of the great dragon-slayer Sigurd/Siegfried.
  18. 18. Many scenes from J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit come straight from Norse mythology. Writer, J.R.R. Tolkien was an expert on Old English and Old Norse literature, and his essay on Beowulf influenced the way we study it to this day. Tolkien’s books of fantasy fiction (especially The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings) are full of references to and retellings of Norse myth. How many people watching the Peter Jackson films understand these allusions? Many ideas from Norse mythology (magical runic inscriptions, mystical swords, wandering wizards) have simply become part of the fantasy genre, and their connection to Norse myth goes unnoticed by many people.
  19. 19. 1. Myth: a traditional story that is rooted in a particular culture, is basically religious, and usually explains a belief, a ritual, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. 2. Epic: a long story usually told in poetic verse, which relates the great deeds of a larger than life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. 3. Epic Hero: The larger than life hero of the epic who embodies the values of a particular society. Most epic heroes undertake some sort of quest to achieve something of tremendous value to themselves or their people. Contemporary epic heroes can include heroes from video games such as Link from The Legend of Zelda or Ant-hero Kratos: God of War. TERMS TO KNOW
  20. 20. 4. Alter Ego: a reflection of a hero’s best and worst qualities. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus’s enemy, Poseidon God of the Sea shares a lot of Odysseus’s short comings such as arrogance. 5. Internal Conflict: when a character struggles with a problem within them such as a character flaw or guilt. A person who is addicted to gambling would have an internal conflict. 6. External Conflict: when a character struggles with a problem caused by some outside force. This could be an enemy, a monster, nature, or society. TERMS TO KNOW (Cont’)
  21. 21. Asgard Asgard contains information of Norse and Teutonic deities, including the Aesir and Vanir, giants and monsters. Asgard was one of the Nine Worlds created by Odin and his brothers, and it was the name of the home of Aesir gods and goddesses. Dozen or more palaces or halls were built within Asgard belonging to the gods, with Odin residing in great hall called Valaskjalf. Valhalla was another great hall belonging to Odin. There was a great wall around Asgard with only one entrance, known as Bifrost or "Rainbow Bridge", which was guarded by the god Heimdall.
  22. 22. Valhalla contains information of Norse and German characters, particular heroes and heroines, rulers and dwarfs. Valhalla was a great hall belonging to Odin, in Asgard, where heroes who had fallen in battle or some great adventure, wait for coming of the Ragnarök. Only those who had shown great courage and skill in battles or adventures were ever chosen. Valhalla
  23. 23. Valkyries and Valhalla  Valkyries are female spirit warriors that ride the battlefields and find worthy slain warriors and takes them to Valhalla where they will train until Ragnarok. The northern lights are light shining off of their shields  Valhalla is the Hall of the Slain. It exists in Asgard, home of the gods
  24. 24. Odin  Odin is the Father of all Gods and men. He can travel to any realm within the 9 Nordic worlds. He is a God of magic, wisdom, wit, and learning. In later times, he was associated with war and bloodshed from the Viking perspective, although in earlier times, no such association was present. All of his actions are related to knowledge, wisdom, and the dissemination of ideas and concepts to help Mankind.
  25. 25. Thor  Thor, is known as the Thunderer and was considered to be a son of Odin by some, but among many tribes Thor actually supplanted Odin as the favorite god. He is considered to be the protector of all Midgard (The Human World), and he wields the mighty hammer Mjollnir. Thor is strength personified. His hammer Mjollnir causes the lightning that flashes across the sky. Of all the deities, Thor is the most "barbarian" of the lot; rugged, powerful, and lives by his own rules.
  26. 26. Baldur  Primarily known for his death and resurrection  Baldur, Odin's son, is the god of Love and Light. He is killed by his blind brother Hodur whose hand was guided by the crafty Loki. Baldur's death is a sign that Ragnarök will begin.
  27. 27. Loki Loki, the Trickster, challenges the structure and order of the Gods, but is necessary in bringing about needed change. He is also known as the god of Fire. He is of the race of Ettins (Elementals) and thus possesses some daemonic qualities.
  28. 28. Freyja Freya is considered to be the goddess of Love and Beauty, but is also a warrior goddess and one of great wisdom and magick. She and her twin brother Freyr are of a different "race" of gods known as the Vanir. She is known as Queen of the Valkyries, choosers of those slain in battle to bear them to Valhalla (the Norse heaven). There seems to be some confusion between herself and Frigga, Odin's wife, as they share similar functions; but Fricka seems to be strictly of the Aesir, while Freya is of the Vanic race.
  29. 29. Freyr  Freyr is Freya's twin brother. He is the horned God of fertility and success. He is also known the Elf King. The Boar is his sacred symbol, which is both associated with war and with fertility. His golden boar, is supposed to represent the daybreak.
  30. 30. Frigga Frigga, Odin's wife, was considered to be the Mother of all creation; and protectoress of children. She spins gas and dust clouds from her sacred bejeweled distaff of life in the Norse constellations (Orion Nebula) and is said to know the future, although she will not speak of it.
  31. 31. Tyr  Tyr is the ancient god of War and the Lawgiver of the gods. Tyr is excellent in all manners of Justice, fair play, and Right Action.
  32. 32. Heimdall  Heimdall is the handsome gold-toothed guardian of Bifrost, the rainbow bridge leading to Asgard, the home of the Gods. The rainbow bridge seems to be a common symbol in many religious traditions. It is often seen as a bridge between the Gods and Mankind. It is Heimdall who is to sound the signal horn to the Aesir that Ragnarok, the great destruction (or transformation?) is beginning.
  33. 33. Hel  Daughter of Loki  Giantess  Goddess of death and the devil who rules over Helheim, the underworld.  Half black/ half white  Her face and body are human but the legs are of a corpse  Spread the plague with a rake or a broom
  34. 34. More Children of Loki  Midgard Serpent and Fenrir the Wolf
  35. 35. Yggdrasill – This item is is the World Tree. It stands over the nine worlds and its three roots reach into three of the lands.
  36. 36.  The cosmology of Norse mythology has "nine homeworlds", unified by the world tree Yggdrasill.
  37. 37.  The Man, the Myth, the Archetype Arthurian Legend
  38. 38. Legend a traditional historical tale or collection of related Tales popularly regarded as true, but usually contain a mixture of fact and fiction not to be confused with a myth. A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental type in the worldview of a people, as by explaining aspects of the natural world or delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of society)
  39. 39. Literary Focus: Archetypes  An archetype is a pattern that appears in literature across cultures and is repeated through the ages.  An archetype can be a character, a plot, an image, or a setting. Circle of Character Archetypes
  40. 40. Why is Arthur Important? 1. Provided a hero to a conquered people. 2. Second most referenced character in Western Literature. King Arthur, c. 1385
  41. 41. Did He Exist? Historical Arthur  Celtic/Anglo-Saxon Arthur  Welsh chieftain  warrior in the histories of 500-1100  may have really existed – not a king Fictional Arthur  Anglo-Norman Arthur  could just be a combination of great leaders  Normans add chivalry, romance, quest, love, etc.  Norman romances focus more on knights.
  42. 42. True History  Most scholars believe that a King named Arthur did defeat the Saxons in the 5th or 6th century. This is outlined in one of the oldest accounts of English History Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae  There are ruins of a castle in Cornwall that many believe to belong to Arthur  Not much else is known; accounts of Arthur seem to be mysteriously missing from all Anglo-Saxon chronicles and other such history books.
  43. 43. Le Morte d'Arthur is a compilation by Sir Thomas Malory of traditional tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table Arthurian Literary Tradition  Sir Thomas Malory – 15th century – English – compiled the various tales into one work: Le Mort d’Arthur  The Death of Arthur – expands the characters of Lancelot and Guinevere and makes the affair chaste and pure – still read today and highly influential
  44. 44. Cover, The Once and Future King Arthurian Literary Tradition  T. H. White – 20th century – English – wrote The Sword in the Stone (1938) and The Once and Future King (1958) – based heavily on Malory’s work – The Once and Future King deals with darker themes as Arthur grows older
  45. 45. Key Themes/Archetypes  Love Triangle – Arthur / Guinevere / Lancelot  Traitor/Judas Figure Mordred Lancelot  Fall of the central community / end of order  Messianic Return – Once and Future King Love Triangle
  46. 46. Key Themes/Archetypes  Grail – Cup that Jesus drank out of at the Last Supper – Joseph of Arimithea brought grail to England – “quest” which requires much of the individual – Grail represents unanswered philosophical/ cosmological questions – only artifact not recovered which explains its continued popularity
  47. 47. Key Objects  Excalibur – Arthur’s magical sword; given to him by the Lady of the Lake  The Holy Grail – the cup used by Christ at the Last Supper; used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ’s blood  The Round Table – the table given as part of Guinevere’s dowry; the idea that everyone is equal Arthur and the Round Table Excalibur
  48. 48. • The Lady of the Lake – aka Vivienne; Mended Excalibur and gave it to Arthur; enchanted & imprisoned Merlin. • Joseph of Arimathea – soldier of Pontius Pilate who was given the cup (Holy Grail) from the Last Supper; settled in Glastonbury.
  49. 49. Key Characters  Uther Pendragon – Arthur’s biological father  Igraine – Arthur’s biological mother  Sir Ector – Arthur’s adoptive father  Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet & wizard
  50. 50. Key Characters  Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half-sister; magical; adversary  Sir Kay – son of Sir Ector; Arthur’s step- brother  Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; kidnaps Guinevere and rebels; killed by Lancelot
  51. 51. Humble Beginnings • Arthur is the son of King Uther Pendragon, but is orphaned at a young age, unaware of his royal heritage • Upon King Uther’s death, Merlin places the sword Excalibur (a magical sword given to Merlin by the Lady of the Lake) in a stone containing a spell that only the rightful king could remove it from the stone • In need of a sword for his adoptive brother, Arthur pulls Excalibur from the stone, proving himself the rightful king of England
  52. 52. What do we know about Arthur? - King Arthur brought peace to Britain. - King Arthur made his capital in Camelot. - King Arthur married Lady Guinevere - King Arthur’s knights were called The Knights of the Round Table
  53. 53. • When Arthur assumes power, England is torn apart by war, is fractioned into city-states, and is on the brink of invasion by the Saxons • To unite the country and defeat the Saxons, Arthur creates the Knights of the Round table. This is a revolutionary idea for the time in which each city state is represented by a knight. No one knight, including King Arthur himself, has more power than another. Arthur creates a democratic society. • Because of this alliance, Arthur and his knights defeat the powerful Saxons in a series of 12 battles. It is said that the key to Arthur’s success is the sword Excalibur which he always takes into battle. Excalibur is said to make its bearer invincible.
  54. 54. The Knights 1. King Arthur 2. Sir Lancelot 3. Sir Gawain 4. Sir Geraint 5. Sir Gareth 6. Sir Gaheris 7. Sir Bedivere 8. Sir Kay 9. Sir Galahad 10. Sir Bors de Ganis 11. Sir Lamorak 12. Sir Tristan 13. Sir Percivale
  55. 55. Morgan de Fey and Mordred Arthur unknowingly had a half sister, Morgan de Fey. She believed that she was rightful ruler. In an attempts to usurp the throne, she slept with him and conceived a son. Morgan was said to be a witch and a powerful woman. Her son, Mordred, threatened Arthur’s marriage and his throne.
  56. 56. A Country Religiously Divided • Arthur was a member of the Old Celtic religion (as evident by keeping a Royal wizard, Merlin) • However, a new religion, Christianity, was beginning. Guinevere, Arthur’s wife, was a member of this religion. • Arthur and Guinevere were having trouble conceiving. Guinevere believed this was because God was punishing Arthur for believing in pagan gods and encouraging his people to do so as well. • To try to remedy the problem of an heir and heal the country, which had once again grown restless, Arthur established the Crusades.
  57. 57. Crusades & the Holy Grail • Because the Celtic religion is based upon tangible items and nature, Arthur would need artifacts to convince his country to convert to Christianity. • With the help of Merlin, Arthur decided to send his knights on a quest for religious artifacts, more commonly know as the Crusades. – The body of Joseph of Arimathea – The Spear of Destiny – The Holy Grail – King Solomon’s Temple – Byzantine Crown of Thorns – Holy Rood
  58. 58. The Holy Grail and The Templars • The Holy Grail is the only artifact not recovered which explains its continued popularity • Once the Holy Land was discovered, Arthur encouraged the English to visit it and created the Knights Templar who were warriors sent to protect the road to the Holy Land. These warriors begin much of the problems that still exist in the Middle East today.
  59. 59. Trouble At Home • During the search for the Holy Grail Arthur’s life begins to fall apart. Some versions of the story have Arthur gone 10-20 years on his quest. • During this time, Merlin is seduced by a young woman who steals his powers and imprisons him. Arthur is left without an advisor. • In Arthur’s absence Mordred has been raised to hate Arthur and upon his return, Arthur unknowingly knights his own son and invites him to the round table. • Guinevere has begun to realize her true love for Lancelot, not Arthur, during both their absences.
  60. 60. More Key Characters  Guinevere – – Arthur’s Queen – has affair with Lancelot – childless – abducted by Mordred  Lancelot – – Arthur’s chief knight – usually French – the “perfect” knight but has affair with Guinevere
  61. 61. The Most Famous Affair in Literary History • Mordred sees the possibility to overthrow his father in Lancelot. • Mordred discovers Guinevere and Lancelot’s affair (the two people that Arthur loves most) and convinces the rest of the Round Table to capture Lancelot in the act. • Lancelot escapes but Guinevere is captured and is to be burned at the stake for her treachery against the king. She is rescued at the last minute by Lancelot and the two escape and are never heard from again. • Arthur does not follow them due to the problems of his kingdom. They are once again on the brink of war and Mordred has turned much of the Round Table against him.
  62. 62. Key Places Camelot – King Arthur’s kingdom  Isle of Avalon – island to which Arthur is sent to recover from the last battle
  63. 63. The Fall of Camelot • Metaphorically, the country already had fallen with the betrayal of Arthur’s only love and his best friend • There are many versions of the story. All of which end with Arthur’s death in battle. Some of the versions include the following battles: – Saxons – Romans – Goths – French – Irish – Lancelot – Morgan de fey – Mordred • All of the stories end with Arthur’s glorious death in battle, all that any legendary king or hero can ask for
  64. 64. Romance Motifs Motif - an idea, object, place, or statement that appears frequently throughout a piece of writing, which helps contribute to the work’s overall theme  Faithful Follower  Wise old man  Dreams  Number three  Magic  Testing of Follower  Betrayal
  65. 65. All of the Knights of the Round Table are required to maintain: 1. Faith 2. Honor 3. Courtesy 4. Loyalty 5. Bravery 6. Modesty It is a collection of codes and rules for the knights "Code of Chivalry“
  66. 66.  Live to serve King and Country  Live for freedom, justice and all that is good  Protect the week and innocent  Fight for the ideals of king, country, and chivalry  Be loyal to country, King, honor, freedom, and the Code of Chivalry "Code of Chivalry" Invincible strength Valor Justice Modesty Loyalty to superiors Courtesy to equals Compassion to weakness Devotedness to the church

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