5. NATURAL HARBOURS:
A harbor, is a place
where ships, boats, and barges can seek
shelter from stormy weather.
7. SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR:
Same as natural but harbour
needs some artificial and man made
8. ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR:
Harbour having no natural
protection but artificial arrangement are
made to protect the harbour from storm
10. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD
› The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for
every type of visiting ships.
› The bottom of harbor should provide secured
anchorage to hold the ships against high winds.
› To prevent destructive wave action, break water
› The entrance of a harbor should be wide
enough to provide the easy passage of ships.
12. DEFECTS IN HARBOR:
› Depth of water is found insufficient for
› The size of harbor is found insufficient to
accommodate the increased traffic.
› These defects can easily be avoided at the
time of planning and designing.
13. SIZE OF A HARBOUR
Size depends upon:
# of ships
14. HARBOUR PLANNING
It should be carried out after collecting
necessary information of the existing
features at the proposed site.
Following important facts should be
15. A thorough survey of the neighborhood
including the foreshore & depths of
water is necessary
Nature of a harbor wether sheltered or
not, be studied
The existance of sea insects & various
animals residing at site.
16. Natural phenomena’s concerning
planning of a harbour are:
Range of tides
Maximum & minimum temperatures
Direction & intensity of wind etc
17. SITE SELECTION:
Following factors play a
great role in the choice of site of a
1.Availability of cheap land &
2.Natural protection from waves & winds
3.transport & communication facilities
4.industrial development of the locality
18. 5.Sea bed,sub soil & foundation
6.Avaibility of electrical energy
7.Defence & strategic aspects
8.trafic potentiality of harbour
19. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION:
1. HARBOR OF REFUGE
2. COMMERCIAL HARBOR
3. FISHRY HARBOR
4. MILLITARY HARBOR OR NAVEL BASE
20. HARBOR OF REFUGE:
The harbor used for ships in
storms or emergency condition.
good anchorage and safe and easy
access from the sea.
e.g: DOVER IN ENGLAND
22. COMMERCIAL HARBOR:
Facilities for loading and
unloading of cargo are provided.
The may be:
1. Part of bigger complex harbor
2. Independent unit or single
3. Terminal as oil terminal, coal
27. FISHRY HARBOR:
Provided for fishing crafts and
28. MILLITARY HARBOR:
This harbor is meant for
accommodating naval crafts and serves
as a supply deport.
The layout of this type of harbor is
greatly influenced by its location.
31. FEATURES OF A HARBOR:
1. Entrance Channels
2. Berthing Basin
3. Break Water
4. Turning Basin
5. Pier Head
32. ENTRANCE CHANNEL:
› Depth and width are kept more at entrance
› Width depends upon density of traffic and
no: of entrances
34. BERTHING AND TURNING
› Berthing basins are used for the parking of
› While turning for the turning of ships
35. BREAK WATER:
› The structure constructed to protect harbor
from storm waves
› They are generally stone masonry
37. PIER HEAD:
› The structure provided at the tip of break
› Such as light house
› The structure constructed parallel to the
shore or break water, having wide plate form
at the top
› Function is to permit berthing of vessel along
side for cargo working
› Same as wharves
› Used for loading and unloading of cargo
› Made usually from shore towards sea water
to prevent silting and dredging to allow free
flow of tidal currents
› A dock is dug out and usually has gates so
that the water level is kept up even though
the tide has gone out.
› A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or
passenger exchange, or sometimes repair.
› A harbour may be natural or partly dug out,
or even made with floating materials. It
doesn't have gates, but may have a narrow
› Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships
› A port is a location on a coast or shore
containing one or more harbors where ships
can dock and transfer people or cargo to or